How Much Does The Battery Of A 12 Volt Screwdriver Charge

Charging a Lithium Ion Battery Correctly A lithium ion charger is very similar to a lead acid charger, except that Li-ion batteries have significantly higher voltages per cell and tighter voltage tolerances.

Do not overcharge and completely discharge the battery.

Given the chemical nature of lithium batteries, it is highly discouraged to either completely discharge or overcharge such batteries.

As you know, li-ion batteries have no memory effect at all, therefore it is recommended to discharge the battery to 10-20% and charge up to 80-90, so as not to damage the chemical system of the cell.

And it means a certain loss of battery capacity after an incorrect charging mode, in particular, recharging with an incompletely discharged battery. Simply put, Ni-Cd cannot be charged before it is discharged to an acceptably low level. Violating this rule, the capacity of the nickel-cadmium battery decreases slightly.

Lithium-ion batteries, it is better to start charging without waiting for their full discharge. Thus, the battery life can be significantly extended.

The above rule only applies to unprotected batteries. Protected lithium batteries do not suffer from overcharging or undercharging. Built-in protection board, cuts off excessive voltage (more than 3.7 volts per cell) when charging and disconnects the battery if the charge level drops to minimum, usually 2.4 volts.

How to properly charge a polymer battery

Lithium polymer differs from a lithium-ion battery only in the consistency of the electrolyte. Read more here. Otherwise, the lithium polymer lends itself to the same rules as the lithium-ion battery.

Li-Ion battery does not like cold and heat.

The optimum temperature for lithium batteries is between 10C and 25C. Li-ion batteries are sensitive to large temperature fluctuations. At negative temperatures, the battery life is greatly reduced, chem. The element’s system can be severely damaged and even destroyed. Surely, you have noticed how the charge of a mobile phone sharply begins to strive to a minimum in the cold, although earlier, in warmth, the charge was full.

It should be noted that lithium-ion batteries are very unpretentious. With proper care, they will live from 3 to 5 years of serviceable service to the owner. You also need to know that such batteries have their own lifespan from the date of production, which means that buying spare batteries in advance is not always a good idea. It is generally considered normal to buy lithium-ion batteries no later than 2 years after production.

About the capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Banks of the most common 18650 format can have a real capacity of up to 3500 mAh. At a price of at least 3-4 dollars per piece. Batteries with a capacity of 9900 mAh at the price of 2 each. This is at least ridiculous. In reality there will be 3000 mAh. If you’re lucky.

Brand versus Noname

A few words should be said about the manufacturers of lithium-ion batteries.

Almost all batteries have a name (Brand of the manufacturer), but it could be Panasonic, in which the real capacity will be less than 50 mAh from 3000 mAh, or some kind of HunXunProduction, which lacks 1900 mAh from 3000 mAh. And this is not funny, but real numbers.

So, the normal (honest) brands among batteries without protection are:

  • Panasonic,
  • Sony,
  • Sanyo,
  • Samsung,
  • LG,
How Much Does The Battery Of A 12 Volt Screwdriver Charge

On the contrary, brands such as:

  • UltraFire,
  • SingFire,
  • Bailong,
  • TrastFire

Have far from the exact indicated capacity, but they are 2 3 times cheaper.

Among worthy installers of protection for lithium-ion, it is worth noting:

  • Keeppower;
  • Efest;
  • Nitecore

And please do not flatter yourself on the low price and battery cans in transparent thermal shrinkage. From experience, I can say that in this version, mainly original banks are used, but completely useless protection boards.

Related entries:

Charging the lithium-ion battery correctly

The lithium ion battery charger is very similar to the lead acid charger, with the only exception that Li-ion batteries have significantly higher voltages per cell and tighter voltage tolerance requirements.

At a time when for lead-acid batteries some inaccuracies in setting the boundary voltages during charging are possible, with lithium-ion batteries everything is much tougher. During charging, when the voltage on the cell rises to 4.2 volts, the voltage supply to the battery must be stopped. The allowed voltage tolerance is only 0.05 volts.

The average lithium-ion battery takes about 3 hours to charge. However, the exact charging time still depends on the capacity of the battery.

So here are a few basic rules, using which you can extend the life of a li-ion battery at times.

Features of charging screwdriver batteries

Charger circuit for a screwdriver.

