How much oil to fill the lawn mower

Table of Contents:

Kia Sorento engine oil 2.2, 2.4, 2.5, 3.3, 3.5 how much and what is required?

The Kia Sorento is a midsize SUV made in South Korea. It first debuted in 2002 at the Chicago Auto Show, which confirms the model’s orientation towards the American market. The car was specially equipped with powerful gasoline and diesel engines, including six-cylinder internal combustion engines. The model allowed Kia to seriously gain a foothold in the American market, and at the same time press out its closest competitors. Note that in the Kia lineup, the Sorento crossover is a more compact alternative to the full-size Mohave and, at the same time, is much larger than the Sportage, the “youngest” Kia crossover.

Today, there are three generations of Kia Sorento. The first generation car was produced until 2009. By that time, the second generation Sorento was available, made in accordance with Kia’s new design concept. The car acquired more strict classical forms, but at the same time it remained a crossover without a frame. It was in this generation that a modification appeared for the first time with a new 2.2-liter diesel engine with a capacity of 197 hp. from. This is one of the most popular Kia engines. In addition, the Koreans produced in small batches a hybrid version based on a 1.6-liter gasoline engine. From 2014 to the present, the third generation Kia Sorento is on sale. Its updated version has a Prime prefix in its name.

How much oil is required for Kia Sorento

Consider the oil filling volume for Kia Sorento cars of various generations.

Generation 1 (2002-2009)

  • SAE classification for engine 2.4 139 hp from. (gasoline, mechanics, year of manufacture. 2002-2006). 5W-30, 5W-40.
  • SAE classification for 2.5 140 hp engine. from. (diesel, mechanics / automatic, year of manufacture. 2002-2006). 5W-30.
  • SAE classification for 2.5 170 hp engine. from. (diesel, mechanics / automatic, year of manufacture. 2006-2009). 5W-30.
  • SAE classification for engine 3.3 247 hp from. (gasoline, automatic, year of manufacture. 2006-2009). 5W-20, 5W-30.
  • SAE classification for 3.5 195 hp engine. from. (gasoline, automatic, year of manufacture. 2002-2006). 5W-30, 5W-40.

Generation 2 (2009-2014)

  • For a 2.2 197 hp engine. from. (diesel, mechanics / automatic, year of manufacture. 2009-2014) the required volume of oil is 6.3-6.7 liters.
  • For a 2.4 174 hp engine. from. (gasoline, mechanic / automatic, year of manufacture. 2012-2014) the required volume of oil is 4.6 l.
  • For a 2.4 175 hp engine. from. (gasoline, mechanic / automatic, year of manufacture. 2009-2012) the required volume of oil is 4.6 l.

What oil is required for Kia Sorento

Below is the current information on the characteristics of engine oils for Kia Sorento of different generations.

Generation 2 (2009-2014)

  • SAE classification for a 2.2 197 hp engine. from. (diesel, mechanics / automatic, year of manufacture. 2009-2014). 5W-30, 5W-40.
  • SAE classification for 2.4 174 hp engine. from. (gasoline, mechanics / automatic, year of manufacture. 2012-2014). 5W-20, 5W-30.
  • SAE classification for 2.4 175 hp engine. from. (gasoline, mechanics / automatic, year of manufacture. 2009-2012). 5W-20, 5W-30.

Generation 3 (since 2015)

  • For a 2.2 200 hp engine. from. (diesel, automatic, year of manufacture. since 2015) the required volume of oil is 6.3-6.7 liters.
  • For a 2.4 188 hp engine. from. (gasoline, automatic, year of manufacture. from 2017) the required volume of oil is 4.6 l.
  • For motor 3.3 250 HP from. (gasoline, automatic, year of manufacture. 2015-2018) the required volume of oil is 5.2 liters.
  • For a 3.5 249 hp engine. from. (gasoline, automatic, year of manufacture since 2018) the required oil volume is 6.5 l.

How much oil is required for Toyota Land Cruiser Prado 4

Let’s consider in detail how much oil is needed for the fourth generation Toyota Land Cruiser Prado engines.

What oil is recommended for Toyota Land Cruiser Prado 4

Consider below the optimal parameters of engine oil for the fourth generation Toyota land Cruiser.

Generation 4 (J150, 2009-2017)

  • For a 2.7 163 hp engine. from. (gasoline, mechanics / automatic, year of manufacture. 2011-2017) the required volume of oil is 5.5 liters.
  • For a 2.8 177 hp engine. from. (diesel, automatic, year of manufacture. 2015-2017) the required volume of oil is 7.7 liters.
  • For a 3.0 173 hp engine. from. (diesel, automatic, year of manufacture. 2009-2015) the required volume of oil is 7.0 l.
  • For a 4.0 249 hp engine. from. (gasoline, automatic, year of manufacture. since 2017) the required volume of oil is 5.7 liters.
  • For a 4.0 282 hp engine. from. (gasoline, automatic, year of manufacture. 2009-2017) required oil volume 5.7 l.

Toyota Land Cruiser Prado 150 engine oil 2.7, 2.8, 3.0, 4.0 how much and what is required?

Toyota Land Cruiser Prado 4 (J150) is a Japanese mid-size SUV that represents the fourth generation of the Land Cruiser Prado family. Positioned as an affordable alternative to the older Land Cruiser model. The J150 model has been on the assembly line since 2009. In 2013, production was mastered in the Russian Vladivostok, but in 2015 the assembly was stopped. In 2013. the car was updated, and in 2013 a relatively new 2.8-liter turbodiesel appeared. The next modernization of the Land Cruiser Prado took place in 2017. A Japanese-assembled car is available in Russia at a minimum price of 2 million 412 thousand rubles. The SUV is equipped with a 163-horsepower 2.7-liter gasoline engine, aggregated with a manual transmission. In the initial configuration “Classic” there are airbags (7 pcs.), ESP stabilization, air conditioning, light sensor. The “Standard” version is supplemented with climate control, an audio system, “foglights”, and alloy wheels. They ask for 2 million 709 thousand rubles for this car. With cruise control, a car costs 2 million 811 thousand rubles.

Current minimum. The list of “basic” equipment of a car with this engine includes keyless access to the salon, alarm, assistance when descending or ascending. The Elegance version with the same engine is supplemented with differential locks for the rear wheels, an engine preheater, a rain sensor, heated central glass, LED headlights and a heated steering wheel. Such a car costs 3 million 453 thousand rubles. Initial. This version has an automatic transmission, and the seven-seater version costs 4 million 285 thousand rubles.

