How to change the trimmer wiring
Why is old electrical wiring dangerous??
If earlier in any house there were at most a few household appliances, today there are dozens of them. Even taking into account the fact that nowadays home appliance manufacturers produce very economical equipment, the total electricity consumption has still increased significantly. The old wiring of the Khrushchev is definitely not capable of withstanding such a load. The inclusion of several devices in the network at once may well cause a fire.
A signal to the fact that the replacement of the electrical wiring in the Khrushchev is required urgently are the following signs:
- when the electrical equipment is turned on, the sockets spark or melt
- there is a burning smell in the room
- wire ends in switches / sockets break off easily
- walls “breaks through” with current
The appearance of at least two signs from the above list suggests that the overhaul of the electricity distribution in the apartment should not be postponed. Having skills in construction and electrical installation, you can do everything yourself.
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Residents of old Khrushchev often complain about wiring problems. It is worth turning on a heater or other powerful device. it immediately knocks out the plugs, or even worse. the wires begin to burn. However, this is not surprising, since everything has its own service life. For electrical wiring, it is 20-30 years.
Considering that any Khrushchev building was put into operation more than half a century ago, the owners of such housing have no other choice: in order to ensure a comfortable and safe life for themselves, you will have to change the internal electrical wiring in the apartment.
Installing new wiring
The first thing to start with is to completely de-energize the facility. Precautions must be followed strictly so that replacing the wiring with your own hands does not turn into a tragedy. Professional electricians are well acquainted with the safety rules, it is also not superfluous for a home craftsman to study them before starting work.
After making sure that there is really no voltage, you can start dismantling the old cable and laying a new route.
In principle, the replacement of the wiring in the Khrushchev can be done through the old cable channels. However, in this case, it will not be possible to transfer the sockets and switches to other places more convenient for the owners of the apartment. If this option does not suit the homeowner, using a punch, he can lay new grooves with his own hands.
The wires are laid from the dashboard to the premises, or, conversely, from the rooms to the dashboard. The second option is used more often, since it allows not to de-energize the entire apartment for a long time: the cable is replaced in series in each of the rooms and connected using terminal blocks to the junction box.
After laying the wire, the grooves are sealed with putty, alabaster or gypsum, and only after they have completely dried out, the electrical accessories are installed.
How to choose a cable?
The capacity of the intra-apartment electrical route must be sufficient to connect all devices. Replacing the wiring in Khrushchev is made taking into account this requirement. Only in this case, you can be sure that in the future there will be no emergencies due to network overload.
Preparing to do it yourself the installation of a new electrical wiring in Khrushchev, first of all, you should correctly calculate the cable cross-section for laying the route. This requires:
- add up the power indicators of all main electrical appliances used in the household
- add an additional 100 watts to each device
- divide the received amount by 220
If the result is the number 15 (or less), then a wire with a cross section of 1.5 mm2 is quite enough for laying the intra-apartment electrical network. Otherwise, one of two things: either you need to choose a cable with a larger cross-section, or you will have to lay two (or three) mowing lines from the electrical panel.
Preparing for repair
Before proceeding directly to the replacement of wires, you should draw up a detailed drawing of the new route with a mark of all elements of the electrical system. It needs to be developed taking into account the convenient connection of all electrical appliances available in the household.
Advice 1. Remember that manufacturers of equipment do not recommend connecting powerful electrical appliances to the network through power splitters. Separate sockets must be provided for the electric stove, boiler, air conditioner, etc.
Tip 2. Each room should have at least two branches of cable: for lighting fixtures and for sockets.
After drawing up the drawing plan, you can start purchasing the necessary materials. In addition to the cable, you will need:
- rag tape
You should not use system elements that have already been in use, since there is no guarantee that they will retain their original operational properties. By saving on little things, you can get a problem in the future. A worn-out outlet will certainly need to be replaced sooner or later, but if a short circuit occurs in it accidentally, new wiring may also burn.
To change the internal electrical networks with your own hands, you will also need a set of tools, namely:
- phase indicator
- angle grinder (angle grinder)
- soldering iron
- terminal blocks
Having everything you need on hand, you can get to work.
The cable should always be purchased with a margin, so that when cutting off pieces, you can always give a small allowance. This will avoid situations when, when laying the wire in the grooves, several centimeters are not enough to the location of any outlet or switch.
Do not join two pieces of cable together. No matter how reliably the joint is insulated, it will oxidize over time. In addition, when connecting a powerful electrical appliance, the connection point will certainly heat up.
