How is the gearbox of a screwdriver. How the screwdriver gearbox works

Reducer of the screwdriver gearbox

Any tool, regardless of the model and brand, sooner or later undergoes breakdowns. Scrolls are no exception: individual parts and nodes wear out over time, and without proper care or under force majeure may refuse.

The main functional load during the operation of the tool is distributed through the gearbox between the engine and the cartridge, so if something happens to the gearbox, the work will become. In order not to spend money on the services of the repair service, it is enough to use the advice of the masters to restore the work of the unit yourself.

gearbox, screwdriver, works

The principle of operation of the screwdriver from A to I understand how the tool works

Popular models of the battery type are, therefore, we will analyze the principle of work with screwdrivers on their example. Knowing the device and design of the screwdriver, it will not be difficult to find out how this device works. However, often even experienced masters stumble when answering questions. Why do you need a rattle, how the button works and why planetary gearboxes are used in screwdrivers, and not ordinary. Consider the detailed principle of the screwdriver, and find out all the answers.

  • The device starts to work when pressing the button, which is also called the switch. However, switches (do not have a speed control option) are usually used on grinders, and buttons with a built.In revolutions are used in screwdrivers. The principle of operation of the regulator is simple. The stronger the force of pressing the trigger, the higher the speed of rotation of the cartridge
  • So that the cartridge begins to rotate when pressing the start button, it is necessary to ensure the supply of direct current to the electric motor. For this, a battery is used, which acts as source. It consists of a set of cans, which are connected sequentially, which in the aggregate allows you to obtain voltage from 9 to 24V
  • The battery in screwdrivers is removable, which allows not only to recharge it, but also to change when discharge. From the battery, the current is supplied to the power button. If the battery is discharged or deteriorated, then the screwdriver can work from a car battery
  • The button has a complex design of a non.Vegetable type. In the button, the contacts are closed, and the polarity of the voltage entering the contacts of the electric motor is changing
  • Two wires from the battery are brought to the button, which are closed, and go to the contacts of a direct current collector engine. The design of the button has an element that is responsible for adjusting the rotation of the cartridge, depending on the strength of pressing the trigger. The so.Called smooth start
  • A direct current is supplied to the collector engine, which is supplied to the rotor winding. The role of the stator in the engine is performed by constant magnets, through which the rotor rotation occurs. The gear is attached to the rotor shaft, the moment of rotation from which is transmitted to the gearbox
  • The planetary type gearbox in a screwdriver consists of a set of gears with the inner and external location of the links. Through the gear, the torque is transferred from the engine to the tool cartridge
  • The gearbox is connected to the shaft on which the cartridge is attached. In the lips of the canovic device, a working nozzle is fixed. A drill, a bat and others
  • In addition to these elements, in the design of the screwdriver there is a ratchet or a regulator of a pressing force with a safety coupling
  • The safety coupling eliminates the likelihood of jamming of the shaft, for example, when drilling or screwing a screw. The lack of a safety coupling contributes to the fact that the rotor winding can burn due to an increase in the load
  • The moment of power regulator serves to ensure effective exposure to processed surfaces. It eliminates the cranks of the cartridge relative to the shaft, excluding the increase in the load. The presence of a regulator allows you to screw fasteners with a certain moment

All these devices are components of a screwdriver. Let us consider in detail each element of the tool, as well as its design features, which will make it possible to understand the question of how a screwdriver works. Below the video shows a detailed principle of work with a screwdriver-day.

DIY screwdriver repair

To eliminate the malfunction of the device, it is necessary to disassemble it by removing the housing and disconnecting the main elements of the tool among themselves. Repair of any equipment can be divided into several stages. In the case of a screwdriver, this looks as follows. In this case, in each individual case, the stages of repair may differ depending on the cause of the breakdown, which must be eliminated.

How the screwdriver button works

The fundamental electric circuit of the screwdriver, in particular, its buttons, is determined by the main functions:

  • Starting the engine when pressing and stopping it after the owner of the device releases the button;
  • Reverse, that is, changes in the direction of twisting of the nozzle, it is especially convenient to use for repeated assembly and disassembly operations;
  • A smooth speed set so as not to spoil the screw head and maintain a decorative appearance of the material where it is screwed;
  • Control of the speed of rotation to drown a self.Tapping screw to the required depth (for example, leave it on a flush with the surface).