A very important point is the first charging of the screwdriver, since it depends on it whether the full charge capacity will be activated. Each type of battery has its own characteristics of primary charging. The biggest challenge is charging nickel-cadmium options. Their first recharging should be three times so that the entire charge capacity is filled. Thus, after the purchase, the unit must be fully charged, then turned on and left to work until it is completely discharged, then you need to put it back on to recharge and discharge again, and so on 3 times.

For the first time, the nickel-metal hydride version should be completely discharged immediately, because, as a rule, such a battery has a small charge upon purchase, after which you need to leave it to fully charge. Recharge this type of battery only after it has been completely discharged. The full charge-discharge cycle should be considered the first 4-5 times, after which you can additionally recharge the batteries, even if they are not completely discharged.

Table of characteristics of screwdrivers.

Lithium-ion batteries are more modern, so there are no special requirements for recharging them, since their capacity does not decrease in any case.

During the first and subsequent recharging, it should be borne in mind that the most optimal recharging effect can be achieved only if this process takes place at a temperature of 10 to 30C. Among other things, it should be noted that when charging, some types of batteries may begin to heat up, which can have an extremely negative effect on the entire battery. Do not allow the entire battery to overheat above 50C. It is best to store the battery separately from the screwdriver after work, although this is not necessary.

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Screwdrivers have long been invariably popular not only among professional builders, but also among ordinary people, because these units are indispensable when you need to screw something or, conversely, untwist it. The versatility of screwdrivers is the main reason for the popularity of these units, both in everyday life and in large construction, but all users of these units have a lot of difficulties when it comes to recharging the batteries with which most screwdriver models are equipped.

Diagram of the structure of the screwdriver.

The thing is that with incorrect charging, a so-called memory effect appears, that is, under certain conditions, the charge capacity may decrease, and in the future the unit will be discharged less completely. As a rule, this effect occurs when a person tries to recharge an incompletely discharged screwdriver battery. Proper charging of screwdriver batteries has a lot of subtleties, so it is very important to consider all aspects of this matter so that the screwdriver retains its functionality and performance for a long time.

Main types of screwdriver batteries

Screwdriver batteries: lithium Li-Ion, nickel-cadmium Ni-Cd, nickel-metal hydride Ni-MH.

Manufacturers of screwdrivers use different batteries in the production of their units, which have their own characteristics of operation and, accordingly, charging. In order for the screwdriver to work without failures for a long time, it is very important to carefully read the instructions that come with it. It should be noted that different screwdrivers differ in many parameters, including price, quality and power, therefore all screwdrivers are divided into semi-professional and professional. Accordingly, the batteries that are installed by the manufacturer also differ in price, quality and, most importantly, in charge capacity.

In professional models, which are more expensive, as a rule, batteries with a larger capacity are installed, so they can work without recharging for a much longer period of time. Most professional builders have a spare, pre-charged battery for uninterrupted work, but if the screwdriver is designed to perform simple housework, it is not necessary to have a second battery, although in some cases an additional screwdriver battery is included with the unit. There are 3 main types of batteries that are most often used in screwdrivers:

  • Lithium-ion;
  • Nickel-cadmium;
  • Nickel metal hydride.

Screwdriver battery connection diagram.

The most widely used today are nickel-cadmium batteries for screwdrivers. This type is distinguished by its rather compact size, relatively low cost and large charge capacity. The main drawback of these batteries is the same memory effect, but with proper use and recharging, batteries of this type can be recharged more than 1000 times, although it should be noted that even with proper use, the charge capacity will gradually decrease until it reaches a minimum. Among other things, it should be noted that such a battery contains highly toxic substances, therefore their production is significantly harmful to the environment, which has become the reason for their ban in many countries.

Nickel-metal hydride batteries are in second place in terms of frequency of use. Batteries of this type belong to a new generation, as they are completely safe for the environment. This type has a lot of advantages, the main of which is the absence of a memory effect. However, it is worth noting that they have a high self-charging current, and these batteries should be stored exclusively in a charged form, and if the screwdriver is not used for a month, it is necessary to discharge the device and recharge it again.

Lithium-ion batteries are a relatively new product in the market for these products. They have no memory effect, so they do not require recharging cycles to restore their charge capacity. It takes a very small amount of time to fully recharge these batteries, and the capacity of these funds is quite high. However, these batteries also have disadvantages, including reduced performance in cold weather and a rather high cost.

How long does it take to charge the screwdrivers?

Battery composition.