In places of high humidity (bathroom, kitchen, toilet), after laying the electrical wiring, it is imperative to waterproof the walls and ceiling. Moisture penetrating into the micropores of the plaster can penetrate to the wires over time and cause them to oxidize.
Not having enough experience, it is better not to undertake such serious work as replacing the wiring. Having saved on the services of an electrician, after a while you can spend a much larger amount, hiring specialists to correct mistakes made when laying and connecting the cable.
Transferring the layout plan to the walls
Now transfer the drawn up scheme to the walls of your apartment, you will still make repairs, so you can still draw on the wall surfaces. Mark the locations of outlets, switches, lighting fixtures and junction boxes (these are usually located at the entrance to the room). There are no strict sizes for their placement, but try to adhere to the following recommendations:
- Switches are located at a height of 0.8 to 1.5 m from floor level.
- The same parameter for outlets varies from 0.3 to 1 m, everything here will depend on your interior. The main thing is that it would be convenient for you to use them later.
- In the bathroom, it is advisable to do without installing sockets. If there is an urgent need for this, then it must be connected through a residual current device (RCD). The distance from the outlet to the elements of the bathroom (sink, bath, shower) must be at least 0.6 m.
- Junction boxes are located at a distance of 15-20 cm from the ceiling surface. Do not forget to take this into account if in the future you plan to lower the ceiling (make it stretch or from drywall sheets).
From boxes to switchgear, draw the wiring paths.
These tracks must be strictly vertical or horizontal, no zigzags or oblique lines are allowed, do not try to save on materials like that.
How to replace the wiring in the apartment with your own hands
During major repairs, many decide to immediately change the wiring in the apartment. There are many reasons for this. Firstly, if your house was built a long time ago, then the entire electrical network that was laid in it is already outdated both physically and morally. Secondly, before, aluminum wires were mainly used for wiring in Khrushchev or Stalin’s houses, and this metal, as you know, is highly corroded, and becomes very fragile during operation. Thirdly, modern electrics are characterized by high power of household appliances. About 20-30 years ago, the project laid a load of about 3 kW for each apartment, now this figure has increased significantly.
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So, as you can see, replacing the wiring is not a whim and whim, but an urgent need. Let us consider in detail how to carry out this process, where to start, what part of the old wiring must be changed, and in what cases you can leave it.
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Now, based on all the work done, you can determine the amount of materials that you need to change the wiring in the house. Count how many junction boxes, outlets and switches you have mapped. If the wiring is of a hidden type, then for each switching device you will also need a socket box. Measure the amount of wire you need along the drawn routing lines using a tape measure. Be sure to take it with a margin for cutting at the joints (6-10% of the total length).
For DIY wiring, choose a three-core wire or copper cable. A cross-section of 1.5 mm 2 will be enough for the lighting network 2.for outlet groups. 2.5 mm 2.for powerful electrical consumers. 4 mm 2.
We advise you to purchase a high-quality German conductor with NYM marking, with PVC insulation. Of the domestic cable products, the VVG brand conductor is in the greatest demand. Also, for laying the conductors, you will need a corrugated pipe, and in the case of an open type of wiring, cable channels. It is better to buy metal corrugation, as in the event of an emergency, polyvinyl chloride can decompose and release toxic substances.
The choice of cable and machines for
It is imperative to protect the home electrical network from overloads, short circuits and current leaks, so automation is indispensable. It will be necessary to install RCDs and circuit breakers (or combined options. differential circuit breakers). They are selected according to the rated current depending on the load that will be present on the protected mowing line. Let’s give you an example of what machines are approximately needed for an ordinary three-room apartment:
- general introductory machine. 40 A;
- for a socket group. 25 A;
- for lighting. 16 A;
- for powerful consumers. at 32 A.
When choosing machines, give preference to the leaders in the market of electrical products. the firms “Legrand” and “ABB”.
Junction boxes are of two types and they differ from each other only in terms of design.
Square and rectangular boxes are more spacious, and round boxes are much more convenient to install.
Drilling a round hole in the wall for such a box is much easier than hammering a square or rectangular niche.
Be sure to choose sockets with grounding. If there are small children in the house, then special devices with protective curtains will be needed (so that the child cannot pick out foreign objects inside). Pay special attention to the rated current for which the switching device is designed, otherwise problems may arise when connecting powerful consumers.
You must immediately decide whether you can replace the wiring in the apartment with your own hands or whether you will invite professional electricians. Keep in mind that during a major overhaul of a residential building, the work related to electricity is the most difficult and voluminous part.