Based on the device for turning on/adjusting the work of the screwdriver, individual modules are usually carried in various conditional compartments:

  • The button is located directly at an average level to conveniently lie down under the fingers when taking the tool in the hand. It stands on the guides, which moves when pressing. Sliding smoothness is achieved thanks to the spring that propagates it from the inside;
  • The reverse is carried up. Classically, the change of direction is inverting polarity. The engine will rotate in the opposite direction, then through the reducer inverted torsion will be transmitted to the nozzle. The wires going to the engine also go up;
  • The unit, which is responsible for turning on, is demolished down, closer to the battery or exit for connecting to the network.

The option with additional options in addition to the connection diagram of the components of the screwdriver may include:

  • The speed switch button is low/high speed, less often 3 positions;
  • Button for activating the drilling mode, if the corresponding function is put on a separate regulator, and not integrated into the slip.In mechanism;
  • Battery control module and wires to connect to the battery;
  • Additional wires that are not even used.

How is the gearbox of a screwdriver

Greetings on my site! And this article will consider the issue of the device of the screwdriver gearbox. For some, this information is needed for cognitive purposes, for others. For practical, in order to be able to repair this mechanism of a screwdriver on your own. Well, we will satisfy the interest of both of them.

The screwdriver gearbox has a planetary mechanism. Where does this name come from and what all this means?

The thing is that such a gear has several sixes. One of them is the host, and the other led. And the driven gears rotate around the rotating presenter, and at the same time they themselves also rotate around their axis. That is, this whole system resembles the movement of the planets around the Sun, hence the name. Planetary. At the same time, the leading central gear is called so. Sunny.

The movement scheme of all gears is shown in the figure below.

As we see in the middle, the sun gear rotates. As a result of this, small gears called satellites are given in motion. And so that the satellites rotate around the solar gear, there is an outer gear, which is usually called crown. Otherwise the foundation on which the satellites are called is called the drive. In the figure it is green.

If this scheme is transferred to a screwdriver, then the solar gear will be the one that is located on the engine (therefore it rotates), and the drive will be the element that transfers rotation already to the cartridge. The drawing below shows this more clearly applies directly to the screwdriver.

From the above mobile circuit, it is clear that the drive rotates slower than the solar gear. Actually, this gearbox is needed for this. To reduce the speed of the cartridge compared to the speed of rotation of the engine and at the same time also increase the torque (tightening force).

Someone will say: why it was so to pervert and do such a gearbox, when to reduce rotation and increase the torque could simply use one small gear, which would be leading, and the second large-the driven. Actually, it was done on ordinary drills.

For screwdrivers, such a scheme is not suitable, since it is designed to take large loads than the drill. Nevertheless, twisting of self.Tapping screws requires more effort than drilling. The planetary gearbox allows you to evenly distribute the load by several sixes at once, and not one, like the drills. Thanks to this, the load is withstanding much larger.

Yes, I know that many also use drills with speed adjustment to tighten screws and seems to be nothing. However, whatever one or the same engine power, any screwdriver will have a torque anyway. Well, since the gears of its planetary reducer receive a lower load, they will last longer. In addition, the screwdriver engine will also wear more slowly than that of the drill, with the same loads.

However, the above explosion schemes of the screwdriver gearbox does not quite correctly reflect that they have screwdrivers in fact. Just on the diagram shows only one step, after which the drive was immediately attached to the cartridge. In practice, they usually use at least two steps. That is, the drive of the first stage on the back has a gear, which becomes sunny in the next step, which usually has five satellites already. Thus, two planetary mechanisms in one gearbox are already obtained. Thanks to this, the load on the entire gearbox and the engine becomes even less.

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If we talk about two.Speed screwdrivers, then they have three steps at all. At the first speed they are all involved, but on the second there are only two. For such a gearbox, a special drive is used at the first stage and a special crown gear on the second.

This special drive is different in that the outer edge has cloves, thus becoming a gear.

