Drilling holes in various materials

Ticket 1. 1) Drilling. a necessary operation to obtain holes in various materials during their processing, the purpose of which is:

1) Drilling. a necessary operation to obtain holes in various materials during their processing, the purpose of which is:

Making holes for tapping, countersinking, reaming or boring.

Making holes (technological) for placing electrical cables, anchor bolts, fasteners, etc.

Separation (cutting) of workpieces from sheets of material.

Weakening of destructible structures.

The laying of an explosive charge in the extraction of natural stone. Drilling of cylindrical holes, as well as drilling of polyhedral (triangular, square, five- and hexagonal, oval) holes is performed using special cutting tools. drills. Drills, depending on the properties of the material being processed, are made of the required standard sizes from the following materials:

Carbon steels (U8, U9, U10, U12, etc.): Drilling and reaming in wood, plastics, soft metals.

Low-alloy steels (X, B1.9KhS, 9KhVG, etc.): Drilling and reaming in wood, plastics, soft metals. Increased heat resistance (up to 250 ° C) and cutting speed compared to carbon materials.

High-speed steels (R9, R18, R6M5, R9K5, etc.): Drilling of all structural materials in an unhardened state. Heat resistant up to 650 ° C.

2) The lubrication system is a set of devices that ensure an uninterrupted and sufficient supply of oil to all parts of the machine to be lubricated. It is designed to supply oil to the rubbing parts, partially cool them and remove wear products. The engines under study use a combined lubrication system. The most loaded parts are supplied with oil under pressure, and the rest. spraying and gravity.

The lubrication system consists of:

oil pump with oil receiver,

channels for supplying oil under pressure, drilled in the cylinder block, block head and other engine parts.

The main and connecting rod bearings of the crankshaft, the valve mechanism, the bushings of the camshaft and camshaft gears are lubricated under pressure.

lubrication devices: Oil pump Oil cooler Oil filter Oil cans Mechanical lubricator

Methods for supplying lubricant to rubbing surfaces are determined by the properties of the material, functions and operating conditions of the friction unit. Oils are characterized by crankcase and circulation systems C. There are wick and drip feed of lubricating oils, C. with oil mist, etc., cap, spring and other oilers are also used.

a tool for measuring or marking linear dimensions (depths, diameters, lengths, etc.); consists of a bar with a main scale printed on it and a vernier. Sh. Include: vernier caliper (see fig.). tool for measuring bunk beds. and int. sizes, height gauge. a tool for precise marking, drawing marks and measuring heights (caliper depth gauge; caliper gauge, etc.

4) Trained personnel are allowed to work independently, having passed a medical examination and recognized as suitable for performing work in specific conditions, introductory instruction on labor protection and initial instruction at the workplace, familiarized with special instructions for working with the tool, with fire safety rules, having mastered safe working techniques, knowledgeable and able to apply methods of first aid in case of accidents.

1.2. The locksmith must know the results of certification of his workplace for working conditions.

1.3. A locksmith who has the right to perform work in a related profession (slinger, electric gas welder, gas cutter) must strictly comply with the requirements of labor protection instructions for these professions.

1.4. The locksmith is obliged to perform only the work that is entrusted to him by his immediate supervisor: the head of the shop (section), the foreman, etc.

1.5. The locksmith must have and use for the intended purpose a cotton suit or semi-overalls, protective goggles, leather boots, gloves, a hat, a protective helmet.

1.6. The floor at the workbench must be level and dry, a wooden grill must be installed in front of the workbench to prevent shoes from getting between the slats.

1.7. If the floor is slippery (doused with oil, emulsion), the locksmith must demand that it be sprinkled with sawdust, or do it yourself.

1.8. The locksmith is prohibited from:

1.9. The locksmith is obliged to immediately notify the immediate supervisor of any accident, and in case of injury, immediately contact the medical center.

5) Cost price. all costs (costs) incurred by the enterprise for the production and sale (sale) of products or services. There are many ways to reduce the cost of production: this is the use of less expensive materials, this is the improvement of the production process, the automation of jobs and the reduction in the number of employees, it is also cooperation with other enterprises that can produce certain components at lower prices.

Characteristics of types of blade processing of holes

On drilling and boring machines, different types of blade processing are used to make holes (Fig. 1; Fig. 2): drilling, reaming, countersinking, reaming, countersinking, counterbore, chamfering, boring, threading, etc.

Drilling. They are used to obtain through and blind holes in a solid workpiece material with a twist drill. In this case, the diameter of the holes to be machined usually does not exceed 15 mm. The shaping of surfaces during drilling (Fig. 1, a) is carried out by two movements, which are communicated to the tool: rotational and translational. The rotation of the tool is the main cutting movement Dr and kinematically reproduces the guide circle 2. The continuous rectilinear movement of the tool in the vertical plane is the feed motion BSD and reproduces the generatrix 1.

For the speed of the main cutting movement during drilling, the peripheral speed of the point of the cutting edge of the tool farthest from the axis of the drill is taken:

v = πdn /(60.1000) m / s,

where d is the diameter of the twist drill, mm; n. frequency of rotation of the cutting tool, min. 1.

Feed SB, mm / rev, when drilling is called the movement of the drill in the vertical plane in one revolution.

When drilling a hole in a solid material, the depth of cut t, mm, is equal to half the diameter of the drill. It is measured in a plane perpendicular to the direction of feed: t = d / 2.

The drilled holes have a roughness parameter Ra = 5.16 µm and an accuracy corresponding to 12.14 grade. Large cutting force, crushing (and not cutting) during drilling due to the transverse cutting edge of the drill, as well as not the rigidity of the drill, its cantilever clamping lead to the fact that even small inaccuracies in sharpening, deviations from the symmetry of the cutting part design can cause axis drift drills (with a drilling depth L ≥ 5d) and “breakout” of the hole (increase in its diameter compared to the diameter of the drill). For twist drills, the “breakdown” is 1% of the drill diameter. Therefore, holes obtained by drilling, as a rule, have deviations in shape in longitudinal and cross sections, as well as deviations in the location of the hole axis from the reference surfaces of the product. Drilled holes are usually used for bolting or for subsequent threading.