Material costs will be correspondingly high. If you have no limitations in funds, then it is better to invite specialists.
Replacing electrical wiring in an apartment with your own hands is based on three main components.
- Definitely, all aluminum wires must be replaced with copper ones. We have already mentioned that the metal is susceptible to corrosion, moreover, it has a soft structure, it is squeezed out from under the screw terminals, its soldering is a complex and expensive process, and aluminum strands weaken over time. All this can ultimately lead to unreliability of contact connections.
- It will be necessary to switch from the previously used circuit with a dead-grounded neutral (TN-C) to a circuit with protective earthing of consumers (TN-C-S). Power supply according to the previous TN-C scheme was used in the Soviet Union forcibly, because there was massive electrification, electrical networks were very long and, moreover, there was an acute shortage of non-ferrous metals. Since the end of the 90s, the transition to power supply according to the TN-C-S scheme began, which ensures the safe operation of consumers regardless of the general state of the network.
- It will be necessary to mount the group connection of consumers with separate branches, while earlier wiring was used by branching from the main apartment panel through junction boxes.
According to the new scheme, you will have a separate branch from the common shield, made with a single piece of cable, for each group of consumers.
Dismantling the old wiring
Replacing the electrical wiring in an apartment with your own hands begins, first of all, with a complete de-energization of the room. Disconnect the input circuit breaker to the apartment and make sure that there is no voltage.
Dismantling the old wiring is easiest to start with switches and sockets, remove them, thereby freeing the ends of the wires. Open the covers of the junction boxes and disconnect all wiring assemblies. Now, pulling gently on the old cable, release it from the putty strobes. A special device will help to find wires in wall surfaces. a hidden wiring indicator, some in this case even use a metal detector.
If in some place it is not possible to dismantle the cable, then do not try too hard, do not destroy the walls. Leave the problematic section of the wiring in the old furrow, just carefully insulate its ends on both sides.
Drawing up a diagram
At the initial stage, all work will be of a theoretical nature, that is, it will be necessary to clearly determine the scheme and the amount of materials.
Before changing the wiring in an apartment, draw up a diagram on which to depict the plan of the living space. It will be most convenient to take it from the technical passport and redraw it on paper in a box.
In this drawing, display where all the large-sized furniture will stand (so as not to plan the installation of sockets behind it) and household appliances (in this case, on the contrary, the sockets must be mounted side by side). Determine the location of the switches, as a rule, they are mounted near the front door to the room. Mark where you will need sockets, except for the places of installation of stationary household appliances (refrigerator, oven, air conditioner), that is, it is advisable to decide in advance where you will put or hang the TV, stereo system, computer.
Draw the locations of the lighting elements. sconces, bedside lamps, floor lamps.
Keep in mind that powerful household appliances, such as a water heater, an electric stove, a washing machine or a dishwasher, a “warm floor”, should not be connected to the power supply through the sockets, but with a separate line from the individual machine.
Before you change the wiring in the apartment, you will need to stock up not only with materials, but also with a fairly large number of tools. If you do not have all the necessary devices, then it may still make sense to turn to professionals. Check out the list of everything you need to install a new wiring, and then make a decision for yourself.
The ideal option is to rent a power tool.
- A hammer drill and a set of drills for concrete (as well as a concrete drill, a core drill and a chisel). This tool is required for mounting holes for sockets, switches and boxes.
- Level, plumb line and cord for marking the laying of wires.
- an angle grinder (and a stone circle to it) or a wall chaser for making grooves in the walls for wires.
- A spatula and plaster of paris (or alabaster) for filling the strobes after the wires have been laid in them.
- An assembly knife or a special device for stripping the insulating layer on the wires (stripper).
- Pliers, a set of flat and cross-head screwdrivers, side cutters.
- Soldering iron with solder and rosin for connecting wires.
- Indicator screwdriver for phase and zero detection.
- Long carrying. During repair work, you will use a temporary hut to power the power tool, and its length should be sufficient to the most remote rooms and corners.
How to replace copper wiring
Why is it needed?