The crown gear of the second stage is distinguished by the fact that it has the opportunity to move along the gearbox. That is, when the speed switch moves on the housing, then this gear moves inside. She looks like this:

Inside the surrounding plastic frame, the gear is free spinning. However, on the reverse side, she has ledges.

With these protrusions, it sits in special grooves on the gearbox case when the first speed is turned on. In this position, it can no longer rotate and acts as an ordinary crown cutter of the planetary mechanism of the second stage. By the way, the wear of these grooves is often the malfunction due to which the screwdriver does not spin at the first speed.

When the second speed turns on, this gear shifts back:

In this position, she will enter the ending with outer teeth the first stage, which stands in the gearbox as follows:

At the same time, the crown gear will continue to remain in the hook with the satellites of the second stage, but it will come out of the latching grooves of the gearbox and will be able to rotate.

Well, what will switch to the second speed lead to? The following will happen: the drive of the first stage will simply rotate the entire second step along with the crown mill, satellite and drove the second stage. Thus, the second stage drove will have the same speed of rotation as it drove the first stage. That is, there will be no decrease, and instead, the rotation of the first stage will be directly transmitted to the third step. Therefore, I wrote above that only two steps are involved at the second speed. From the description it is clear that this is the first and third.

How to disassemble?

Dismantling of a screwdriver is performed on a table or other even surface to avoid loss of parts or fasteners.

Squad

To disassemble the screwdriver, you first need to extract the battery, and then unscrew all the screws. Then the case is carefully opened, trying not to damage the structure. If difficulties arise, you need to inspect the device again. Perhaps somewhere the fasteners remained or parts are connected by brackets that need to be removed.

After the case is open, the parts are removed alternately, they lay them out on the table in the order in which they were extracted. You can take several photos so as not to make a mistake in the process of assembling the technique.

Gearbox

Strong vibration during work, uncharacteristic noise or other signs are reported about the breakdown of this node. For the repair, you will need to disassemble the screwdriver gearbox. It includes ring gears, gears-sodelites, as well as drivers. All parts are alternately extracted from the body, then carefully cleaned, lubricated.

The Screwdriver Analogy. The Power Feed compared to the AMMCO brake lathe gearbox

The disassembly itself looks like this: the cartridge is removed, the case is disassembled, the gearbox is separated from the engine. Next, the plate is removed, all parts are extracted from the case, the bolts are removed, connecting haltor halves. Pliers are adjusted to the diameter of the spring to improve the inclusion of the transmission. Next, the coupling is disassembled. The stop ring, washers, and bulk bearing are removed. The shaft is extracted.

Faulty elements after disassembly change to new. Sometimes, for example, with a curvature of the shaft, it is necessary to purchase a new gearbox.

Engine

If the motor does not work, the problem is usually related to brushes, less often. With an anchor winding. In the first case, brushes change to new. In the second. You need to change the engine itself. The gear pressed on the shaft of this node remains intact, it must be disconnected with a special puller or improvised tools. Then the part is put on a new engine using a hammer and a solid surface.

Button

The repair of the screwdriver button is usually inappropriate, but sometimes it is enough just to disassemble it and carefully clean it. Conventionally, it includes three knots:

If the part is collapsible to disconnect it, you need to find plastic latches and bend them. The button is changed to a new.

Often to identify one or another malfunction of the screwdriver, as well as to repair it only after the correct disassembly. Since almost all such tools are similar to each other and have the shape of a kind of corner pistol, when they are disassembled, you should adhere to useful recommendations.

  • First of all, you will need to disconnect the battery block from the battery of the device. For this purpose, it will be necessary to carefully press on the latch and no less carefully unfasten the module.
  • Having unscrewed all the fasteners, two parts of the corps base can be unearthly disconnected from each other. But at the same time it is extremely important to hold the remaining elements of the existing design, which are recorded in grooves.
  • After that, you can continue to carefully disassemble the technique. From the removed half of the case, remove the gearbox. To remove it from your place, you need to turn the gearbox at the place of landing.

Battery with a fixing button

Since the screwdriver is wireless and wired, the power supply system is different in them. A wireless screwdriver has a built.In battery, which is a device with built.In external contacts for electricity transmission. The main element of the battery is its power supplies connected in series. Otherwise they are called banks sample in the photo.