Generation 4 (J150, 2009-2017)

  • SAE classification for 2.7 163 hp engine. from. (gasoline, mechanics / automatic, year of manufacture. 2011-2017). 0W-20, 5W-20, 5W-30.
  • SAE classification for 2.8 177 hp engine. from. (diesel, automatic, year of manufacture. 2015-2017). 0W-30, 5W-30.
  • SAE classification for 3.0 173 hp engine. from. (diesel, automatic, year of manufacture. 2009-2015). 5W-30, 5W-40, 10W-40.
  • SAE classification for engine 4.0 249 hp. from. (gasoline, automatic, year of manufacture. since 2017). 0W-20, 5W-30, 10W-30.
  • SAE classification for 4.0 282 hp engine. from. (gasoline, automatic, year of manufacture. 2009-2017). 0W-20, 5W-30, 10W-30.

Recommended manufacturers of engine oils for Toyota Land Cruiser Prado (J150): Toyota and analogues.

Lawn mower engine oil function

Gasoline lawn mowers are equipped with two-stroke and four-stroke internal combustion engines. The movement of the knives is provided by the energy transmitted to them from the internal combustion engine. It occurs due to the expansion of gases formed during the explosion of gasoline or a fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. In this case, the compression of gases is provided by the movement of the piston.

much, fill, lawn, mower

For the system to work well, there must be the minimum required clearances between the mating parts. If their dimensions increase due to wear of the working parts, this leads to a deterioration in the operation of the motor unit, and over time to the complete impossibility of starting it into operation. The problem is connected with the fact that the required pressure value for ignition of the fuel mixture mixed with atmospheric air is not reached.

Engine oil covers engine parts with a thin film, which slows down their wear, and also prevents the appearance of scoring on the metal surface of mating structural elements. This is the main role of oil in the gasoline drive train of a lawn mower.

The destruction of knots caused by friction between parts does not completely stop, but the use of high quality materials significantly slows down the process.

In addition to reducing friction between interacting parts of the internal combustion engine, the use of oil allows:

  • to provide better cooling of the drive unit during operation, improving heat exchange processes between metal and atmospheric air;
  • perform work, operating the motor at maximum speed, which increases labor efficiency and leads to a decrease in time costs;
  • protect the metal of the drive mechanism from corrosion during the winter downtime of the apparatus.

Quality oils reduce the negative effects of high temperatures on engine parts. Removing heat, they increase the operating time of the unit before overheating.

Engine oil is a special material that ensures trouble-free operation of the internal combustion engine, as well as other systems in the mower. Neglect of its quality leads to various breakdowns of the unit.

Choosing oil and gasoline for your lawn mower

A lawn mower is a useful technique for mowing grass when you need constant maintenance of lawns, park areas. With its help, you can give a well-groomed look to the grass cover much faster than using a hand scythe. The most common are gasoline units. In order for them to last a long time without repair, they need regular maintenance. One of the mandatory periodic procedures is an oil change. Depending on the device of the internal combustion engine, it is required to use clean fuel or make a special mixture. The choice of the right oil and gasoline for the lawn mower is of great importance, since the service life of the motor directly depends on the quality of the fuel and lubricants.

Differences between engines in lubrication methods

An essential point is the difference in the method of lubrication of two-stroke and four-stroke internal combustion engines: for the former, refueling is required not with pure gasoline, but with its mixture in the required proportion with oil. It, connecting with air, circulates in the piston unit, while lubricating the cylinder walls, crankshaft and connecting rod bearings, as well as the pistons themselves. When the fuel mixture ignites, the oil included in its composition in the smallest drops also burns out. The combustion products are discharged as waste gas. In practice, two-stroke lawn mower oil is mixed with gasoline in certain proportional ratios.

There are 2-stroke engines with separate intake of these components of the fuel mixture, but this more advanced version is not installed on mowers.

When the engine is 4-stroke, oil is supplied separately, without mixing with gasoline. In practice, lubrication is realized thanks to the presence of pipelines, an oil pump, valves, and a filter. The latter is designed to clean the oil from small metal particles formed during wear of parts.

It turns out that in 2-stroke engines the oil burns out during operation, but in 4-stroke engines it does not, remaining circulating in the system for a long period. Because of this, the requirements for its operational properties differ. After combustion, a two-stroke engine oil should leave the minimum possible amount of carbon deposits, and for four-stroke units it is necessary that the lubricant used retain its initial physical and chemical characteristics for a long time.

Fuel mixture preparation

To obtain a fuel mixture, engine oil is mixed with gasoline in certain proportions. They are listed in the operating instructions. So, mineral lubricants are mixed with gasoline in a ratio of 1 to 35, and synthetic lubricants. 1 to 50.

The mixture is prepared like this:

  • the exact amount of gasoline is poured into the canister;
  • add, using a dispenser, the required volume of oil;
  • close the container with a lid;
  • mix the composition by shaking the liquid.

The prepared fuel mixture is simply poured into the gas tank, using a watering can for convenience.

The proportional ratios encountered between oil and gasoline in the fuel composition are shown in the table below. It will allow you to quickly determine the volume of mixed materials.

You can store the prepared mixture of gasoline and oil in polypropylene or metal containers for no more than two weeks. You cannot save the composition in plastic bottles. This is due to the fact that gasoline reacts with the container material, and the resulting products fall into the working mixture. Because of this, more carbon deposits will form during the combustion of the composition.

It is allowed to refuel the fuel mixture only if the engine is almost completely cold. At the same time, you cannot fill the tank to the top: you should leave room for thermal expansion of the fuel.

It is necessary to observe the rules of fire and personal safety when performing work on the preparation and filling of the working composition away from sources of fire.

Suitable oil and gasoline for refueling a 2-stroke engine

Two-stroke gasoline engines are designed to run on a fuel mixture. The oil change in the lawn mower is not done separately. it is proportionally mixed with gasoline. In this case, only a properly prepared fuel composition should be poured into the engine system.

It is impossible to fill in oil according to the principle “the higher its price, the better it will be for the operation of the mechanism”. Types of oil compositions suitable for 2-stroke internal combustion engines are divided into the following groups according to the method of their production:

  • semi-synthetic;
  • synthetic;
  • mineral.