Reaming. A type of processing designed to increase the diameter of a previously drilled hole (Fig. 2 a), with a twist drill of a larger diameter (more than 15 mm). The parameters of roughness and accuracy are the same as for drilling. Depth of cut for reaming:

where D is the tool diameter, mm; d. diameter of the hole to be machined, mm.

Countersinking. They are used for processing blind and through holes, previously prepared by drilling or obtained in workpieces by casting, forging or stamping (Fig. 2 b). Distinguish between rough and finish countersinking. Processing is performed with a multi-edge tool. a countersink. Compared to a drill, a countersink has a greater number of cutting blades and greater rigidity. The shallower depth and lower cutting force allows you to get a hole more accurate in geometric shape and dimensions (8.12 grade of accuracy) and the roughness of the machined surface Ra = 3.2. 10 microns.

Deployment. They are used for finishing cylindrical and tapered holes (Fig. 2 c), usually after countersinking or boring. There are the following types of unfolding: rough (normal), fine (fine) and fine. When deploying, an accuracy corresponding to 6.9 grade is achieved, and a roughness Ra = 0.32. 1.25 microns. Reaming is carried out with reamers, which are a multi-edge tool with an even number of cutting blades. Standard one-piece machine reamers, depending on their diameter, have 6.14 cutting blades. For example, if the diameter of a reamer does not exceed 10 mm, the number of blades is 6, for reamers with a diameter of 11.19 mm, the number of blades is 8, etc. A large number of cutting blades, small cut thickness (depth of cut t = 0.1-0.4 mm) and the presence of a gauging part ensure high processing accuracy.

When reaming and reaming, the depth of cut t = (D d) / 2.

Countersinking. They are used to obtain conical and cylindrical recesses for the heads of screws and bolts, in pre-machined holes (Fig. 2 d, e). Processing is performed with countersinks and countersinks.

Bowing. Used for processing flat surfaces from the end of the hole, which serve as support surfaces for fasteners. This type of machining ensures that the axis of the hole is perpendicular to the bearing surface. Processing is carried out by countersink-trimming, counterbore (Fig. 2 e).

Thread cutting. The machine method (on machines) is used to cut triangular threads of all sizes in through and blind holes. Processing is carried out by machine or machine-hand taps (Fig. 2 g).

Boring. As a rule, they are used for processing large holes (more than 40 mm), previously prepared by drilling or obtained in workpieces by casting, forging or stamping, as well as holes of non-standard sizes for which there is no axial tool. Most often boring is used for machining holes in body parts. Processing is performed with boring cutters with one blade or a multi-blade tool (blade cutters, etc.). Boring is used as preliminary processing of workpieces (roughness parameter Ra = 6.3. 12.5 microns and accuracy according to 10.13 grade) and as final (roughness parameter Ra = 0.2. 0.8 microns and accuracy according to 5.7 mu quality).

Boring shaping is carried out according to the method of traces: the guide circle 2 is reproduced by the rotary movement of the tool, which is the main cutting movement and determines the cutting speed v. The translational movement of the tool (feed movement) reproduces the straight line. generating 1.

Hole machining

Types of holes and their purpose

On vertical drilling and jig boring machines, cylindrical, conical, threaded and stepped holes are obtained and processed (as a rule, in workpieces that are not bodies of revolution). The holes in the parts have a different service purpose. They are used to connect parts into units, install fasteners (bolts, screws, pins, studs, washers), etc.

The main units of the vertical drilling machine model 2H125.

Column 3 is fixed on the foundation slab 1 (Fig. 3), on the vertical guides of which there are table 2 and drilling head 6. The table and drilling head can move along the guides of the column. A spindle is located in the drill head, in which the cutting tool is installed. Feed box 4 and speed box 5, change the vertical feed and the spindle speed, respectively.

The main units of the jig boring machine model 2B440A.

On the machine bed 1 (Fig. 4) there is rigidly fixed a rack 2 with a boring head 3. Along the bed guides in the longitudinal direction slide 6 move, along the top of which the table 5 moves in the transverse direction. The table and slide are equipped with rolling guides. The machine has an optical reference system for the movements of the table and slide, which ensures the guaranteed accuracy of setting their coordinates (0.004 mm). The boring head contains a gearbox and a spindle vertical feed drive 4.

Technological equipment and its purpose

On a vertical drilling machine, holes of low accuracy are processed by drilling, reaming, countersinking, reaming, countersinking, counterbore and threading.

On a jig boring machine, as a rule, boring of high-precision holes is performed, the centers of which are strictly coordinated with respect to the base surfaces of the workpieces, as well as processing with an axial tool: countersinking, reaming, countersinking, counterbore, etc. In addition, the machine can perform marking, control of linear dimensions of the processed surfaces and center-to-center distances. Jig boring machine allows you to machine body parts.

Installation of workpieces and cutting tools on machine tools

When machining on vertical drilling and jig boring machines, workpieces are installed and fixed on the machine table using universal or special devices (Fig. 5). The method of fixing the workpiece is chosen depending on its shape and size.

Clamping strips are used when fixing workpieces of complex shapes or large overall dimensions in the conditions of single-piece manufacturing of parts (Fig. 5 a). When processing through holes, the workpiece is placed on shims, which provides free exit of the tool from the hole.

