Cutting metal cutting metal cutting metal

Drilling holes

Holes can be drilled using drilling machines, as well as using drills and ratchets. Holes with a diameter of up to 25 mm are drilled with hand and electric drills, and larger diameters with ratchets if a drilling machine cannot be used.

Twist and feather drills are used to drill holes. Twist drills offer high performance, automatic chip evacuation and dimensional stability. Pen drills are simple in design and can be made in a repair shop.

To clamp the drills, cam chucks 1 and transitional tapered bushings are used.

To cool drills when drilling steel, brass and ductile iron, use oil or soapy water, when drilling aluminum. soapy water or kerosene. Gray cast iron and bronze are dry drilled.

The part with the punched-out center of the hole is fixed in some kind of fixture. The hole is pre-drilled to a depth of 1/4 of the diameter. After checking the correctness of drilling, finish drilling.

Locksmith work in metal mainly refers to the processes of cold metal cutting. Such processing can be carried out manually or using a special mechanized tool. Such tools are a chisel, center punch, hammer, scraper, guillotine shears, file and many others.

Locksmith processing of metal workpieces is performed in a specific sequence. The first step is to carry out preparatory work for the manufacture of a workpiece or change its shape. straightening, cutting, chopping, bending the material. Then the workpiece is marked out and its main processing is carried out: the excess metal layer is sequentially removed so that it acquires the dimensions, shape and condition of surfaces close to those indicated in the drawing. Locksmith tool

Then finishing processing of metal products is performed, after which the part must meet all the requirements of the drawing.

Workpiece marking

Marking is the process of applying special lines (marks) to the surface of the workpiece, which, according to the requirements of the drawing, determine the places or contours of the part to be processed. Marking creates the necessary conditions for obtaining a part of a certain shape and required dimensions, removing metal allowances from blanks to specified boundaries and for maximum material savings. The history of artistic metalworking knows many examples when real works of art were obtained with the help of marking and subsequent engraving or notching.

One-piece connections

To obtain permanent joints from metal parts, such metal processing methods as riveting and soldering (soldering) are often used. Riveting is a method of making a permanent connection from two or more parts using rivets. Riveting can be done with a pneumatic hammer, hand-held locksmith’s hammer or on special riveting machines.

Cabin

Cutting is used for removing a layer of metal from a workpiece, cutting metal, deburring, riveting, punching out workpieces and other works that do not require high precision.

cutting, metal

When cutting, they use a locksmith’s hammer (Fig. 119, a) weighing 0.5. 0.6 Kg, chisel and cross-cutter, as well as a device for clamping workpieces.

The chisel (Fig. 119.6) is made of tool steel. The working part of the chisel has the shape of a wedge, which is sharpened at certain angles; usually the sharpening angle a is taken: when cutting cast iron. and bronze. 70 °, steel. 60 °, copper and brass. 45 °, zinc and aluminum. 35 °. The sharpening angles are checked with templates. The cutting edges must be of the same width and have the same angle of inclination to the chisel axis. Strong heating when sharpening on a sharpener leads to a decrease in the hardness of the chisel.

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Crosscutter (Fig. 119, c) is designed for cutting narrow grooves and keyways.

When cutting, the workpiece is clamped in a vice so that the cutting place is at the level of the jaws. The chisel is set at an angle of 30. 35 ° to the processed plane of the workpiece. When chopping, look at the blade, not the chisel head. The success of the felling depends on the correct movement of the right hand, the pace of movement (40. 44 beats per minute), accuracy and power of the blow.

Some types of plumbing

Locksmith work includes marking, chopping, cutting, filing, drilling holes, tapping.

Product straightening and bending

Editing is an operation that eliminates various imperfections in the shape of the workpiece (irregularities, curvature). Manual straightening is performed with a hammer on a straightening anvil or plate, and machine straightening on straightening machines.

With the help of bending, the workpiece is given a given shape (in the manufacture of loops, brackets, rings, brackets and other products). Like any other metal processing, manual bending can be performed in a vice using a metalwork hammer and all kinds of devices. Mechanized bending is carried out on bending machines and bending presses with manual and mechanized drive.