The lubricating properties of the material depend on the base, its ability to remain in a liquid state with decreasing temperature, without significantly increasing the viscosity at the same time. The composition of the grease contains about 5-15% of various additives. They are intended to improve the practical effectiveness of the product being used. The additives allow:

  • slow down the corrosion of metal surfaces associated with redox reactions;
  • increase the thermal resistance of parts;
  • stabilize the viscosity of a substance at the same level when changing temperatures in a certain range.
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Lawn mower manufacturers in the instructions indicate the brand of lubricant that is the best option for the unit being operated. If it is problematic to get it, then it is possible to change the oil to a similar composition intended for 2-stroke internal combustion engines. In this case, the level of viscosity must necessarily correspond to the value recommended by the manufacturer of the product.

Gasoline is the main bulk component of the prepared fuel mixture. Its brand must correspond to that recommended in the operating instructions for the lawn mower. The octane number of gasoline determines the time of its combustion: the higher this number, the longer the fuel burns.

If you use a gasoline of a higher grade than recommended, the two-stroke internal combustion engine will fail faster.

Features of two-stroke and four-stroke engines

In principle, a two-stroke engine is similar to a four-stroke engine. The only peculiarity is that the working stroke of a two-stroke engine is carried out in 2, and a four-stroke engine. in 4 cycles. The latter is understood as the movement of the piston down or up. In this case, 2 cycles occur for 1 revolution of the crankshaft. The working stroke of the piston is its movement, during which the energy of the gases formed as a result of fuel combustion is converted into the useful work of the engine (its rotation).

Structurally, and in terms of operational characteristics, two-stroke and four-stroke ICE models differ from each other according to the following criteria.

  • 2-stroke engines have a higher specific and liter (approximately 1.5 ÷ 1.8 times) power.
  • Lubrication method.
  • Four-stroke engines are characterized by high efficiency of fuel use (its consumption is approximately 20 ÷ 30% less), and also their exhaust contains less toxic substances
  • The method of supplying fuel mixed with atmospheric air inside the cylinder and removing exhaust gases. In 4-stroke engines, a gas distribution mechanism is intended for this purpose: when necessary, it opens the valves and closes them. 2-stroke models do not have it.
  • Operating noise level: 4-stroke units are quieter.
  • The complexity of the device: 2-stroke models are simpler.
  • The service life of four-stroke engine models is longer due to the improved lubrication system, as well as due to the fact that the crankshaft rotates at a lower frequency.
  • Rapid acceleration: 2-stroke units accelerate faster.
  • For ease of periodic maintenance and repair, it is easier to deal with a 2-stroke engine. Also, such a motor is cheaper in price and weighs less than a four-stroke analogue.

Power density is the ratio between the power of the drive unit and its weight. Liter power is understood as the ratio between power and engine volume (in liters).

The absence of a gas distribution unit with valves makes two-stroke motors lighter and simpler in terms of the device. Filling the cylinder with a fuel-air mixture and cleaning it from gas occurs during expansion and contraction through special openings: inlet (purge) and outlet.

Changing the oil in a 4-stroke engine

In a lawn mower with a four-stroke internal combustion engine, it is required to pour gasoline into the tank, and oil into a special hole located in the crankcase. The operating instructions for the equipment from the manufacturer contain information on the lubrication change intervals.

It should be taken into account that the effectiveness of the lubricant decreases after about 50 hours of operation. If it is necessary to mow small areas, then it is unlikely that so many working hours will be accumulated in one season. In this case, change the lubricant when storing the device for the autumn-winter period.

Change the engine oil as follows:

  • for about 15 minutes, the engine of the lawn mower is started at idle to warm up the system, and due to this, the fluidity of the lubricant will increase (the viscosity has decreased);
  • unscrew the drain plug located on the crankcase;
  • tilt the mower in the direction of this drain, having previously substituted a container to collect the used lubricant (as in the photo below);
  • after the mining has drained, the plug is screwed into place;
  • the mower is installed on a flat area;
  • open the top hole;
  • fill in a new oil suitable for a 4-stroke engine, periodically checking its level with a dipstick;
  • when the grease reaches the required mark, close the filling hole by tightening the plug tightly.

The volume of the filled material is usually 500-600 ml.

For filling in four-stroke internal combustion engines, you can use various brands of oil suitable for their performance properties, for example, 10W40, SAE-30. For most models, a lubricant class SF or higher will work. It is recommended to fill in frost-resistant grease for the winter.

Semi-synthetic oil YUKO SEMISYNTHETIC 10W-40

It is not recommended to drain mining directly onto the soil in order not to contaminate it. You can also use a variety of tools to select a used lubricant. One of the possible options is shown in the photo below.

The process of changing the lubricant in the motor system of a wheeled lawn mower is quite simple. All operations usually take up to 30 minutes.

Remember that 4-stroke lawnmower oil and gasoline are not mixed, but poured separately.

The best option for both two-stroke and four-stroke engines is to use gasoline and oil recommended by the manufacturers. For information on the correct brand, see the operating instructions for the lawnmower. The lubricant must necessarily have a viscosity not lower than that indicated, otherwise it simply will not be able to perform its functions normally. The gasoline used should not be higher than the manufacturer’s recommended grade, because pistons, valves or rings may burn out. When filling fuel or grease, it is also necessary to observe their volumes given in the instructions. Especially the proportions should be observed when preparing an oil-gasoline mixture on your own.

Oil selection and fuel mixture for lawn mowers

So, have you finally become the owner of a petrol lawn mower or lawn mower? And your imagination is already creating images of how you courageously cope with the dense grass. However, the dream of a “perfect lawn” remains a dream, when the question involuntarily arises: what oil to use and what are the proportions of mixing it with gasoline?

You can find a lot of information on the correct preparation of the fuel mixture on the Internet. This topic is actively discussed on forums and other thematic resources. But, despite such an active discussion, there are many inconsistencies that have to be dealt with.

It doesn’t really matter what technique is used, it could be a lawn mower. lawn mower or chain saw. they are united by one. two-stroke gasoline engine. Unlike the 4T, it does not have an oil sump. To feed it, it is required to prepare a special fuel mixture consisting of gasoline and oil. The resulting liquid is fed directly to the engine (carburetor). During use, all actively working parts are thoroughly lubricated, contributing to trouble-free operation under all operating conditions.

Lawn Mower Engine Oil

Depending on the chemical composition, lubricants are divided into the following main groups:

Mineral. They are made on the basis of oils obtained from petroleum distillates. They are characterized by high viscosity and require frequent replacement. The material is intended for low power appliances with an air cooling system. Recommended for warm weather.