Installation on a prism and fastening with a clamp (or clamping bars) is used when machining holes on the cylindrical surface of a workpiece such as a shaft (Fig. 5 b). Long workpieces (eg shafts) are mounted on two prisms. A machine vise is used to set and secure small-sized workpieces with flat ends (Figure 5 c). When processing through holes, the workpiece is placed in a machine vise on shims.

Fastening in a three-jaw chuck is used when machining holes in the ends of workpieces having a cylindrical shape (Fig. 5 d). The chuck is attached to the machine table.

On a vertical drilling machine, when installing a workpiece, it is necessary to ensure that the axis of rotation of the spindle coincides with the axis of the hole being machined. This is achieved by aligning the tip of the drill with the marked and punched center of the hole by moving the workpiece along the machine table.

READ  Wood drilling tools and fixtures

On a jig boring machine, to set the table with a fixed workpiece in a position at which the base starting point coincides with the spindle axis, a center finder is used, as well as optical devices for counting the coordinates of the table and slide movement. This ensures the production of holes with a high accuracy of center distances (up to 0.004 mm) and high accuracy of their shape.

The way of mounting the cutting tool on a vertical drilling machine depends on the shape of the shank and the working conditions. Tools with a taper shank 1 are installed directly into the spindle 2 of the machine (Fig. 6 a) or with the help of reducing taper bushings 3 (Fig. 6 b) if the size of the taper of the tool shank is less than the size of the tapered bore of the spindle. A tool with a cylindrical shank 4 is installed in a collet 5 (Fig. 6 c) or a cam 6 (Fig. 6 d) drill chucks. If a sequential change of tools is required, quick-change chucks 7 are used (Fig. 6 d).

The reamer is fixed in swinging, floating or self-aligning chucks, which, during operation, allow the tool to be freely positioned along the hole and have an accurate direction. When threading in through holes, taps are fixed in quick-change, swinging and floating chucks, and in blind holes. in a safety chuck.

On a jig boring machine, a cutting tool (drill, countersink, etc.) with a tapered shank 1 (Fig. 7) is installed in the machine spindle 2 in adapter sleeves 3 (Fig. 7 a, b), and with a cylindrical shank 4. in a holder with a collet 5 (Fig. 7 c).

Boring cutters 1 (Fig. 8) on a jig boring machine are installed in cantilever holders 3, fixed in the spindle 2, with an inclined (Fig. 8 a) or straight (Fig. 8 b) installation of the cutter, as well as in a universal tool holder, design which allows for mechanical feed in the radial direction while the spindle is rotating.

Section 1 CUTTING WOOD AND WOOD MATERIALS

4.2. DRILLING IN WOOD AND WOODEN MATERIALS

Drilling kinematic relationships. Drilling. the process of forming through and blind cylindrical holes in wood and wood-based materials, using drills of various designs. For drilling wood and wood materials, center simple and machine drills are used, drills with circular and gear cutters, hollow, spoon, spiral, screw, screw and corkscrew drills. Twist drills are mainly used to form holes.

Hole drilling can be done in two ways: 1) the drill rotates and is fed to the workpiece, which is fixed on the base; 2) the drill rotates, the workpiece is fed to the drill along with the base. In all drilling machines, the process of drilling holes is an intermittent process. Cutting alternates with idle movement of the drill (workpiece) to the initial position, which determines the mode of operation of the tool.

Drilling in wood is a complex cutting, combining, to varying degrees, longitudinal, transverse and face cuts. The proportion of this or that type of cutting depends on the direction of drilling in relation to the direction of the wood grain and the shape of the cutting part of the drill. When drilling, end cutting edges are cut.

Trajectories of relative movement of any point of the blade t. screw mowing line of the same pitch, but with different angles of ascent.

Various perks and twist drills are used for drilling wood, which are fixed in various devices or machines.

Electric hand drills use twist drills when drilling wood. The harder the wood, the more the drills used are similar to metal drills.

Woodworking includes: sawing, planing, chiselling, drilling, milling, machining. A tapered screw in the center of the drill screws the drill into the wood.

Drills for metal (Fig. 20, d) of any diameter are used to drill wood along and across the fibers, but they give inaccurate and insufficiently clean (torn) holes.

§ 16. DRILLING HOLES. To drill cylindrical (round) holes in wood, drills of various sizes and designs are used (40).

drill a lot of holes strictly at an angle of 90 °, then a hardwood cube will help out, in. When drilling two adjacent holes, one on top of the other, drill all the time.

The screw of the penetrator itself is easily screwed into the wood. For a drill without a drill, pressure is necessary, but not very strong. When drilling, the axis of rotation of the arm or drill must.

Drilling is used to select round holes in the wood for pins, round dowels, bolts. This brace, having a switch, allows you to use right and left drills.

In addition to HSS drills, drills with. 3. Wood decoration. 4. Plastering of walls. 5. Ceramic tiles.

Drills and drills are used for drilling. It is better to use twist drills. Wood shavings are poorly discharged from the hole, so the drills should be removed frequently.

Drills and drills are used to manually drill wood and other materials. Drills can be drilled directly, and with drills using fixtures.

Drilling begins by marking the center of the hole for drilling on the workpiece so that the tip of the drill does not slip. If the drill tip still slips.

Drilling (24). cutting wood with a rotating cutting tool, fed along the axis of rotation, for. The diameter of the drill should be slightly smaller than the diameter of the screw.

47 shows the geometry of the twist drill bit. When drilling, the most important element is the angle between the cutting edges of the drill 2ph (47, a.

Since art products made of wood are produced in small batches, they. With the help of a hydraulic drive, the drill is fed to a given drilling depth.

Markup (1.116). Certain dimensions must be applied to the wood It is best to turn the workpiece over and finish drilling on the other side with the drill tip coming out.

and building structures. To make a hole in wood. These are drills when drilling. holes are very hot, respectively, increases.

Such drills provide high drilling speed, free chip exit along spiral flutes, maintaining the initial diameter until the drill is completely worn out.