HOWO. Assembly transmission g1S119. Chapter 1

It also provides a thermostat that protects the battery from overheating when charging. The battery is a removable device, since as the resource is developed, it must be replaced. The battery is attached to the screwdriver with a fixing button, which in some models is on the side, and in others. In front. Contact plates connecting to the battery and provide power supply departure from the handle.

How to correctly disassemble the gearbox?

The action of the impact mechanism of the perforator is based on the transmission of the rotational movement emanating from the engine to the cartridge. A professional employee will be able to carry out high.Quality repairs, who will not harm the device and his own health, which will be safe due to his work experience.

To correctly disassemble the screwdriver of any model, detailed knowledge about their design will be required. The main details of the planetary reducer are the following elements:

Details and nodes can consist of plastic or metal. In the process of disassembling the gearbox, the cartridge is eliminated from it due to the spring that controls the degree of compression. A cone is installed behind the cartridge, which is a rotary. The spring coming from the cartridge takes pressure on the balls in the case. From balls, the pressure goes to the gearbox. When disassembled, they spill up, so you should disassemble on a purified surface so that no part is lost.

The ring gear has rotating satellites inside that drive the solar gear of the engine. Drive a punch has lower speed than its engine. The first drive transfers by rotating the solar gear torque to the second. This allows you to reduce the speed of the second water associated with the shaft of the cartridge. The work of a three.Stage reducer is similar, but with the addition of an additional planetary mechanism.

In any case, the sequence of disassembling the screwdriver gearbox includes the following steps:

  • Removing the cartridge.
  • Scrolling the body.
  • Disconnecting the gearbox from the engine.
  • Removing the plate.
  • Removal of all parts from the corps.
  • Twisting all the bolts that connect both halves of the gearbox.
  • Correction of the diameter of the spring using pliers in a lower direction in order to improve the inclusion of the transmission.
  • Analysis of the coupling by removing the locking ring, washers, bulk bearing.
  • Removing the shaft.

The reducer device consists of three gears taking rotation from the central gear of the engine shaft, as shown in the rice. One. The outer sleeve is brought into rotation due to the existing rifled teeth, hooked with the help of gear, which belong to the first and second steps of reduction.

The perforator device is equipped with a mechanism of critical loads, which has a disk with a certain number of holes. They are drilled so that they can insert spring.Loaded fingers that have ends, hardened due to high.Frequency current. This design has a hardened edge of the sleeve, which belongs to the gearbox.

The sleeve has recesses made specifically under the fingers of the first disk. The finger mechanism is regulated with the usual tightening and unscrewing of the thread thread, which is associated with the strengthening or compression of the springs of this mechanism. Excessive force is associated with pulling the fingers of the fingers, so the process of rotation of the cartridge in the gearbox mechanism stops.

gearbox, screwdriver, works

Makita screwdriver device

Makita screwdriver is a rather simple design, which consists of several main parts:

In some models, additional devices can be added, but the main components remain unchanged.

Inside the Makita screwdriver is quite simple. From the point of connection of the battery connection, the wires pass to the speed switch, as well as to the start button, with which there are contacts to the engine. The front of the engine is inserted into a gearbox, which consists of a set of gears of different configurations. The composition of the set depends on the number of speeds or operating modes of the screwdriver. The modes are switched using a special controller, which is displayed.

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In the gearbox, toothed wheels with external teeth work in close connection with the housing itself, in which the teeth are located inside. And if in some parts of the teeth made of metal, then the plastic case itself includes plastic teeth. It is not surprising that such a structure wears out and destroys over time.

The device of the screwdriver

We continue a series of articles on electrical appliances, their device and work principles. And today we want to tell you about a screwdriver. This tool is in almost every household. And this is not surprising, because the screwdriver has a fairly wide application. He will help to make minor repairs in the house, “nail” the shelf, etc.D. Therefore, many are wondering what the scheme of the screwdriver. About how the screwdriver works and how it works, we will tell you on the example of the battery screwdriver “Stavr”.

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The design of the battery screwdriver includes three main elements: a fast.Packed cartridge, a screwdriver case (with an electric motor, gearbox and a tightening moment) and battery.