Semi-synthetic. They represent a kind of “golden mean”. They are based on a mixture of mineral and synthetic oils. A similar lubricant can be used in 2T and 4T engines, gardening and other equipment with air and liquid cooling.

Synthetic. They are made on the basis of special synthetic components containing esters. They are characterized by low viscosity and long service life. They can be used all year round, regardless of temperature conditions. Ideal for challenging heavy duty equipment with constant variable performance.

Any two-stroke oil, due to its 20% solvent composition, mixes well with fuel and has the feature of complete combustion. Their second characteristic is their color, which can be green, red or blue. Of course, this does not mean that some lubricant is better, and some is worse. This is done solely so that it is convenient for the user to distinguish oil from pure gasoline.

Classification of engine oils:

The required parameters of oils for 2T engines are prescribed in the requirements of API TC JASO FC, API TC JASO FC ISO GD and API TC JASO FC E-GC. The most widely used classification systems are API. Based on this, 2T engine oils are divided into 4 large groups:

TA. suitable for household appliances with an air cooling system and an engine volume of no more than 50 cm3.

TB. used for more powerful equipment with an air cooling system and a motor volume of 50.200 cm3.

TC. used in technology with high demands for oil quality. It is a high quality lubricant for 50.200 cc two-stroke engines. Great for lawn mowers, lawn mowers, trimmers, chain saws and other garden equipment.

TD. for outboard boat motors with liquid cooling.

Most suitable material for 2T motors of API-TB and API-TC class. However, it is necessary to refer directly to the product passport, where the manufacturer indicates the brand of engine oil recommended for its equipment.

Important! For lawn mowers, lawn mowers and other 2T garden devices, a special engine oil is provided for two-stroke engines with an air cooling system and marked “for garden equipment”. Do not use lubricant for 2T engines with liquid cooling system. Also not recommended oil for outboard engines, motorcycles and other equipment.

Oil to gasoline ratio for lawn mowers: why accuracy is so important?

All of us in childhood loved to “chew”, so the process of preparing a fuel mixture is not only simple, but also interesting. First of all, it is worth considering the fact that the proportions of the mixture may be different. This depends on engine configuration, oil markings and manufacturer recommendations. The fact is that with an insufficient amount of lubrication, the cylinder and piston heat up, which leads to shallow scuffing of all rubbing surfaces and, consequently, to the failure of the cylinder. piston group. Well, in case of its excess, on the contrary, we get coking of the piston ring and the formation of a large amount of carbon deposits.

And even despite the fact that there is a generally accepted mixing ratio of 2% (for every liter of gasoline, 20 ml of lubricant). The proportions in the mixture are still recommended to be kept exactly.

How much to pour oil into gasoline for lawn mowers?

Everything is quite simple, with the correct balance, the engine runs at full capacity, all parts are thoroughly lubricated and do not wear out. As a result, we get a confidently working technique that will last more than one season.

To know how much oil to add to your lawn mower, you need to familiarize yourself with the performance of the product. Proportional ratios can be presented as follows: 1:25, 1:40 and 1:50, which means 1 part of oil for 25, 40 or 50 parts of gasoline.

1 liter of gasoline = 1000 ml

To determine the required amount of oil for a ratio of 1:25, you need 1000/25 and we will get a ratio of 40 ml.

We carry out the same actions for the ratio 1:40 and 1:50:

1:40 (for 1 liter of gasoline 25 ml of oil)
1:50 (for 1 liter of gasoline 20 ml of oil)

To ensure the correct proportion of lawn mower oil, it is recommended to use a special measuring container (not plastic). Eliminate the possibility of dirt and water getting into the fuel mixture. this may affect its quality. It is better to start preparing the mixture with gasoline. Pour it up to the required mark, then add oil. A couple of tilts of the container are sufficient for mixing. The liquid quickly combines and acquires a uniform hue, which, depending on the structure of the oil, can be red, green, blue or other. After that, a properly prepared mixture is poured into the equipment fuel tank.

Before using the equipment, make sure that the tank cap is tightly closed. If you get more fuel, then the remainder can be stored in a special canister or mixing container (no more than 14 days). It is recommended to drain the unused fuel.

Important! Be sure to follow the safety instructions. Mix fluids outdoors to prevent corrosive gasoline fumes from accumulating indoors. Wear gloves and long sleeves. Do not smoke or set anything on fire.


RON 92 gasoline is considered the most popular type of fuel for two-stroke engines. Due to its relatively low cost, it is extremely rarely falsified. Therefore, not one hundred percent, but you can be sure of its quality. It is also permissible to use AI-95 fuel.

As for the storage of fuel, its period should not exceed 3 months. Over time, gasoline loses its properties, the resin becomes higher and a polymerization process occurs, which adversely affects the combustion chamber. The fuel mixture for lawn mowers prepared from low-quality materials settles in the form of carbon deposits, as a result of which the main components and engine systems suffer.

Recommendations for use and storage

The fuel is ready, poured into the fuel tank, the first spurt and the long-awaited start. However, if you want the equipment to work as long as possible, it is recommended to run it in for the first time. To avoid overheating of the engine, it is recommended to adhere to the average load. After the main elements of the system have been thoroughly lubricated, the load can be increased.

Certain rules should also be followed when preparing the braid for off-season storage:

Drain the remaining fuel from the fuel tank and carry out the final run until the fuel is completely depleted. Then, pause the work and make sure that the engine is completely cool.

Unscrew the spark plug carefully and add about 5 ml of lubricant. Pull the starter handle slowly to distribute the oil equally evenly inside the engine. Then, return the candle to its original state. Store equipment in a cool dry place.


Low and high engine oil level

As you know, an internal combustion engine consists of a large number of mating parts that operate under high mechanical and thermal loads. For effective cooling and protection of rubbing surfaces from rapid wear, engine oil is supplied under pressure, spraying, or by gravity. Thus, a protective oil film is created, the grease fills the gaps between the elements, etc. As a result, the engine is able to operate regularly hundreds of thousands of kilometers.

A small amount of lubricant in the lubrication system or various malfunctions of the internal combustion engine lead to the fact that the unit begins to experience oil starvation. As a result, “dry” friction begins, wear progresses, and heating increases. At some point, engine parts can collapse or jam.