Important issues regarding charging screwdriver batteries include the time it takes to fully charge the battery. Many people think that charging a screwdriver battery is worth until it heats up, but in fact this is a sure way to reduce the charge capacity and performance of the entire unit. It should be said right away that at present there are hundreds of types of screwdrivers and no less number of batteries, so it is very important to read the instructions that come with a specific unit, because in one case 30 minutes will be enough for charging, while in the other for a full charging will take more than 2 hours.

Many types of batteries have an indication system, that is, there are 2 LEDs on the upper instrument panel, usually red and green. These LEDs let you know exactly when charging is complete. However, even if the indicator is present, it is necessary to disconnect the batteries from the mains in time, since a long stay in the connected state after recharging can damage the battery.

In addition, considering the duration of charging, you need to immediately notice that there are 2 main types of chargers, and it depends on which type is attached in the kit with the screwdriver how long the charging process will take.

Charge modes

The nominal voltage of the Ni-Cd cell is 1.2 V. The nickel-cadmium battery is charged with a current from 0.1 to 1.0 of the nominal capacity. This means that a 5 amp-hour battery can be charged with a current of 0.5 to 5 A.

The charge of sulfuric acid batteries is well known to all people holding a screwdriver in their hands, because almost every of them is also a motorist. The nominal voltage of the Pb-PbO2 cell is 2.0 V, and the charging current of the lead sulfuric acid battery is always 0.1 C (current fraction of the nominal capacity, see above).

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The lithium-ion cell has a nominal voltage of 3.3 V. The charging current of the lithium-ion battery is 0.1 C. At room temperature, this current can be gradually increased to 1.0 C. This is a fast charge. However, this is only suitable for those batteries that have not been over-discharged. When charging lithium-ion batteries, be sure to observe the voltage exactly. The charge is made up to 4.2 V exactly. Exceeding dramatically reduces the service life, decreasing the capacity. Watch the temperature when charging. A warm battery should either be limited to a current of 0.1 C, or turned off before it cools down.

ATTENTION! If the lithium-ion battery overheats when charged over 60 degrees Celsius, it may explode and catch fire! Do not rely too much on the built-in safety electronics (charge controller).

When charging a lithium battery, the control voltage (end-of-charge voltage) forms an approximate series (the exact voltages depend on the specific technology and are indicated in the passport for the battery and on its case):

Number of elements Denomination e.G. B According to the passport, B End of charge, V
1 3.6 3.6 4.2
2 7.2 7 8.4
3 10.8 ten 12.6
4 14.4 12 16.8
five 18 18 21.0

The charge voltage should be monitored with a multimeter or circuit with a voltage comparator tuned to the exact battery being used. But for “entry-level electronics engineers”, you can really only offer a simple and reliable scheme, described in the next section.

Battery types

Batteries are not the same in type and charge modes may be different. Nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries are a very good source of energy, capable of delivering high power. However, for environmental reasons, their production has ceased and they will be encountered less and less. Now they have been superseded by lithium-ion batteries everywhere.

Sulfuric acid (Pb) lead gel batteries have good characteristics, but they make the tool heavier and therefore are not very popular, despite the relative cheapness. Since they are gelatinous (a solution of sulfuric acid is thickened with sodium silicate), there are no plugs in them, the electrolyte does not flow out of them and they can be used in any position. (By the way, nickel-cadmium batteries for screwdrivers also belong to the gel class.)

Lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion) are now the most promising and advanced in technology and on the market. Their feature is the complete tightness of the cell. They have a very high power density, are safe to use (thanks to the built-in charge controller!), Are beneficially disposed of, are the most environmentally friendly, and have low weight. In screwdrivers, they are currently used very often.

How to make a charger for a screwdriver?

Often, the native charger that comes with the screwdriver works slowly, taking a long time to charge the battery. For those who use a screwdriver intensively, this is very interfering with their work. Despite the fact that the kit usually includes two batteries (one is installed in the handle of the tool and in operation, and the other is connected to the charger and is in the process of charging), often the owners cannot adapt to the duty cycle of the batteries. Then it makes sense to make a charger with your own hands and charging will become more convenient.

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Charger ()

The charger below will provide the correct charging current for any of the listed batteries. The screwdrivers are powered by batteries with different voltages of 12 volts or 18 volts. It does not matter, the main parameter of the battery charger is the charge current. The voltage of the charger when the load is disconnected is always higher than the rated voltage, it drops to normal when the battery is connected while charging. During charging, it corresponds to the current state of the battery and is usually slightly higher than the nominal at the end of charging.