With manual drilling, the markings are made (centers are applied) with a triangular awl to a depth of at least the diameter of the drill. In places of different density of wood.

When drilling through the drill at the moment the drill leaves the workpiece, it is necessary to sharply reduce the drill feed. When the drill leaves the workpiece, the cut metal layer is uneven.

Dullness of cutting edges occurs due to prolonged operation of the drill without regrinding, increased cutting and feed speeds, twisting of the drill in.

Sharpening of drills for metal for drilling wood (29, l). In the absence of drills for wood, they. For dry wood, it can be equal to ‘D of the thickness of the blade, for damp wood it can be more.

constantly, and when drilling holes of different diameters, only plate drills are changed If the saw is intended for sawing wood across the grain, then its teeth.

a piece of wood broke off by pressing the drill. If, when drilling a large hole. damage the facing layer, and at the end, being carried away, drill the part. through.

All blanks can be almost completely cut with scissors, and only in some cases will you have to resort to using file files and drills.

Countersink Selection- Everything you need to know (for aluminum)

Drilling. When machining wood, drill cylindrical through holes until the tip of the drill appears on the other side of the material (215).

When drilling through holes, in order to avoid breakage of the drill, weaken the pressure on it at the end of drilling, when the drill comes out of the metal.

When drilling holes. crumbs in the ceiling. spools flying from the drill. Wood processing. Chapter 2. Works on Metal. Locksmith operations.

To drill wood, use a brace, drill, gimbal and drills In this case, deep through holes are drilled according to the marking on both sides of the part.

See also:

5.3. Woodworking. Wood processing includes: sawing, planing, chiselling, drilling, milling, turning, peeling and grinding.

At the end of the last century, the first Russian nesting doll was made in the “Children’s Education” workshop based on a sketch by the famous artist Malyutin. All eight figures of this.
Found by link: Artistic woodworking and woodcarving.

Wood is one of the most versatile materials that people have learned to process since ancient times. Wood was widely and variedly used by the Russians.
Found by link: Artistic woodworking.

§ 40. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT WOOD AND ITS PROCESSING. Wood as a building material has been known since ancient times. Historical and geographical conditions of Ancient Rus.
Found at link: Woodworking. Wood as a building material.

Basics of woodworking. 5.1. working tool and its application. To perform carpentry and joinery work, you need a different tool: an ax, a hammer.

Wood products are not often found in archaeological excavations. But. there are also happy exceptions. Due to the high humidity, the soil of the Novgorod land seems to.
Found by link: Artistic woodworking and woodcarving.

Birch bark processing. Everyone had to meet a rotten birch stump in the forest. If you hit it with your foot, the wood will crumble into small dust, but the birch bark will remain intact and elastic. People.
Found by link: Artistic woodworking.

On the trunks of birches, high above the ground or at the very root, you can sometimes find spherical tree outgrowths covered with brown rough bark. These are mouthguards. Not right away.
Found by link :. Processing of the mouth guard. products from a burl. Artistic wood processing.

Construction and repair. Carpentry work. in a rural house. A.M. Shepelev. © Rosselkhozizdat 1969. A.M. Shepelev. Every year the village is developing more and more.
Found by link: Woodworking (Joinery).

§ 10. Drilling holes in wood parts

In elementary school, you had to poke holes with an awl in cardboard parts with the help of adults. And in order to make a hole in wood parts, you need other tools.

If it is necessary to make holes in a workpiece from wood, then they are drilled. Holes can be through (Fig. 38, a) and blind (blind) (Fig. 38, b).

drilling, holes, various, materials

Fig. 38. Holes: a. through; b. deaf: 1. drill; 2. blank; 3. backing board

Drilling is carried out using drills (fig. 39). All drills have a tip and a shank. Twist drills with a guiding center (Fig. 39, a) are designed for accurate and high-quality drilling across the wood grain. Center (feather) drills (Fig. 39, b) are used for drilling shallow holes of large diameter, these drills have one cutting edge.

Twist drills (Fig. 39, c), which are a screw-shaped plate, are used to drill deep holes. A spoon drill (Fig. 39, d) drills holes along the fibers.

Fig. 39. Types of drills for drilling wood: a. spiral with a guiding center; b. center (first); in. screw; g. spoon; d. spiral: 1. center; 2. cutting edge; 3. cutter; 4. groove; 5. ribbon

Twist drills are widely used for drilling holes of various diameters in wood (Fig. 39, d). Drill diameter in millimeters is indicated on the shank.

In training workshops, students use a brace or a hand drill to drill holes (Fig. 40).

Fig. 40. Brace (a) and hand drill (b): 1. drill; 2. cartridge; 3. rotation handle; 4. emphasis; 5. handle; 6. gear wheels

The brace (Fig. 40, a) consists of a chuck 2, which serves to secure the drill 1, the handle 3, which is rotated in the direction of rotation of the drill, and a stop 4, which allows you to keep the brace in a vertical position. In the drill (Fig. 40, b), in contrast to the rotary wheel, a special mechanism is installed. a gear train, consisting of gear wheels 6 of different diameters. Thanks to the gear transmission, the slow rotation of the handle 3 turns into a fast rotation of the drill 1. There is also an auxiliary handle 5 for holding the drill with the left hand when drilling horizontally.

Let us consider the sequence of drilling holes using the example of the part “pencil holder” (Fig. 41). one of the parts of the stand for pens and pencils (see Appendix, Fig. 170).

Fig. 41. Drawing of detail “pencil holder” holder for pens and pencils

Before drilling on the workpiece with a pencil, markings are made and recesses are made with an awl in the centers of future holes.

To get holes of the required depth, a stop is put on the drill. a rubber sleeve (Fig. 42).