The only signs of a low oil level may be: increased noise during the operation of the internal combustion engine, the appearance of a knock of hydraulic lifters or other extraneous sounds, an increase in the unit temperature, frequent operation of the cooling system fan, etc. In such cases, you should immediately check the engine oil level in the engine. If the level has dropped noticeably for no apparent reason (there are no obvious leaks), then the lubricant must be replenished, after which diagnostics should be carried out in order to determine the cause of the increased consumption.

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We add that the design feature of some highly accelerated turbocharged internal combustion engines is a tangible oil consumption, which is allowed by the manufacturer itself. On such vehicles, the level should be checked constantly. As for most atmospheric units, it will not be superfluous to get the dipstick and check the level, color and condition of the oil on a cold engine before driving once every 5-7 days.

Now let’s talk a little about overflowing engine oil. If everything is clear with a low level of lubrication, then a high level may even seem useful to the motor for some motorists. In fact, this is not true. A large amount of oil also causes significant damage to the power unit. It becomes more difficult for the engine to work, the load on the oil pump increases, fuel consumption increases, gaskets, oil seals and seals may leak.

How much oil is needed to change the engine

The amount of oil in the engine can be found in the manual for a particular car model. If there is no such literature, then you should use one of the available sources to find information, contact the service specialists for a particular car brand, send a request to the official representative of the brand, etc. No less relevant will also be information on what tolerances and requirements are put forward by the engine manufacturer in relation to engine oils. It must always be remembered that the use of engine oil that is unsuitable for this type of internal combustion engine can lead to malfunctions of the unit and accelerated failure of the power plant. In parallel with this, you need to know certain nuances when changing engine oil:

  • the car must be on a level surface;
  • the engine must be warmed up before draining the oil;
  • oil by draining after unscrewing the plug in the sump is not completely drained;
  • completely removing the lubricant from the engine by suction through the oil filler neck will also fail;
  • before replacing the oil filter, pour a little engine oil into it to wet the filter element;

As mentioned above, it is not possible to completely drain the used grease. Some of the old oil remains in the sump, in hard-to-reach cavities, on the surface of engine parts. It turns out that part of the “working off” in the motor remains. The average amount is about 500 grams. We add that you can completely remove the old oil only after disassembling, cleaning and washing the engine from the inside.

In other words, 4L may be indicated in the manual. This is the full scope. After draining, it is impossible to fill in all 4 liters of fresh lubricant further, since overflow will most likely result. For this reason, the oil level should be monitored by a dipstick or by the readings of electronic sensors, which are available on some car models and display the oil level in the form of various indications on the dashboard.

The probes have special marks “min” and “max”. The oil level after changing is optimally kept between the indicated marks. Also, many motorists, especially on worn out engines or engines with increased oil consumption for waste, deliberately raise the level slightly by 10-15 mm, while still not bringing it to the maximum.

How much oil needs to be poured into the motor

Most internal combustion engines have a lubrication system in which engine oil is the working fluid. The volume of oil in the engine is not the same for all engines, since different power units differ in physical dimensions and displacement, the degree of boost, have structural differences, etc. For example, the oil filling volume in a 2.0-liter gasoline engine can vary significantly from vehicle to vehicle. 4.2 liters of oil must be poured into a two-liter unit of one manufacturer, while a motor of another brand with the same volume already requires 4.6 liters of lubricant. In the case of a diesel engine, which also conventionally has a volume of 2.0 liters, 5.5 liters of lubricant will be required.

We add that such differences in the amount of lubricant in an internal combustion engine with the same displacement can be not only between motors of different manufacturers, but also within the model range of the same brand. For this reason, it is important to know how many liters of oil to pour into the engine, how to avoid underfilling, and why pouring oil into the engine is harmful to the power unit.

What is the bottom line

As a bottom line, it should be noted that the engine requires as much oil as necessary to achieve a clear level between the “minimum” and “maximum” marks on the dipstick. Also, the decrease of this indicator below the minimum is not allowed. We add that a slight excess of the average mark is possible, but it is not advisable to fill the engine with oil under the “maximum”. It turns out that in this case it is optimal to adhere to the rule of the “golden mean”.

How to add oil to the engine correctly. Topping up “cold”, adding grease to a hot motor. What kind of oil can be used for topping up, useful tips.

Why is it forbidden to pour oil into the engine. What are the criteria for determining the overflow of engine oil. Do-it-yourself pumping of excess lubricant from the engine.

Checking the oil level in the engine, determining the exact indicator. When is it best to check the lubricant level on a cold or hot engine. Useful Tips.

Available solutions for flushing the engine before changing the engine oil. How to flush the engine with special flushes, flushing oil or diesel fuel.

Features and types of flushing oils, how to use them. When do you need to use flushing oil, which brand and type of flushing is better to choose.

Flushing oil for the engine: when and how it is used, what is included, the advantages and disadvantages of this type of flushing of the lubrication system.

Gasoline and Lawn Mower Oil Ratios

  • Oil quantity per liter of fuel
  • Fuel solution preparation rules
  • Fuel mixture preparation
  • Characteristics of misapplication
  • Output

The introduction of lawn mowers on the market made it much easier to care for the grass on the lawns. Depending on the engine model, they are divided into 2 types: gasoline and electric. If you choose between these options, then gasoline is preferable, since it is much more mobile. it does not require wires and an electrical outlet.

To keep your lawn healthy for as long as possible, the lawn must be carefully monitored and maintained regularly.

How to Fix a Mower Overfilled with Oil

Fuel mixture preparation

Many mower manufacturers already supply special containers for gasoline and oil with graduated marks. But in order to more accurately mix lubricant and fuel, it will be better to use a syringe.

For operations for the preparation of a mixture of gasoline and oil, simple equipment will be required:

  • watering can;
  • a medical syringe or measuring cup;
  • a container with a volume of one liter;
  • oil suitable for two-stroke engines;
  • petrol.

First, using a watering can, gasoline is poured into a liter container. For the fuel solution, it will be correct to use the brand of gasoline that is indicated in the operating instructions, since fuel with a lower octane number can damage the engine.

Next, we collect oil, observing the proportion, and pour it into the fuel. Stir the mixture gently. the fuel solution is ready.

After adding oil to the fuel, the mixture acquires a special color, which in the future enables you to distinguish the ready-made fuel solution from pure gasoline.

Do not mix too much fuel. lawn mowers do not recommend this.

A solution of fuel and oil must be stirred in such a volume that it is enough for one or two refueling.