One. The screwdriver is the main part of the product, consists of the following parts and nodes:

  • The body of the screwdriver made of high.Strength plastic;
  • Switch button (trigger);
  • The reversal switch button necessary to change the direction of rotation of the cartridge;
  • LED that performs the function of illuminating the working area;
  • Speed switch (speed range);
  • Switch-restraint of torque of tightening (the so-called ratchet);
  • Contact plates for connecting power from the battery;
  • Revolutionary and reverse number control unit. The speed number is regulated by the SHIM controller and the key of the N-channel field transistor, as well as a variable resistor. For reverse, transodification contact is used, the switching of which is carried out using the mechanical effect of the reducing button;
  • DC electric motor, which includes:
  • A stator, presented in the form of a cylindrical body, inside which constant magnets are placed in a circle;
  • The rotor is a shaft on which it is mounted:
  • The core made of plates of electrical steel, in the grooves of which windings from enameled copper wire are laid;
  • Collector;
  • Brushes;
  • Impeller;
  • Front and rear bearings;
  • The leading sun gear is also pressed on the anchor shaft.
  • The first stage consists of:
  • Sunny gear;
  • Motionless crown gear;
  • Satellites;
  • And also drove gear.
  • The second step (transitional) consists of:
  • Planetary gear, moved by mechanical exposure to the bracket on the first and second row of the gear of the gearbox, which is the gear of a two.Speed screwdriver;
  • Satellites;
  • Drove.
  • Crown gear with protrusions at the end.
  • Satellites;
  • Drove with x-shaped capture.
  • The clutch of the tightening moment, consisting of balls and cylinders installed in the corresponding recesses of the case, washers, springs, as well as an adjusting sleeve;
  • Shaft;
  • The mechanism of blocking the shaft consisting of an external and internal housing and blocking rollers installed between them;

Fast.Sounding cartridge, which ensures fixing various nozzles; Presented in the form of a clip, clamping sleeve and movable sponges.

The battery for a screwdriver consists of:

  • Housings made of high.Strength plastic;
  • External contacts for the transmission of electricity from the elements of the battery and thermal contact for protection against overheating during charging;
  • Battery buttons-fixers;
  • Set of nutrition elements connected in series.

We talked about the device of the battery screwdriver. You can also watch a video in which all structural elements are clearly demonstrated. In the next article you will learn the principle of the operation of this tool.

Gearbox and its components

The engine for the screw vertone is made standardly: inside the cylinder, the anchor is located on special supports, in the grooves of which there are windings with high magnetic permeability. They are connected to collector plates. The anchor is made of steel and brushes of steel and graphite, which are pressed to the anchor using spring.Loaded plates. This is the most primitive engine diagram.

The device of the screwdriver gearbox (screw.Vert) is as follows: it consists of a small number of parts and is made in a separate case. The whole list of details is the gear, namely cylindrical conical and worm, drive and satellites. For domestic use, these gears or part of them are made of plastic. This means that they will not be able to withstand a high uninterrupted load, although they are quite suitable for household purposes.

Standard device of the screwdriver gearbox

For professional use, it is imperative to make parts of a metal gearbox, which allows you to withstand a long.Term enhanced load.This node requires constant care, that is, lubrication, replacement of worn parts. The difference between planetary gearboxes is that they are both two.Stage and three.Speed. The number of details in the device itself also depends on this. But each company makes these nodes in its own way, using both its experience and its developments. This differs in models of screwdrivers from one another.

How to fix the screwdriver button if it does not work. Detailed instructions

You will need the following tools for the diagnosis and repair of the screwdriver:

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As a result of the active use of any power tool, dirt inevitably accumulates inside his body.

  • Disassemble the tool case. To do this, disconnect the battery, unscrew all the screws (they can be hidden behind the decorative plates that need to be removed).
  • Check the operability of the motor. To do this, disconnect the two power wires from the control unit and connect them to the battery contacts (the engine should work).
  • Disassemble the screwdriver button. To do this, squeeze the plastic latches and disconnect the two parts of the button case.
  • We perform a visual inspection of the button for pollution and damage.
  • Next, you need to carefully assemble the screwdriver button, reinstall and test.