Fig. 42. Drill preparation for drilling blind holes: 1. drill; 2. stopper (rubber bushing); 3. cartridge; 4. drilling depth)

Then the workpiece is fixed in the clamp of the joiner’s workbench (fig. 43) so that the surface in which the holes are drilled is parallel to the surface of the workbench lid. The drill is placed in a recess made with an awl at right angles to the surface to be drilled. Hold the drill with your left hand, lightly pressing down on the stop. The hole is drilled by rotating the handle clockwise until the stop touches the surface of the workpiece. Other holes are drilled in the same way.

Fig. 43. Drilling with a drill in the workbench clamp: 1. workbench cover; 2. workbench clamp; 3. blank; 4. limiter; 5. drill

If you need to drill a through hole (Fig. 44), then the workpiece is placed on a backing board and pressed against the workbench cover with a clamp so that the workpiece is stationary during drilling.

Fig. 44. Drilling with a brace on a backing board: 1. workbench cover; 2. backing board; 3. blank; 4. clamp; 5. drill

READ  Drilling holes in metal fer

Clamp. a device used to secure the workpiece during drilling, sawing and other operations (Fig. 45). A backing board is used so that at the end of drilling, when the drill leaves the workpiece, the hole turns out with even edges and so that the surface of the workbench cover is not damaged.

Fig. 45. Clamp: 1. knob; 2. screw; 3. support; 4. frame

At the end of drilling, the pressure on the tool stop is released.

Safe work rules

  • Before drilling, you must correctly and securely fix the workpiece on the workbench.
  • The drill in the chuck of the drill and the brace must be fixed without distortions.
  • Rotate the handle of the drill and the arm smoothly, without jerking.
  • Do not put the drill and brace on the workbench with the drill towards you.

Drilling machine operator is a specialist who works on drilling machines in woodworking and metalworking industries. He knows the structure of drilling machines, knows how to regulate them, and also knows how to sharpen drills, choose the right drilling speed for the workpiece, taking into account the species and properties of wood or metal grade, and perform high-quality drilling operations.

Practical work number 8

Drilling wood blanks

  • Review the various drills and write down their types, diameters and the purpose of the main parts in a workbook.
  • Learn the brace device and hand drill available in the training workshop. Write down the names of the parts in your workbook.
  • Get a blank from your teacher or prepare a blank for your design item. Mark the centers of the future holes. Securely attach the workpiece to the workbench.
  • Select a drill of the required diameter, install it in the chuck and check that it is installed correctly.
  • We drilled pre-marked workpieces: parts “pencil holder” (see Fig. 41), cutting board “fish” (see Fig. 21), details of the desktop shelf (see Fig. 57), shelves for flowers (see Appendix, Fig. 172) or details of your design item.
  • Check the dimensions of the drilled holes.

New words and concepts

Drilling, holes (through, blind), drills (spiral, center), brace, drill, clamp, drill operator.

Drilling holes in various materials

Drilling is a necessary operation to make holes in various materials during their processing, the purpose of which is:
Making holes for tapping, countersinking, reaming or boring.
Making holes (technological) for placing electrical cables, anchor bolts, fasteners, etc.
Separation (cutting) of workpieces from sheets of material.
Weakening of destructible structures.
Laying an explosive charge in the extraction of natural stone.
[edit]
Drilling machines and tools

Drilling of cylindrical holes, as well as drilling of polyhedral (triangular, square, five- and hexagonal, oval) holes is performed using special cutting tools. drills. Drills, depending on the properties of the material being processed, are made of the required standard sizes from the following materials:
Carbon steels (U8, U9, U10, U12, etc.): Drilling and reaming in wood, plastics, soft metals.
Low-alloy steels (X, B1.9KhS, 9KhVG, etc.): Drilling and reaming in wood, plastics, soft metals. Increased heat resistance (up to 250 ° C) and cutting speed compared to carbon materials.
High-speed steels (R9, R18, R6M5, R9K5, etc.): Drilling of all structural materials in an unhardened state. Heat resistant up to 650 ° C.
Carbide-tipped drills (VK3, VK8, T5K10, T15K6, etc.): Drilling at high speeds on non-hardened steels and non-ferrous metals. Heat resistant up to 950 ° C.
Borazon drills: Drilling in hardened steels and white cast iron, glass, ceramics, non-ferrous metals.
Drills equipped with diamond: Drilling in hard materials, glass, ceramics, stones.

Drilling operations are performed on the following machines:
Vertical drilling machines: Drilling. main operation.
Horizontal drilling machines: Drilling. main operation.
Vertical boring machines: Drilling. auxiliary operation.
Horizontal boring machines: Drilling. auxiliary operation.
Vertical milling machines: Drilling. auxiliary operation.
Horizontal milling machines: Drilling auxiliary operation.
Universal milling machines: Drilling. auxiliary operation.
Lathes: The drill is stationary while the workpiece is rotating.
Backing lathes: Drilling. auxiliary operation. The drill is motionless.

And on handheld equipment:
Power Drills: Drilling Using Human Muscle Strength.
Electric drills: Drilling on the assembly with a portable power tool (including impact drilling).
punchers

To facilitate the cutting of materials, the following measures are applied:
Cooling: Lubricating fluids and gases (water, emulsions, oleic acid, carbon dioxide, graphite, etc.)
Ultrasound: Ultrasonic vibration of the drill increases productivity and chip breakage.
Heating: Heating reduces the hardness of difficult-to-cut materials.
Impact: When impact drilling (drilling) of stone, concrete.
[edit]
Drilling types
Drilling cylindrical holes.
Drilling polyhedral and oval holes.
Reaming of cylindrical holes (increasing the diameter).
[edit]
Drilling cooling

A big problem when drilling is a strong heating of the drill and the workpiece due to friction. At the drilling site, the temperature can reach several hundred degrees Celsius.