Fuel solution preparation rules

Before starting work, you should carefully study the instructions. In no case should you do everything “by eye”. Each manufacturer adds its own components to fuels and lubricants, so it will be useful to familiarize yourself with its recommendations.

The basic rules for preparing fuel for two-stroke lawn mowers are as follows:.

  • Strictly observe the proportions when preparing the fuel solution. If the concentration of the lubricating component is insufficient, the piston and cylinder will become very hot, and the engine may fail under such conditions. Burrs appear on the cylinder walls due to overheating, which will subsequently require serious investments in repairs.
  • Do not add too much oil to the mixture. A large amount of it will lead to the appearance of additional carbon deposits and an early reduction in the engine resource. Removing defects is also expensive, as when saving oil.
  • Long-term. more than one month. storage of the fuel mixture is not recommended, as it begins to decompose and lose its basic properties. The prepared mixture can be stored for no more than 90 days, clean fuel is even less. about 30.
  • Carefully monitor the cleanliness of the combustible solution, protect it from the ingress of various debris and other contaminants, which may deteriorate the engine.
  • After completion of work, if there is a long break, it is better to drain the fuel mixture from the tank.

Before preparing the fuel mixture, you should take care of its safety in the future. It is better to store gasoline in a metal container; it is allowed to store fuel in plastic canisters specially designed for this. In no case should you store gasoline in plastic bottles: fuel enters into a chemical reaction with polyethylene and decomposition products, when they get into the carburetor, can disrupt its operation.

Oil quantity per liter of fuel

Two types of engines are installed on gasoline lawn mowers. four-stroke and two-stroke. There are significant differences between them. The first option has a separate supply of oil and gasoline, that is, there is no need to prepare a special fuel mixture. And the second type of motors requires constant lubrication of engine parts by mixing fuel and oil in a certain proportion.

If you have purchased a two-stroke engine mowing tool, you will need to prepare the fuel mix to refuel the mower.

The fuel mixture consists of gasoline and a special oil for two-stroke engines. When choosing an oil, it is advisable to use a lubricant from the same manufacturer as the lawn mower, but this issue is not fundamental.

The main thing is that the oil is of high quality, and not a cheap fake. in this case, you should not save.

You can distinguish oil for two-stroke engines from others by marking on the label. It also indicates the ratio in which to dilute the lubricant with fuel. When using good and quality oils, the dosage is usually: 1 part of oil to 50 parts of fuel, that is, 2% of the total volume of fuel. Some owners are confused about these proportions. In fact, everything is very simple.

If the label says 50: 1, this means that 100 grams of oil should be added to 5 liters of gasoline. In other words, for 1 liter of gasoline, you need to add 20 grams of engine oil.

Characteristics of misapplication

The use of a contaminated or improperly diluted solution often leads to serious malfunctions. To prevent this from happening, you need to carefully monitor some of the engine indicators:

  • rapid contamination of the fuel filter;
  • the appearance of dirt and various deposits in the carburetor, which will interfere with normal operation.

If the above signs are present, the mower engine must be serviced.


Applying the above recommendations, you can independently prepare a high-quality fuel mixture for a two-stroke engine. It will ensure the smooth operation of the gasoline lawn mower for a long period, as well as help protect the engine from major malfunctions.

You can learn how to change the oil in a four-stroke lawnmower in the video below.

How much oil should be poured into YaMZ-236 and 238 engines

YAMZ-236 and YMZ-238 engines are a unique development of the Yaroslavl Motor Plant. They belong to the power units used in the configuration of large trucks. For a better understanding, we note that they are installed on MAZs “Ural”, ZIL, Kamaz and other special vehicles of a similar purpose.

Today, these types of units have already gone through several stages of modernization and improvement, while their design remains unchanged. These devices continue to be indispensable for equipping special vehicles. This means that there are no alternative solutions, because a more reliable motor for such equipment has not been created.

The volume of oil in them is considered the most important technical characteristic. The fact is that if this indicator is not observed, the quality and performance are significantly reduced, and the device cannot work.

Why you need to know how much oil you need to fill in YaMZ-236, YaMZ-238

This indicator has a relationship with the number of working hours before repair or replacement of the motor and the class of lubricants. YaMZ-236 and YaMZ-238 are endowed with a carefully and competently thought out, trouble-free operating oil lubrication system, which processes all the units of the unit. That is why it is worth understanding which oil is poured in and how many liters need to be poured.

According to the instructions, oil in accordance with GOST is used. For the engines described, it is diesel. There is also a turbodiesel in the YaMZ 238 modification. Oil additives are also actively used to improve the functioning of the oil poured into the engine. As for how many liters need to be poured, the operating manual indicates that YaMZ-236 and YaMZ-238 require 28 liters. At the same time, the turbodiesel modification YaMZ 238 may require 3 liters more volume.

Technical features of YaMZ-236, YaMZ-238 motors

Of course, other technical characteristics play in the effective operation of the motors under consideration, so it makes sense to dwell on their consideration:

  • type. diesel and turbodiesel (YaMZ 238e);
  • number of cylinders. YaMZ 236. 6-cylindrical, YaMZ 238. 8-cylindrical;
  • arrangement of cylinders. In YaMZ 236. V-shaped, in YaMZ 238. U-shaped;
  • horsepower. from 180 to 240;
  • fuel injection. direct type;
  • cooling. due to special liquids;
  • modification of models. atmospheric and turbocharged;
  • mileage resource. from 800 thousand km to 1,000,000 km.

All these points are very important to take into account.

Viscosity index

Reducing the friction of engine parts is a task that is solved by the viscosity of the oil. This is especially true for pistons in the cylinder.

This parameter is classified by SAE, which means the state of the oil viscosity at different temperatures. Thus, it refers to the minimum and maximum level within which the motor can operate efficiently and safely.

The letter between the numbers, for example W, means winter, which is translated from English as “winter”. But in the name of the oil, it means all-season, that is, the possibility of using it both in winter and in summer.

Lubricating fluid for VAZ

Oil in the VAZ engine, as mentioned above, is poured in an amount of three and a half liters. However, the nominal value is higher at 3.7 liters. In this case, you need to pay attention to the minimum and maximum marks on the dipstick, depending on what and add the required amount. When replacing, it is not possible to drain all the oil. And therefore, a smaller volume is required, which is indicated by the manufacturer.