The charger is a current generator based on a powerful composite transistor VT2, which is powered by a rectifier bridge connected to a step-down transformer with sufficient output voltage (see the table in the previous section).

This transformer must also have sufficient power to provide the required current for continuous operation without overheating the windings. Otherwise, it may burn out. The charge current is set by adjusting the resistor R1 with the battery connected. It remains constant during charging (the more constant the higher the voltage from the transformer. Note: the voltage from the transformer should not exceed 27 V).

Resistor R3 (at least 2 W 1 Ohm) limits the maximum current, and the VD6 LED is on while charging. By the end of the charge, the LED light decreases and it goes out. However, do not forget to accurately monitor the voltage and temperature of lithium-ion batteries!

All details in the described scheme are mounted on a printed circuit board made of foil-coated PCB. Instead of the diodes indicated in the diagram, you can take the Russian diodes KD202 or D242, they are quite available in the old electronic scrap. It is necessary to arrange the parts so that there are as few intersections as possible on the board, ideally none. You should not get carried away with the high density of installation, because you are not assembling a smartphone. It will be much easier for you to solder the parts if 3-5 mm remain between them.

The transistor must be installed on a heat sink of sufficient area (20-50 cm2). All parts of the charger are best mounted in a handy homemade case. This will be the most practical solution; nothing will interfere with your work. But here great difficulties can arise with the terminals and connection to the battery. Therefore, it is better to do this: take an old or faulty charger from a friend, suitable for your battery model, and rework it.

  • Open the case of the old charger.
  • Remove all the former filling from it.
  • Pick up the following radioelements:
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Pos. Description
VD1-VD4 1N4001 rectifier diode
VD5 diode
VD6 VD6 LED, red or green, any type
C1 C1 K50-35 or similar 220-1000 mF from 50 V
C2 C1 K50-35 or similar 220-1000 mF from 50 V
R1 variable resistor 10 kohm, preferably wirewound
R2 resistor MLT-0.25 330 Ohm
R3 resistor MLT-2, 1 Ohm
VT1 transistor KT361V, G
VT2 transistor KT829V (installed on a radiator square 20 50 sq. Cm
T1 Power transformer 220 V / 24 V, power 100 W
  • Choose a suitable size for a printed circuit board that fits into the case along with the details from the given diagram, draw with nitro paint its tracks according to the schematic diagram, etch in copper sulfate and unsolder all the parts. The heat sink for the transistor must be installed on an aluminum plate so that it does not touch any part of the circuit. The transistor itself is tightly screwed to it with a screw and an M3 nut.
  • Assemble the board in the case and solder the terminals according to the scheme, strictly observing the polarity. Lead out the wire for the transformer.
  • Install the transformer with a 0.5 A fuse in a small suitable housing and provide a separate connector for connecting the converted charging unit. It is best to take connectors from computer power supplies, install dad in a case with a transformer, and connect mom to the bridge diodes in the charger.

The assembled device will work reliably if you have carefully and carefully performed

Replacement battery for Makita screwdriver

Battery appearance. Looks like the original, glossy plastic, high quality casting. If not for the new species, I would have thought it was the original. Well done. The only thing that catches your eye is another sticker that is not branded. And under the sticker there are screws, the original is more difficult to disassemble
Compare with the original sticker (original: 1222 cadmium 2.0Ah) The old battery is already well-worn, has worked well, the sticker will not rub off or wash. The black cross on it seems to hint)))) Battery marking: 3.0Ah, NiMH. The old one was at 2.0Ah and NiCd. This is a big plus, I hope it will be positive in my work. By the way, the old one has been working for 15 minutes, then back to the base.

Like any Chinese device, it is better to disassemble it before turning it on. So to speak, beware of possible problems.
To disassemble, peel off the sticker and unscrew three four screws. It happened before. Gently pull out the case, the cells and contacts of the battery open.
The thermal sensor is clearly visible on the graph
The battery assembly makes a positive impression, the package of cells is monolithic. Above is a plastic contact holder. Here is the labeling of the cells used Ni-MH SCI2017-B.
By the way, the cells are welded with a tape qualitatively, the block seems to be monolithic, does not dangle, drips, traces of rust, no flux.
It happens worse))) Basically satisfied. Plus and minus in place, as shown by the tester. I still trust him)))).
The verdict can be included.
And that’s what has been done.
Two batteries side by side. Weathered and new (left dirty old, right shiny new)

I screwed a couple of self-tapping screws very well, good torque. The battery is fresh, and asks for work. By the way, it was almost fully charged.