When heated strongly, the material may start to burn or melt. Many steels lose their hardness under strong heating, as a result of which the cutting edges of steel drills wear out faster, due to which friction only increases, which, as a result, leads to rapid drill failure and a sharp decrease in drilling efficiency.

To combat heating, cooling is used with the help of cooling emulsions or cutting fluids. When drilling on a machine, it is often possible to supply fluid directly to the drilling site. When drilling with a hand tool, drilling is interrupted from time to time and the drill is dipped into a container with liquid.

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Drilling concrete

Concrete is typically drilled rather than drilled and drills are used for these procedures. However, the drills that are used to make holes in concrete are called concrete drills. Because of this, sometimes disputes and disagreements arise as to how the process itself is correctly called, drilling or still drilling. The method of drilling concrete should be determined based on the size of the hole to be drilled, as well as on the basis of the tools and nozzles that are intended for this. Also, an important factor is taking into account the density of reinforcement and the presence of reinforcement in concrete.

In order to drill concrete, special nozzles are needed, which differ in the shape and size of the working part, and also differ in the type of shank. Drills and drills can generally be used to drill small to medium-sized holes. These drills have carbide tips and are screw-shaped. Drill shanks can be of 2 types. The first type of shank is for impact drills, such shanks have a smooth cylindrical surface. The second type is for rock drills, such shanks are made according to SDS standard.

With a hammer drill, it is easier and faster to drill concrete. In the case of concrete drilling, the rock drill should be set to “rotate with impact”. For such a case we need SDS shank bits. Concrete drilling occurs in the following sequence:

The hammer drill is more effective when the hole to be drilled must be up to 100 mm in diameter. It is also necessary to take into account the fact that the drills and their toothed crowns can jam when they encounter the reinforcing metal, and the teeth of the crown can break. In particular, for serrated crowns, reinforcement is the most dangerous. Although drills, due to their characteristics, are capable of cutting metal, there is still a small chance that when hitting the reinforcement, the tip of the drill bit or crowns may jam.

If you need to do a small amount of work, such as making a few holes, and you don’t have a hammer drill, then an impact drill can be used. Although such a drill should not be used to make holes, in this case, due to the small amount of work, an exception can be made.

If you need to drill a large hole in concrete, then the hammer drill will not help you. Drilling should be done with diamond bits. Such crowns are suitable for reinforcement of absolutely any density. This is easily explained by the fact that a diamond tool is able to overcome metal with ease. In such a situation, a special shockless electric tool will be used, as well as water supply to the drilling zone will be provided. If the holes to be drilled are small in diameter, the tool can be handled. If the holes are large in diameter, then the tool must be attached to the wall using anchors.

Diamond drilling

Diamond drilling is one of the most optimal directions used in diamond technology. With the help of such drilling, it became possible to drill a perfectly even hole in the concrete. Today it is impossible to find a replacement for such drilling, or find similar methods for perfectly straight drilling. Diamond drilling is often used in all construction projects, from apartment renovations to large-scale road and construction projects.

Mainly, diamond drilling is used for building materials such as concrete or reinforced concrete. Reinforced concrete is a type of concrete in which, in addition to its main component, steel reinforcement is also included. Sand, cement or crushed stone can be used as the main composition. If we consider its components separately, then it is quite simple to cope with each of them. Metal can be drilled with a sharp steel drill bit, and concrete can be drilled quite easily with a hammer drill. But you need to take into account the fact that these methods will not be effective, since a perforator drill is not able to make a hole in the metal, and a steel drill, in contact with concrete, will become blunt immediately. In this case, your only way out is a diamond core bit, which can cope with the task without any problems.

Since diamond drilling technologies are distinguished by their versatility, the list of applications for diamond tools will be quite voluminous:

MIKRON TOOL. CrazyDrill Cool XL. Deep hole drilling various materials

for drilling holes in various materials

When drilling holes in the wall, it is difficult to keep the drill in a strictly horizontal position.

If you are drilling holes in concrete or brick, then periodically wet the drill with water, using an elastic plastic bottle as a water reservoir, in this case the drill will last longer.

When drilling holes in a cement ceiling, cement dust gets on hair and clothes and clogs the eyes. A simple device will save you from this trouble. put a plastic cup or transparent polyethylene on the drill

film, and they will neatly collect the trash.

Everyone knows how difficult it is to make a hole in a brick or concrete wall.

If you cannot do without holes, try to keep their number to a minimum.

single hole and wire rocker.

If you need two holes to hang the object, first mark the places for them on the sheet.

paper, and then transfer the markings from paper to the wall.

If you do not have a large drill at hand, a hole of the required diameter in a soft material (wood, plastic) can be drilled with three thin drills clamped into a drill chuck. Drills are pre-fastened with several turns of wire.

A thin drill can be successfully replaced by a sewing needle if its end is sharpened from the side of the eyelet. The drill is easy to make from annealed steel wire. The working end of the drill head is heated to a light red heat, and then immersed in sealing wax.

The simplest device for drilling holes with a diameter of 15 to 45 mm is a metal rod with a longitudinal slot and a piece of an old hacksaw blade. The cutting edges of the blade are sharpened at an angle of 45 °, inserted into the longitudinal slot of the rod and soldered. Before using a homemade drill, use an ordinary drill, the diameter of which should be slightly larger than the diameter of the homemade drill shaft, drill a through pilot hole. Then clamp the tail of the homemade drill in the drill chuck, insert the protruding end of the rod into the pilot hole and start drilling.

If you need to drill a large number of holes of a certain depth, measure the depth of the holes on the drill and wrap the drill with adhesive tape at the desired mark.

When drilling a polished surface, put a felt washer on the drill. it will protect the surface from damage by the drill chuck.