If cleaning the control unit does not work, you must replace the entire buttons block.

  • Disassemble the screwdriver (the process is described above);
  • Install a new button on the old one;
  • Connect the engine to the terminals of the button (in this case, polarity is not required);
  • Gather a screwdriver, gently placing the wire into the case.

It is very important to choose a button for a specific screwdriver model, because with all external similarities and visual accordance, the part may not be placed in the grooves. As a rule, new buttons are sold complete with battery terminals and transistor.

Clutch for regulation of rotation

Charger scheme for a screwdriver.

The coupling to regulate the torque ensures the cessation of rotation at the end of screwing the screw, since it is accompanied by an increase in the resistance of rotation. Such a mechanism is necessary to exclude the breakdown of the threaded part of the screw and the breakdown of the tool itself from the overload. The design includes the following elements: stop, washer, spring, a threading sleeve control.

The mechanism is combined with the elements of the cartridge. When an excessive force appears, the spring transfers the load to the fingers (balls), which, in turn, affect the cartridge sleeve.

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The ratchet slip and the cessation of the transmission of rotational force to the cartridge. The force in which the rotation of the cartridge stops can be installed using the regulator.

Different structures provide for the regulation of the magnitude of the maximum moment within 8-25 provisions.

Some tool designs include additional adjustments for the convenience of operation. This can be installed by the control regulator of the rotation speed so as not to create excessive rotation when pressing the button. Impulse converter allows you to install the following ranges: 0-450 rpm (work with screws), 0-1250 rpm (drill mode). May provide 3 or 4 different range.

Quite often, forced spindle braking is used to restrict the spindle departure when you press the button. Braking is ensured by close the engine winding per resistor of a small size.

The device of the screwdriver of almost all known brands has much in common. Many developers use universal design principles, which helps easily deal with the structure of the tool, and if necessary, to assemble it and disassemble.

Someone, tell me where you can see the kinematic diagram of the gearbox ACCAMAMAMARTERS from the intercala Da-14.4er.

The gearbox goes as one detail and changes entirely.

Then, maybe you can say in what sequence the indicated parts are installed in the gearbox body? Cm.A photo.

Wow, there are 5 gears in one of the steps, previously disassembled green Bosch, Makita, Enhel, Topex, but this did not see this!

3rd detail, in my opinion, judging by the diameter, goes the first from the side of the sliding gear of the engine, the second is closer to the 1st, but the ring with 4 protrusions? I have not seen this before! In any case, if part 1 was not versed or collected correctly, then I think in diameters of single gears on the back of parts 2 and 3 you can definitely calculate which of them is suitable for installation in part 1, and part 4 is the upper one, probably, probably. And probably symmetrical, that is, you can try to put it with. Yes there in detail 1 and slots are visible under 4 protrusions of details 4. Photos with a larger diaphragm and therefore the depth of sharpness would be better, otherwise not all details were in FOCUS due to different heights.

Most often the gearbox fails with prolonged work under a large load. The most common breakdown is the curvature of the main shaft with the cartridge. With such a malfunction, the device begins to vibrate the hands strongly.

Another breakdown is the wear of the shaft bearing with a cartridge or a support sleeve. If only a bearing or a sleeve is deformed, and the shaft remained in the same condition, then the repair of the screwdriver gearbox with your own hands is only in replacing the worn element.

If when the screwdriver is turned on, the engine starts for a second, and then stops abruptly, then the problem lies in the gearbox. In such a situation, the pin is most often out of order, due to which satellite cannot transfer the momentum to the main shaft. In this case, the installation of a new drill will help. If the drive is also damaged, then you need to change the whole gearbox. Gear teeth also affect the gearbox work. If the device will work with worn gears for a long time, then most details that relate to the device of the screwdriver gearbox can lead to unusable.

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The device of the screwdriver

A simplified device of the battery screwdriver is as follows: DC engine, speed control, planetary gearbox, load restriction mechanism and battery. Additional devices for screwdriver are a network charger and a spare battery.

Screwdriver device: 1. Revolution regulator with reverse, 2. Electric motor, 3. Gearbox.