I drove a little screwdriver until the battery was discharged. A total of about 4 hours of OSB / plywood sheathing work. For comparison, the old battery lasted 18 minutes, the second battery from the kit no longer pulls such work.

P.S. I have been using the battery for over a month now. So far, no minuses have been identified. After a while I will try to do the capacity test again and compare. And I will try to sort out one old battery for lithium cells. It turned out all the same cheaper than offline.

12V 3000mAh Ni-MH battery is a replacement for original series batteries:
1220 1222 1233S 1233SA 1233SB 1235A 192598-2 192681-5 193981-6 638347-8 638347-8-2 PA12
Compatible screwdriver models:
Makita 1050 Series
Makita 1050D, Makita 1050DA, Makita 1050DRA, Makita 1050DWA, Makita 1050DWD

Makita 4000 Series
Makita 4013D, Makita 4191D, Makita 4191DWA, Makita 4191DZ
Makita 4331D, Makita 4331DWAE, Makita 4331DWD, Makita 4331DWDE, Makita 4331DZ

Makita 5000 Series
Makita 5093DWD, Makita 5093DZ, Makita 5093D, Makita 5093DWA

Makita 6200 Series
Makita 6213D, Makita 6213DWAE, Makita 6213DWBE
Makita 6216D, Makita 6216DWBE, Makita 6216DWDE
Makita 6217D, Makita 6217DWDE, Makita 6217DWDLE
Makita 6223D, Makita 6223DE, Makita 6223DW, Makita 6223D, Makita 6223DW, Makita 6223DWE
Makita 6227D, Makita 6227DW Makita 6227DWBE, Makita 6227DWE, Makita 6227DWLE
Makita 6270D, Makita 6270DWAE, Makita 6270DWLE, Makita 6270DWALE, Makita 6270DWE, Makita 6270DWPE
Makita 6271D, Makita 6271DWAE, Makita 6271DWE, Makita 6271DWPE, Makita 6271DWPLE

Makita 6300 Series
Makita 6313D, Makita 6313DA, Makita 6313DWAE, Makita 6313DWBE
Makita 6314DWBE, Makita 6316D, Makita 6316DWA, Makita 6316DWAE, Makita 6316DWB, Makita 6316DWBE
Makita 6317D, Makita 6317DWAE, Makita 6317DWDE, Makita 6317DWDRE, Makita 6317DWFE
Makita 6319D, Makita 6319DWFE, Makita 6327DWE

Makita 6800 Series
Makita 6835D, Makita 6835DA, Makita 6835DWA, Makita 6835DWAE, Makita 6835DWB, Makita 6835DWD

Makita 6900 Series
Makita 6914D, Makita 6914DWDE
Makita 6916D, Makita 6916DWDE, Makita 6916FDWDE, Makita 6916FDWDE1
Makita 6917D, Makita 6917DWDE
Makita 6918D, Makita 6918DWA, Makita 6918DWAE, Makita 6918DWD
Makita 6918DWDE, Makita 6918DWF, Makita 6918DWFE, Makita 6918FDWDE
Makita 6980FD, Makita 6980FDWDE

Makita 8200 Series
Makita 8270DWAE, Makita 8270DWALE

Makita 8400 Series
Makita 8413D, Makita 8413DWAE, Makita 8413DWDE
Makita 8413DWFE, Makita 8414DWFE

Makita DA Series
Makita DA312D, Makita DA312DWA, Makita DA312DWD
Makita DA312DWF, Makita DA312DZ, Makita ML120, Makita ML121 (Head Lamp)

Makita ML Series
Makita ML120, Makita ML121 (Head Lamp)
Makita ML122, ML123 (Fluorescent Automotive Light)
Makita ML124

Makita UB Series
Makita UB120D, Makita UB120DWA, Makita UB120DWB
Makita UB121D, Makita UC120D, Makita UC120DA

Makita UC Series
Makita UC120DR, Makita UC120DRA, Makita UC120DW, Makita UC120DWA
Makita UC120DWAE, Makita UC120DWD, Makita UC170D, Makita UC170DWD

Makita VR Series
Makita VR250D, Makita VR250DA, Makita VR250DWAE, Makita VR251D
Makita VR251DWDE, Makita ML123 (Fluorescent Automotive Light)
Makita SC131D