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Perhaps the most common operations in plumbing are metal modeling: filing, cutting, chopping, tapping, drilling holes.

For cutting metal, the following locksmith tools are used: chisel, cross cutter and grooving tools

Makita Metal Cutting Saw

Locksmith cutting blade chisels(Fig. 4, a) has the shape of a wedge. The blade and firing pin must be hardened and tempered. The chisel striker is a truncated cone with a semicircular base. This is to ensure that the hammer always hits the center of the striker. Chisel length is usually 100-200 mm, blade width from 5 to 52 mm. The sharper it is sharpened, the less impact force is required for cutting metal. However, it must be borne in mind that hard and brittle metals require a larger sharpening angle, not less. In other words, hard metals are cut with a blunt edge. So, for cutting bronze, cast iron, hard steel and other hard materials, a blade sharpening angle of 70 ° is required. Medium-hard steel should be cut with a 60 ° chisel. Soft materials. copper, brass. can be cut at a 45 ° sharpening angle. Very soft materials such as aluminum alloys and zinc require a 35 ° sharpening angle.

A type of chisel with a narrower cutting edge is used to punch out narrow grooves and grooves. This tool is called cross-cutter(Fig. 4, b). The technique and magnitude of the angle of sharpening of the working surface of a cross cutter for cutting materials of various hardness are similar to sharpening a chisel.

Lubrication grooves in bearing shells and bushings are best cut trenchers (Fig. 4, c). Their main difference from a chisel and a cross cutter is the curved edge of the cutting part.

The quality and speed of metal cutting depends on the sharpening of the cutting tool.

In order to perform the operation of sharpening a chisel or cross-cutter, a locksmith will need a grinding machine and a simple template. To do this, you can use any sufficiently powerful electric motor, on the axis of which it is possible to fix removable grinding wheels (since cutting tools are made of tool steel. carbon, alloy and high-speed, it is advisable to use alumina wheels with a grain size of 40, 50 or 63 on a ceramic bond) The template is a bar of metal of small thickness, with grooves cut out in it, making angles of 35, 45, 60 and 70 ° (Fig. 4, d).

cutting, metal

During sharpening, the chisel should be positioned at an angle of 30–40 ° to the periphery of the wheel. It should be moved across the entire width of the circle with light pressure, periodically turning it over with one side or the other. this achieves the symmetry of the cutting edges and uniformity of sharpening. The side edges are sharpened in such a way that after sharpening the edges they remain flat, the same in width and have one angle of inclination.

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After each contact of the chisel blade with the sharpening wheel, it should be immersed in water for sharp cooling (otherwise, with gradual cooling, the blade may lose its chopping properties).

Burrs remaining on the blade after sharpening must be removed with a fine-grained abrasive bar.

Guillotine

Currently, such a device as a guillotine is used for high-quality cutting of metal. This method is based on the use of different mechanical knives or scissors for metal.

The essence of such a process as cutting, first of all, is that the process begins with the fact that the master places a sheet of metal on the working surface of the machine and fixes it by using a pressure beam.

After that, the knife is installed and the cutting itself is carried out directly. Using a method such as a guillotine results in a perfectly flat edge that does not have jags, burrs or any other unnecessary edges.

Another advantage of using such a device as a guillotine when cutting metal is the complete absence of curvature. This is based on the fact that the cutting process is carried out with a blade strictly across the entire width of the material.

Currently, there are four main types of such a device as a guillotine. manual, pneumatic, hydraulic and electromechanical. They are united by a similar principle of operation, but there are some differences. The machines can be designed to carry out such a process as cutting in width and length.

Watch DIABLO Blades Cut Through My Steel Like Butter, “CRAZY FAST”

Almost all options use electronics, which provides high accuracy rates.It is worth noting that cutting metal with a device such as a guillotine is ideal for such processes that are associated with the workpiece.