Screwdriver device: 1. Revolutions regulator, 2. Reverse, 3. Transistor of the revolution regulator screwed to the radiator, 4. Electric motor, 5. Gearbox.

DC motor made in the form of a cylinder, in which constant magnets are located in the case in a circle. The anchor of the engine is located on the sleeves-strokes made of brass. The anchor itself is made of electrical steel with high magnetic permeability. Windings from isolated copper wire are laid in the grooves of the anchor. By an equal number of turns, the winding has access to collector plates. The leading gear is pressed on the anchor shaft (sunny). The engine brushes touch the collector plates on the “tail” anchor. For reliable contact, the brushes are loaded, while isolated from the engine body. According to the scheme of a screwdriver, the voltage is supplied only to the brushes. If we change the polarity of the voltage engine supplied to brushes, then the direction of rotation will also change.

Engine with solar gear (from above) and planetary gearbox (below)

Planetary reductor screwdriver is made in a separate building. The reducer includes the following elements: a ring gear, a sunny gear (pressed on an anchor shaft), satellite and drive. Reducer details can be made from plastic and metal. For a more complete presentation of the reducer, it is necessary to clarify the location of individual parts.

Simple Homemade Screwdriver. DIY Electric Screwdriver

Planetary gearbox: 1. Ring gear, 2. Satellite, 3. Pin drive.

The ring gear is a cylinder, inside which teeth are located along the entire circle, along which satellite moves during operation. Satellites are installed on the pin. Between the satellites of the first drive, the drive gear of the engine comes in (the first sunny). The first drive on the opposite side of the satellites has a drive gear (second sunny), which when assembly enters between the satellites of the second drove.

The second drive with satellites

If the gearbox is two.Stage, the second drive is strictly connected with the shaft to which the cartridge is attached. Thus, a peculiar “sandwich” of two was obtained with satellites. This “sandwich” is located inside the ring gear.

The ring gear is rigidly attached in the case with protrusions at its end or on the sides. The protrusions rest against the protruding balls, spring.Loaded with an elastic ring throughout the circumference. The ring, in turn, is overloaded with a spring of the load restriction mechanism. The force of the spring may vary depending on the position of the load regulator.

Protrusions at the end of the ring gear

Balls fixing the ring gear

The operation of the gearbox is as follows: the solar gear of the engine rotates the satellite in the circle of the ring gear, respectively, the drive rotates at a lower speed than the engine speed. The first drive passes the torque through its solar gear to the second trinity of satellites, which also rotate in the circle of a ring gear, which means the revolutions of the second drive are reduced even more. The second drive, as mentioned above, is connected to the shaft of the cartridge. This happens in a two.Stage gearbox. There are models of screwdrivers with three.Stage gearboxes, they introduce another planetary mechanism into their gearbox. At the end of the article there is a video showing the work of a planetary gearbox.

Three.Stage planetary gearbox screwdrivers

Three.Stage planetary gearbox screwdrivers

There are models of screwdrivers and with a conventional gearbox.

Screwdriver with a conventional gearbox

For convenience in the work, some screwdrivers have two.Speed gearboxes. The first speed is intended for twisting screws (0-450 rpm and increased torque), and the second for work on drilling holes (0-1400 rpm).

When the cartridge is rotated under load, there comes a moment when a greater force is needed to perform work, for example, the last stage of twisting the screw, or when it is necessary to limit the force. The load regulator enters the work. The efforts of the regulator spring are not enough to hold the ring gear and it “breaks” from the balls. It turns out that the engine begins to rotate the ring gear, while the characteristic clicks are heard, while the cartridge stops at this time. To use a screwdriver in drilling mode, the ring gear is blocked and its rotation is excluded.

Revolution regulator Assembled on the basis of Shim controller and key n-channel field transistor. Controls the operation of the controller variable resistor, the position of which depends on the effort of pressing the power button (trigger).

Reverse boils only to a change in the polarity of the voltage supplied to the engine brush. For this, cross.Line contacts are provided, which are driven by the reversal lever.

The device of the screwdriver

A simplified device of the battery screwdriver is as follows: DC engine, speed control, planetary gearbox, load restriction mechanism and battery. Additional devices for screwdriver are a network charger and a spare battery.