If the drill chuck interferes with drilling a small hole in a hard-to-reach place, for example, in a groove in a part, use a tube of the required diameter. fix the drill at one end of the tube with screws, and insert the other end into the drill chuck.

For cutting blind holes, it is recommended to use a piece of a round file clamped in an electric drill chuck. In order not to damage the workpiece, the working end of the file fragment should be slightly rounded on the emery wheel.

By drilling a small hole at the end of a crack formed in a plate of plexiglass or other material, you will stop its further development.

General rules for drilling holes

It is very important to correctly position the tool in relation to the work surface. If using a bosch hand drill or cordless rotary hammer, hold them strictly at right angles to the surface.

Depending on the material in which you want to drill the hole, you should select the type and diameter of the drill. Also choose the optimal operating mode of the drill.
The main condition for drilling any material is that the cutting tool must have a higher hardness than the material being processed. For example, a wood drill cannot be used to machine concrete or stone.

Drilling methods in different materials

    • 1.General rules for drilling holes
    • 2.Drilling in concrete and stone
    • 2.1 Tool selection
    • 2.2 Drilling in concrete and stone
    • 2.3 Hole in metal
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    It would seem that making a hole in any material is not particularly difficult, but this is far from the case. Drilling requires certain skills and special tools.

    If you choose the wrong drill or accessories for work, you can spoil the surface of the material, chips and cracks will appear. It is important to know all the features of each material in which you need to drill a hole, properly prepare the surface and select the necessary tool.

    Drilling in concrete and stone

    Do you know that making holes in concrete or stone is more convenient and efficient with a hammer drill and a special drill or crown. The hammer drill not only provides rotary movement of the drill, but also complements the process with impact action. It is advisable to use a hammer drill for making holes larger than 10 mm. Thinner holes are made with a rotary hammer drill.

    Before you start drilling a concrete or brick wall, you should make sure that there is no hidden electrical wiring. Even if you de-energize the room, and there is no danger of electric shock, breaking the wire can subsequently lead to a short circuit and a fire.

    A special scanner is used to find hidden wiring. If the wall does not have metal reinforcement, you can use a metal detector. Only after determining all the power grids and other communications in the walls can you drill.

    Drilling holes in concrete or stone must be started at the markup point without turning on the impact mode at low speeds, otherwise the edges of the hole may be deformed and chips and cracks will appear. When the drill has passed 5. 10 millimeters, you can switch to hammer drilling mode.

    For plastic dowels, holes are drilled 7. 10 mm. more than the length of the dowel. Crumbs and dust always remain in the hole, this margin is needed so that the dowel goes into the hole completely.

    Drilling in concrete and stone

    Tool selection

    Drills with refractory cutting edges should be used to make holes in concrete or masonry (wins). Such drills do not cut the material, but turn it into small chips, which are removed from the hole by the spiral of the tool body. Victory drills cannot be used for drilling plastic, metal or wood.

    Hole in metal

    To make holes in steel or any other metal, appropriate drills should be used, preferably of high quality. Good metal drills should not cost less than 300. 400 rubles. Buy tools only from well-known manufacturers, this will provide yourself with fewer problems in your work.

    Before making a hole in the metal, the place of drilling should be screwed up, in this case the drill will not lead to the side and will not spoil the surface of the part.

    For drilling holes more than 5 mm deep. it is advisable to use several drills of different diameters. First, they pass through a thinner drill, and modify the hole with a drill of the required size.

    The drill gets very hot during operation. In order not to overheat the cutting edge of the tool, use special pastes or liquid suspension. Any machine oil can be used. Only holes in cast iron should always be drilled dry, periodically allowing the tool to cool.

    Drilling in concrete and stone

    Drilling in concrete and stone

    Do you know that making holes in concrete or stone is more convenient and efficient with a hammer drill and a special drill or crown. The hammer drill not only provides rotary movement of the drill, but also complements the process with impact action. It is advisable to use a hammer drill for making holes larger than 10 mm. Thinner holes are made with a rotary hammer drill.

    Before you start drilling a concrete or brick wall, you should make sure that there is no hidden electrical wiring. Even if you de-energize the room, and there is no danger of electric shock, breaking the wire can subsequently lead to a short circuit and a fire.

    A special scanner is used to find hidden wiring. If the wall does not have metal reinforcement, you can use a metal detector. Only after determining all the power grids and other communications in the walls can you drill.

    Drilling holes in concrete or stone must be started at the markup point without turning on the impact mode at low speeds, otherwise the edges of the hole may be deformed and chips and cracks will appear. When the drill has passed 5. 10 millimeters, you can switch to hammer drilling mode.

    For plastic dowels, holes are drilled 7. 10 mm. more than the length of the dowel. Crumbs and dust always remain in the hole, this margin is needed so that the dowel goes into the hole completely.

    Tool selection

    Drills with refractory cutting edges should be used to make holes in concrete or masonry (wins). Such drills do not cut the material, but turn it into small chips, which are removed from the hole by the spiral of the tool body. Victory drills cannot be used for drilling plastic, metal or wood.

    General rules for drilling holes

    It is very important to correctly position the tool in relation to the work surface. If using a bosch hand drill or cordless rotary hammer, hold them strictly at right angles to the surface.

    Depending on the material in which you want to drill the hole, you should select the type and diameter of the drill. Also choose the optimal operating mode of the drill.
    The main condition for drilling any material is that the cutting tool must have a higher hardness than the material being processed. For example, a wood drill cannot be used to machine concrete or stone.

    Drilling methods in different materials

    It would seem that making a hole in any material is not particularly difficult, but this is far from the case. Drilling requires certain skills and special tools.

    If you choose the wrong drill or accessories for work, you can spoil the surface of the material, chips and cracks will appear. It is important to know all the features of each material in which you need to drill a hole, properly prepare the surface and select the necessary tool.