In most old houses, and in almost all modern houses, electrical wiring is carried out with single-insulated aluminum wire. over, most often the cross-section of this wiring was calculated based on a power consumption of 1-2 kW, which was quite normal for the 60s of the last century, but not for modern apartments. Let’s count. A TV set. 200-300 W, a microwave oven. up to a kilowatt, an electric kettle. 800. 1500 W, an electric heater. at least one and a half kilowatts, etc. Not surprisingly, the old wiring doesn’t hold up. And if the “automatic machines” in the apartment board do not work, then the progressive destruction of the insulation of aluminum wires begins. It’s not far from here to a short circuit. In addition, any leakage or dampness affects aluminum very negatively. It becomes brittle and brittle. The same thing happens under the influence of time. For this reason, it is believed that the service life of such wiring is no more than 15-20 years.
Therefore, if you periodically lose contact in the sockets, electrical appliances cannot be turned on at the same time without “knocking out” the machine, and when replacing the chandelier, the wires break like matches, this means that it is time to change the wiring.
With basic knowledge and compliance with electrical safety rules, it is quite possible to master the replacement yourself. The main rule is not to work under voltage and be careful.
For work you will need:
- apartment plan with the desired location of the connection points
- electrical cable
- automatic machines
- sockets and switches
- hammer drill with long drill
- gypsum plaster
- junction boxes
- screwdrivers, side cutters and pliers
- multimeter or test lamp
- phase indicator
- powerful soldering iron
- rag insulated tape and insulating caps
- installation boxes for switches and sockets
If something from this list raises a question for you. “What is this?”, Then you should not undertake a replacement yourself. Better to turn to professionals. Average per square meter of apartment area. Money is not big enough to risk your life unnecessarily.
So let’s get started. We start simple. we take an apartment plan and mark the location of sockets and switches. Remember that according to the installation rules, there must be at least 10 cm from the ceiling and floor to wiring accessories.
After that, we consider the load. To do this, simply add up the approximate power consumption of all electrical appliances in the apartment. For each light source, add another 100 watts to the total. We divide the resulting amount by 220 (Ohm’s law) and we get the approximate amount of current for which the wiring in the apartment should be calculated. Typically, the value is obtained in the range from 12 to 16 amperes. This corresponds to the required cable cross-section of 1.5 sq. Mm. If the current is higher, then it makes sense to think about laying several parallel lines of wiring from the electrical panel, for each of which it will be necessary to provide a separate disconnecting device (“automatic”). It usually does not make sense to lay the wiring with a cable of a larger cross-section, since the costs for it increase significantly, and the reliability of the resulting power supply system decreases.
According to the finished plan, we calculate the amount of required cable, as well as sockets and other things. One installation box must also be provided for each outlet and switch. They are of two types. for brick and concrete walls and for drywall.
Now you can get to work. First you need to de-energize the old wiring. To do this, carefully open the apartment panel, find the packet switch that belongs to your apartment, and turn it off. At the same time, we try to observe maximum precautions. do not touch the wires, do not grab the metal of the shield or door with our hands, etc. If you have even the slightest doubt about the correctness of your actions or if you do not know where what and how is located, then ask a professional electrician to do the operation.
After that, you can start working without fear of getting under stress. It is better to start the replacement not from the side of the entrance, but from the side of the back room. It is unlikely that you can do all the work in one daylight. But the apartment is de-energized.
Start by looking for a junction box in the room. This is easy to do, since its cover is visible on the wall. In case the wiring is laid under the floor, look for an entry into the room. Now open the lid. Underneath you will find a bunch of a wide variety of wires. Find the main. introductory. Cut off and insulate the ends carefully. Now you can turn on the electricity in the panel again and work with the power tool.
Try to remove all old wiring. If it is hidden under plaster, then most often it is not difficult to do this. It is enough just to pull well at the ends of the wires and, using a puncher or a hand tool, remove the layer of plaster over the wire. In this case, you also save time on laying new strobes. If the wires are laid in a concrete wall or under the floor and do not lend themselves, then they can simply be cut. After removing the old wiring, you can start laying a new one. There are several options. The first is to lay the wiring in the old gate or to grind the walls again. In any case, it is unacceptable to leave open twists or joints. They must be carried out in junction boxes and carefully insulated. In this case, it is better to keep track of the color match of the wires. This is necessary so that it is clear where the phase wire is located. In luminaires, it MUST be connected to the central contact of the socket.
The easiest way is to measure the required length and perform the entire installation on the floor, and only then lay it in the grooves.
Do not forget that the switches for lighting are not included in the circuit in parallel, but in series with the lighting device.!
After laying the cable in the grooves, they are putty with any suitable quick-drying gypsum filler or alabaster. After they dry, sockets or switches are installed. In this case, the ends of the wires are best served with a soldering iron.