There are some points that are important to know and follow when implementing this method. There is some limitation on the thickness of the metal, by its type, for example, a hydraulic guillotine can process metal, carry out a process such as cutting material, the thickness of which does not exceed 6 mm.

The accuracy of the strips depends on the qualifications of the operator, and also the guillotine does not allow shape cutting.

Metal locksmith:

One of the important stages in the production of billets and the processing of rolled steel is metal cutting. Alloy is a material that has a high hardness, therefore, in order to cut it, you need special equipment.

Kreutzmeisel, hammers

Tools for cutting metal include such a device as a crosscutter. This is the so-called flute chisel. Designed for making special grooves, grooves, and other holes. Its working surface has a narrower blade width. Curly grooves are made with a similar device. a groove.

Hammers are used as a percussion tool. They come in both round and square sides, weighing 400-800 grams. It is the hammer that strikes the chisel (cross-cutter).

In order for its working surface to be securely fixed and not to slide off the handle, special metal or wooden wedges are often used, which are driven into it. There are such methods of striking: wrist, elbow, shoulder.

Making Machine for cutting steel

Brush blow is used to separate thin chips, remove small irregularities. Cutting grooves, grooves requires an elbow strike. A full swing (shoulder kick) has maximum strength. It is necessary when processing thick metal.

The essence of metal cutting

Cutting technology consists in cutting off excess metal parts using special tools. It is used in cases where processing does not require high precision. Most often, sheet metal cutting is necessary to separate scale, inaccuracies that arose during production.

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Also, the technology is used for deburring, dividing the original material into parts. Felling is a locksmith’s operation, which is performed both manually and with special devices. In the first case, chisels, hammers, crosscutters are used.

It should be noted that metal cutting is a rather difficult process, therefore its automation greatly simplifies cutting.

Summing up, it can be noted that the above methods are used in practice almost always and everywhere. But this industry is constantly evolving, more and more new methods are being developed.

Experiments are currently underway with cutting metal by means of an electromagnetic pulse, ultrasound, and so on.

There is a possibility that after some time such a method will be developed that will have high productivity rates and an affordable cost of the process itself.

Basic types of metal cutting

Band saw cutting is very popular at the present time, which is popular due to the relatively low cost of the process, ease of maintenance, and also there is an acceptable performance. A band saw is used as a cutting device, which is tensioned on pulleys.

Oxy-fuel cutting is popular for its high productivity. The essence of the process is based on the combustion of metal. As soon as the material is heated to the required temperature, it is cut with an oxygen stream.

Not all types of metal, in particular aluminum, are suitable for this method, since when heated, the material becomes soft, not intended for cutting. The method of plasma cutting is also used, which is carried out by heating the place where it is planned to cut.

At the moment, plasma cutting of metal is considered the most common method, since it does not require the creation of special conditions, the presence of air and electrical energy is quite enough.

One of the most advanced methods is laser cutting of metal. By using a laser beam when cutting, it is possible to cut metal, the thickness of which is approximately 20 mm, but the best option is achieved when working with a material whose thickness is 6 mm.

Particularly noteworthy is waterjet cutting, which is a progressive and innovative technology.

This method is able to amaze, since the material is cut by means of a jet of water, and thus it is possible to cut steel, the thickness of which is 300 mm! This technology has one big advantage. the water jet, as a rule, is as thin as a hair, it creates significantly less material loss when compared to some traditional processes.

Cutting options

Depending on the location of the tool and part, vertical and horizontal felling are distinguished. The first is performed on a slab, an anvil. The part is laid horizontally on the work surface, and the tool is held vertically.

After striking, the blade is transferred so that part of it (approximately half) is in the newly formed hole. This is necessary in order for the cutting of metal to be continuous. If the sheet thickness is more than 2 mm, it is necessary to apply markings on both sides.

First, the part is processed on one side, then turned over. For small material thicknesses, it is recommended to place a sheet of mild steel under the workpiece. This will prevent the chisel from dulling against the anvil. Horizontal cutting (bending) of metal takes place in a vice.

In this case, the working tool is mounted at a very small angle to the workpiece surface (almost horizontally).