    Hole in metal

    For making holes in steel or any other metal, appropriate drills should be used, preferably of high quality. Good metal drills should not cost less than 300. 400 rubles. Buy tools only from well-known manufacturers, this will provide yourself with fewer problems in your work.

    Before making a hole in the metal, the place of drilling should be screwed up, in this case the drill will not lead to the side and will not spoil the surface of the part.

    For drilling holes more than 5 mm deep. it is advisable to use several drills of different diameters. First, they pass through a thinner drill, and the hole is finalized with a drill of the required size.

    The drill gets very hot during operation. In order not to overheat the cutting edge of the tool, use special pastes or liquid suspension. Any machine oil can be used. Only holes in cast iron should always be made dry, periodically allowing the tool to cool.

    Drilling technology for thin metal sheets

    Taper drills are usually used to drill thin sheets of metal. With this technology, the diameter increases gradually. Sheets are not deformed.

    Photo: Drilling thin metal sheets with standard tapered drills

    In the presence of conical stepped drills, they are taken exactly. Treads with marks make it easy to drill a large number of holes of certain or different diameters in one sheet of metal.

    Photo: drilling a thin sheet of metal with a tapered step drill

    Drilling technologies for metals

    Drilling technologies for metals

    Tools and equipment for drilling metals

    Reducing the diameters of the deep parts of the holes

    Metal hole drilling technologies used in industry

    Deep hole drilling technology

    Drilling technology for thick metal sheets

    Drilling technology for thin metal sheets

    Features of drilling through holes in metal workpieces

    Features of drilling blind holes in metal workpieces

    Technologies for drilling complex holes in metal workpieces

    Basic tables for drilling metals required to select cutting data and other needs

    Table: selection of cutting data when drilling metals

    Table: correction factors

    Table: drilling in carbon steel (selection of the number of revolutions and feed rates depending on the diameter of the drill)

    Table: Selection of Drilling Speed ​​in Complex Austenitic Steel

    Table: selection of diameters of drilled holes intended for cutting metric and inch threads

    Metal Drilling Safety

    In this article we will talk about metal drilling technologies that craftsmen use in everyday life and in production. You will learn about all the features and nuances of technical processes.

    Photo: metal drilling

    Deep hole drilling technology

    Drilling a hole in metal is called deep, the length of which is 25 or more times the diameter. This operation requires forced periodic chip removal and the use of cutting fluids (coolant). They are needed to cool the tool and workpiece to prevent breakage and deformation.

    Deep hole drilling in metals involves the use of different cutting fluids. They are chosen depending on the materials of the workpieces. Let’s list the most effective cutting fluids.

    Workpiece material

    Stainless and heat-resistant alloys

    A mixture of oleic acid (20%) and sulfofresol (80%). The latter can be replaced with kerosene (30%) and sulfurized oil (50%)

    Aluminum and alloys based on it

    Kerosene, emulsion, mixed oils. Deep drilling permissible without cooling

    Mixed oils, emulsion. Deep drilling permissible without cooling.

    Emulsion (3-5%). Deep drilling allowed without cooling.

    Mixed oils. Deep drilling allowed without cooling.

    Kerosene, emulsion (3-5%). Deep drilling permissible without cooling.

    Sulfurized oil and kerosene mixture

    Sulfurized oil, emulsion

    Photo: Deep hole drilling with cutting fluid

    For deep drilling, twist and core drills for metal are most often used. Coolant is added manually or using automatic feeding systems, which are equipped with specialized machines.

    Deep hole drilling technology does not imply rush. Periodically, the process is stopped, the drill is removed and the chips are forcibly removed. When using spiral tools, deep drilling is carried out in stages, gradually expanding the hole to the desired diameter.

    Reaming

    Reaming in metal is a technology aimed at increasing the diameter of a previously made hole. To do this, take drills of large diameters.

    At home, the holes usually have to be reamed out in stages, gradually increasing the diameter of the tools used. This is due to the fact that the power of a household drill is in many cases insufficient for drilling large holes in thick workpieces. In addition, the stepwise approach reduces the axial pressure on the drills. This greatly reduces the likelihood of breakages.

    Image: The principle of drilling large holes in thick metal at home

    Technologies for drilling complex holes in metal workpieces

    Half holes at the edges of the workpieces are drilled like this.

    Clamp in a vice two workpieces or a workpiece with a lining, tightly pressed against each other.

    Center the drill in the right place at the junction of the parts.

    Drill a full hole.

    Drilling cylindrical workpieces tangentially is a more complex process. It takes place in two stages.

    A platform perpendicular to the hole is prepared using milling or countersinking.

    The technology for drilling holes in metal at an angle looks like this.

    The lining is securely fixed between the planes at the desired angle.

    Wood shims are placed in the hollow blanks before drilling. Holes with shoulders are made using the technologies described at the beginning of the article for drilling and reducing the diameter of the holes.

    Technologies for drilling holes in metal used in everyday life

    In everyday life, three technologies are used to drill holes in metal. Billets and sheets are clamped using clamps and vices. Most often, ordinary household drills and cylindrical twist drills are used at home.

    Drilling technology for thick metal sheets

    For drilling thick sheets of metal, either tapered (for holes with a diameter of up to 30 mm) or core drills (for holes of large diameters) are usually used. They are equipped with drilling machines or powerful drills. The main requirement is that the equipment must maintain a mode of operation at the lowest speeds.

    Photo: core drills for metal

    The technology of drilling thick metal sheets with core drills is highly efficient. Energy costs are minimal. Holes after drilling with crowns are smooth and precise.

    Tools and equipment for drilling metals

    The following basic tools and equipment are used for drilling metals.

    Household and industrial drills.

    Holders for them, rigidly fixing tools and providing the possibility of smooth and accurate feeding.

    Stationary machines for drilling metal (vertical and horizontal types, deep drilling, etc.).