How much oil needs to be poured into the engine: instructions, recommendations

Following the subside of the first emotions after the acquisition of the long-awaited car, the newly-made vehicle owner is waiting for measures to keep the car in order. Changing the lubricant is one of the regular procedures required during operation. How much oil needs to be poured into the engine, which one to choose and what should be guided by this? What causes the engine to “eat” the lubricant most often and how to deal with it? We will try to answer these and some other questions in this article.

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If the engine “eats” oil

If there is a constantly decreasing amount of oil in the engine, the reason for this may be hidden either in poor quality or in emerging engine problems.

When the engine “eats” the oil, it can be added over and over in small portions. But in this way the problem is not solved, but only the time is postponed when a full inspection and repair of the power unit is required. If such greedy consumption is not related to the quality of the lubricant, then the reason may lie in combustion in the cylinders or seepage through a poor seal.

Combustion can be easily identified by observing the color of the exhaust gases. If they have a bluish tint, the problem lies in the oil scraper rings. Even if you turn off the engine and look for the presence or absence of a thick black coating, you can determine this malfunction. There can be only one solution in this case. complete replacement of both oil scraper and compression rings.

But besides this, the cause of the malfunction can be, as already mentioned, different seals and gaskets. Usually it is rubber seals that lose their properties over time. At the same time, oil flows usually at the junction of the crankcase and the cylinder block or the strip of the cylinder block and the timing cover.

The biggest consumption is usually caused by damage to the crankshaft and camshaft oil seals. Then oil flows and you can see traces of it if the car has been parked for some time.

It is best to immediately contact the technical center as soon as such problems are found. Then repairs can be quite inexpensive. And in the event that the problem is started, small malfunctions will entail more serious breakdowns, and then it will not be possible to do without significant financial investments.

But it can also happen that the oil was filled, which does not correspond to the viscosity recommended for a particular vehicle. As a result, even very good engine oil becomes too fluid. Because of this, the necessary protection for the cylinders is not provided, and it itself begins to burn out.

Such an oil consumption is considered normal: for every fifteen to twenty thousand kilometers from one hundred to two hundred milliliters. If, at a given mileage, you poured in a larger amount of liquid, then we can talk about possible engine malfunctions.

Of course, too much lubricant consumption is usually not associated with serious malfunctions. But nevertheless, it is impossible to ignore the problem. over, ring wear leads to a loss of power during operation, and also affects fuel consumption.

Engine oil

The main component of a lubricant for a power unit is an oil base, which is:

  • mineral;
  • semi-synthetic;
  • synthetic.

According to the indicators of the chemical composition, all engine oils are divided.

In addition to this characteristic, parameters such as viscosity are important (based on which oils are classified according to the SAE indicator) and additives (API or AGEA).

It also matters what the recommended engine oil is offered by car manufacturers. However, not all drivers pay attention to this. The main thing that is given importance. it is the base, the viscosity and the beloved brand.

Oil base

So, mineral liquids are obtained by refining oil, synthetic ones. through chemical synthesis, and semi-synthetic ones. by mixing mineral and synthetic.

Many people prefer semi-synthetics, considering it the best option in terms of price-quality ratio.

How much oil should be poured into the engine

To accurately answer this question, you need to know the make and model of the car, since the volume may differ for each car. Information can be retrieved from the vehicle owner’s manual, which contains the required quantity. Nevertheless, even with this information, in practice, car owners often cannot do without difficulties.

How much oil do you need to fill in the engine? After all, the norm must be strictly defined.

If you take a car of domestic production, then for an engine volume of 1.8 to 2.5 liters, three and a half liters of oil will be required. Therefore, first three liters are poured, and then, after a few minutes, after checking the measurement, the rest is added. At a low level, it is gradually topped up in small portions until the required level is reached.

For cars of foreign production, oil with the same engine volume, as a rule, requires more. from 4.2 to 4.4 liters. Top up it in the same way as when refueling domestic cars.

How much oil should be poured into the Balkankar loader? What kind of oil to pour into the loader.

There are often questions. what kind of oil should be poured into the Balkankar loader. in this article I will try to give a detailed answer on the number and name of all technical fluids.

How much and how much oil should be poured into the Balkankar loader?

For diesel engines D2500 and D3900, motor oils of the M10G2K type (according to the operating instructions) or any diesel oil with a viscosity of 10W40 or 10W30 are provided. For the D243 engine (installed on a loader DV 1792M). M10DM for turbocharged engines.

To change the Balkankar oil, the following amount is required:

The volume of D2500 engine oil. 7.5 liters (DV 1621, DV 1661)

The volume of D3900 engine oil is 8.5 liters (DV 1784, DV 1786, DV 1788, DV 1792, DV 1794, DV 1798, Dimex D35 and others)

Engine oil volume D243. 12 liters (DV 1792M)

For your convenience, I will attach photos of the engines so that you can clearly compare.

  • D3900
  • D2500
  • D243

How much oil to pour into the gearbox?

From the factory, two main types of gearboxes were installed. these are GDP (hydrodynamic transmission) and on earlier versions of the manual transmission forklift, a conventional manual gearbox. Automatic gearboxes are divided into two types of GDP 6844 (old type) and GDP 6855/6860 (new type)

To change the automatic transmission oil Balkankar, we need:

For the gas drive unit 6844/6855/6860/6870/6865, 12 liters of oil (together with a torque converter) TYPE “A” or ATF Dexron II for the old and new types are used the same, without a fluid coupling about 9 liters.

Differences in automatic transmission. on the left GDP 6844, on the right GDP 6860

How much coolant is included?

According to the manual, water or antifreeze should be poured, but practice shows that it is quite possible to use antifreeze. Balkankar produced engines with a cast iron and steel block, they are not whimsical to coolant. It is best to use TOSOL or green antifreeze G11.

Up to 2 tons (DV 1621, DV 161). from 15 to 18 liters of coolant.

than 2 tons (DV 1784-1798). 20 liters (in practice, less is included)

For loaders DV 1784, DV 1786, DV 1788, DV 1792, DV 1794, DV 1798, the quantity is set to 65 liters I20A, or other gear oil H32, H46. For small lift trucks DV 1621, DV 1661 and other modifications. liters of the same transmission.

Oil in axle loader Balkancar

On forklift trucks up to two tons (DV 1621, DV 1630, DV 1636, DV 1661), 5 liters of TAD 17A transmission oil are used or according to API GL4, GL5 80W90 approval, on forklifts over two tons (DV 1784-1798), the same amount is used, exactly 5 liters.