Screwdriver device: 1. Revolution regulator with reverse, 2. Electric motor, 3. Gearbox.

Сцепление. Как оно работает?

Screwdriver device: 1. Revolutions regulator, 2. Reverse, 3. Transistor of the revolution regulator screwed to the radiator, 4. Electric motor, 5. Gearbox.

DC motor made in the form of a cylinder, in which constant magnets are located in the case in a circle. The anchor of the engine is located on the sleeves-strokes made of brass. The anchor itself is made of electrical steel with high magnetic permeability. Windings from isolated copper wire are laid in the grooves of the anchor. By an equal number of turns, the winding has access to collector plates. The leading gear is pressed on the anchor shaft (sunny). The engine brushes touch the collector plates on the “tail” anchor. For reliable contact, the brushes are loaded, while isolated from the engine body. According to the scheme of a screwdriver, the voltage is supplied only to the brushes. If we change the polarity of the voltage engine supplied to brushes, then the direction of rotation will also change.

Engine with solar gear (from above) and planetary gearbox (below)

Planetary reductor screwdriver is made in a separate building. The reducer includes the following elements: a ring gear, a sunny gear (pressed on an anchor shaft), satellite and drive. Reducer details can be made from plastic and metal. For a more complete presentation of the reducer, it is necessary to clarify the location of individual parts.

Planetary gearbox: 1. Ring gear, 2. Satellite, 3. Pin drive.

The ring gear is a cylinder, inside which teeth are located along the entire circle, along which satellite moves during operation. Satellites are installed on the pin. Between the satellites of the first drive, the drive gear of the engine comes in (the first sunny). The first drive on the opposite side of the satellites has a drive gear (second sunny), which when assembly enters between the satellites of the second drove.

The second drive with satellites

If the gearbox is two.Stage, the second drive is strictly connected with the shaft to which the cartridge is attached. Thus, a peculiar “sandwich” of two was obtained with satellites. This “sandwich” is located inside the ring gear.

The ring gear is rigidly attached in the case with protrusions at its end or on the sides. The protrusions rest against the protruding balls, spring.Loaded with an elastic ring throughout the circumference. The ring, in turn, is overloaded with a spring of the load restriction mechanism. The force of the spring may vary depending on the position of the load regulator.

Protrusions at the end of the ring gear

Balls fixing the ring gear

The operation of the gearbox is as follows: the solar gear of the engine rotates the satellite in the circle of the ring gear, respectively, the drive rotates at a lower speed than the engine speed. The first drive passes the torque through its solar gear to the second trinity of satellites, which also rotate in the circle of a ring gear, which means the revolutions of the second drive are reduced even more. The second drive, as mentioned above, is connected to the shaft of the cartridge. This happens in a two.Stage gearbox. There are models of screwdrivers with three.Stage gearboxes, they introduce another planetary mechanism into their gearbox. At the end of the article there is a video showing the work of a planetary gearbox.

Three.Stage planetary gearbox screwdrivers

Three.Stage planetary gearbox screwdrivers

gearbox, screwdriver, works

There are models of screwdrivers and with a conventional gearbox.

Screwdriver with a conventional gearbox

For convenience in the work, some screwdrivers have two.Speed gearboxes. The first speed is intended for twisting screws (0-450 rpm and increased torque), and the second for work on drilling holes (0-1400 rpm).

When the cartridge is rotated under load, there comes a moment when a greater force is needed to perform work, for example, the last stage of twisting the screw, or when it is necessary to limit the force. The load regulator enters the work. The efforts of the regulator spring are not enough to hold the ring gear and it “breaks” from the balls. It turns out that the engine begins to rotate the ring gear, while the characteristic clicks are heard, while the cartridge stops at this time. To use a screwdriver in drilling mode, the ring gear is blocked and its rotation is excluded.

Revolution regulator Assembled on the basis of Shim controller and key n-channel field transistor. Controls the operation of the controller variable resistor, the position of which depends on the effort of pressing the power button (trigger).

Reverse boils only to a change in the polarity of the voltage supplied to the engine brush. For this, cross.Line contacts are provided, which are driven by the reversal lever.