Brake fluid quantity

According to the technical literature, 0.5 liters of brake fluid is used for all Balkankar loaders, although in reality a little more is included, it is worth taking 1 liter, it is not so expensive. You can use ROSA or NEVA brands.

Frequency of replacement of technical fluids Balkancar

Oil change. every 250-300 m3 / h

Changing the oil in the gearbox. 500-1000 m / h

Hydraulic oil change. every 1000 m3 / h

Change of transmission oil. every 1000 m3 / h

Brake fluid change. every 1000 m3 / h

Coolant change. every 1000 m3 / h or 3 years, whichever comes first

How to change the lawnmower’s engine oil

Performing routine maintenance on time, you can guarantee the correct operation of the loader for many years, use original filters and oils, beware of counterfeits. Be sure to check the condition of the air filter. the loader will work for a long time and bring profit to your company.

Difference in operation of 2 and 4 stroke engines

For two-stroke engines, there are two ways to lubricate the piston system and crank mechanism:

  • adding oil to fuel in an exact ratio;
  • pour oil separately, the mixture is formed when fuel is injected into the cylinder.

In the photo, the oil supply through the plunger pump dispenser into the inlet pipe of the combustion chamber.

The second scheme is the future, while the first method is used in gardening equipment. the preparation of a combustible mixture. New engines are quiet, economical, but more complex.

To prepare a combustible mixture, you can use the table and dispenser.

The four-stroke engine has a container for oil, which is used to create protection for rubbing parts. In this case, the lubrication system consists of a pump, an oil filter and pipes that supply the composition to the units. Crankcase or tank lubrication can be used. In the first case, oil is supplied to the system from the crankcase and from there it is pumped into the supply pipes by a pump. With a “dry sump”, drops of oil collected in the sump are sent back to the tank.

Pictured is wet sump grease and dry sump grease.

The difference in the composition of the oil for different types of engines is fundamental. Lawnmower oil with a 4-stroke engine must remain unchanged for a long time. The composition for two-stroke engines should have fewer mineral inclusions during combustion to prevent the formation of carbon deposits.

If the recommended oil is available, you should not experiment with the selection of a different composition. If absent, select the one recommended for 2 or 4 stroke models. Use gasoline above the recommended brand. it is premature to replace burnt-out valves and other components.

An important characteristic when choosing a protective ingredient is its operating temperature. The additive should be heat-resistant, but not thicken at low temperatures. Therefore, for each mechanism, depending on the operating conditions, there is its own brand of oil.

Fundamental differences between internal combustion systems for the user

Which combustion system is more efficient, 2 or 4 stroke? How can the user figure it out and get the best mechanism? Petrol trimmers and 4-stroke lawn mowers are not available for sale. The two-stroke is much lighter and therefore the trimmer weighs a little and can be operated by a woman. But there are two-stroke engines and four-wheeled vehicles. Other differences:

  • different way of using the lubricant;
  • environmental friendliness is higher in a 4-stroke engine, it is also less noisy;
  • easier to repair and maintain 2-stroke engine;
  • the motor resource is longer for the 4-stroke, but it is more difficult for them to maintain due to the oil change in the lawn mower;
  • two-stroke motors are lighter and cheaper.

The 2-stroke engine used in the lawnmower is inferior in many technological parameters to the 4-stroke engine. With a separate supply of gasoline and oil, in terms of economy and other indicators, it is preferable for light vehicles. In addition, the separate fuel supply saves the consumption of an expensive component by 4 times.

The photo shows the condition of the engine, which has been running for a long time without changing the oil.

A four-stroke engine has a complex lubrication system, and it is all the more necessary to use methods for cleaning the circulating fluid. A filter is installed in the oil system to prevent the tubes and pump from clogging up with scale and other inclusions. As it gets dirty, this part is replaced.

The role of oil in internal combustion engines

This would be the case if the lapped parts worked without lubrication. Motor oil for lawn mowers, added to gasoline or falling on components from the crankcase, is applied with a thin film between the parts, preventing wear and tear. Since it is absolutely impossible to eliminate wear, the oil washes away microparticles in the gaps, preventing them from destroying the surface.

The prepared fuel mixture should be used within 2 weeks, stored in a metal or polypropylene container. Do not store the composition with gasoline in plastic bottles. Decomposition products will get into the mixture, carbon deposits in the combustion chamber will increase.

You can not fill in oil, guided by, the more expensive the better. The use of ingredients depends on the class of technology, the degree of grinding of the mating units, and the operating conditions. The composition of the combustible mixture for two-stroke engines depends on the method of obtaining the base of the antifriction composition. The 2-stroke lawnmower oil has a special formulation. All oils are separated according to the method of obtaining:

  • mineral;
  • synthetic;
  • semi-synthetic.

Their lubricating qualities, the ability to remain liquid when the temperature drops, depend on this. But 5-15% in each composition is reserved for additives. They create an effective composition that prevents:

  • corrosion of surfaces;
  • heat resistance;
  • resistance to decomposition;
  • increased alkalinity, which prevents oxidation;
  • stabilize viscosity.

The lawn mower oil used with the 4-stroke engine has different additives, viscosity. It also serves to wash moving surfaces, but does not mix with gasoline. Oil oxidizes, becomes contaminated with scale particles and requires replacement every 50 hours of operation.

What is the difference between 4 and 2 stroke lawn mower oil

How to change the oil in a 4-stroke engine

The manufacturer in the operating instructions gives a schedule for the maintenance of mechanisms and the procedure for performing work. The lubrication efficiency decreases after 50 hours of operation. Therefore, an oil change is required. In domestic use, during the season, there will not be such a time of using the device, and the filter should be cleaned, the oil should be changed during conservation. Before changing the oil in the mower, it is necessary to increase the fluidity of the fluid, start the engine and allow the system to warm up.

It is necessary to unscrew the plug for filling oil into the tank and use a device for taking liquid under vacuum.

To do this, make a nozzle and pump out the mining into a prepared container. But at the same time, a small part, up to 100 ml, will still remain in the crankcase and will drain from the filter. You need to get rid of this residue by draining the liquid for 5 minutes through the hole. At the same time, change or wash the filter in the system. Then fill in new grease, controlling the level with a dipstick. Typically, engine oil is packaged in opaque black plastic to keep it from decomposing in the light. The required volume is 500-600 ml.