Similarly, work is carried out in all other rooms, with the exception of technical rooms, where it is better to use a gasket in a metal hose.
After these works are completed, the final stage begins. connection to the shield. If you decide to make several parallel power supply lines, then you need to think over the laying of several parallel cables to the switchboard. Usually two mowing lines are laid. one to the kitchen (washing machine, oven, refrigerator, etc.) and the other to the living quarters. We are not yet touching on the issue of connecting an electric stove, since this is a separate large topic.
Cut-off devices (“automatic devices”) must be provided for each line of the power supply. There are two options for their installation. in the corridor dashboard or in the apartment. If you choose the second option, then simply run all the lead-in cables from each room to the place where you plan to install the shield. At the same time, remember that the passage of cables through the wall should be made at least in a metal hose, or better. in the pipe.
1This completes your work. Installing circuit breakers and connecting new wiring to the switchboard is a matter for a professional electrician. So don’t even try to do this job yourself.
Stage 4. Laying new wiring
Now the most important thing is that you need to independently replace the electrical wiring in the apartment with a new, more reliable one.
We will not dwell in detail at this stage, since we considered in detail the installation of electrical wiring in the apartment in the corresponding article.
When the replacement of the apartment wiring is completed, it is imperative to photograph the cable routing along the walls. This is done so that if problems arise, you can easily find the damaged area from the photo.
Do not rush to cover the grooves with a solution, this should be done after all the wiring has been checked for operability.
The video below clearly demonstrates an example of a new wiring in an apartment, after replacement:
Stage 3. Dismantle the old line
The old wiring can now be replaced. To do this, be sure to turn off the electricity at the entrance to the apartment, remove all interfering furniture and begin to destroy the wall decoration.
Replacement of electrical wiring in the apartment is carried out from the junction boxes in each of the rooms. These electrical “points” can be detected by the plastic covers in the wall or by the prominent contours through the wallpaper. The cover is twisted, after which all the twists are disconnected, and the old cable is carefully released from the putty strobes. You can also find a wire in the wall using a homemade metal detector, which is created from improvised means in a matter of minutes.
We draw your attention to the fact that in some places the line cannot be dismantled from the wall without significant damage to the structure. In this case, you can do without strobing if you cut off the problem area and carefully insulate it, leaving it in the old strobe!
Stage 1. Determining the scope of work
The first thing to start with is to find out in the management company or power sales organization whether it is possible to increase the allocated capacity, since replacing the wiring without increasing the allocated capacity will not solve the problem of the knocking out machine when the washing machine and the electric kettle are turned on. Even if you received a refusal to increase the allocated power, still calculate the wiring for the required load and lay a three-wire circuit in case of reconstruction of your house and replacement of the riser with the organization of grounding in the apartment.
Next, you must determine whether to completely change the line or just certain areas. Here, of course, it’s up to you, but we can say with confidence that the buildings of the 60s used an aluminum conductor of a small section to create an electrical network, most likely without grounding. This option is extremely dangerous and cannot even be partially restored, therefore it is better to completely replace the wiring in the apartment with your own hands once and be calm.
If the conductors are in this condition, the apartment wiring must be changed:
You should also evaluate your strengths and decide whether the wiring in the apartment will be replaced on your own, or whether you will need to call a specialist. There is already a stick at both ends. On the one hand, there are no special difficulties in laying the mowing line, but on the other hand, you will need a special tool, calculations and certain skills in working with electricity. If you still want to test your strength, then we will consider in detail all the stages of work in the form of step-by-step instructions.
Immediately we recommend that you review the steps for replacing the wiring with
How to replace the electrical wiring in an apartment. step by step instructions
- Stage 1. Determining the scope of work
- Stage 2. Determining the scheme and materials
- Stage 3. Dismantle the old fishing line
- Stage 4. Laying new wiring
- Stage 5. Proof check
Stage 2. Determining the scheme and materials
Now we go directly to the calculation work. To begin with, you need to draw up a wiring diagram yourself, which will indicate the installation locations of new switches, sockets, junction boxes and powerful household appliances that will be powered directly (for example, an electric stove).
Before starting the replacement, we recommend that you look at the wiring diagram in a one-room apartment, which provides the simplest option for displaying a group of lighting and sockets in all rooms. Further, based on the diagram, you need to calculate the amount of materials, while simultaneously choosing the most suitable characteristics.
It should be noted right away that the installation of hidden wiring is used in the apartment, which is associated with many nuances: electrical safety, influence on the interior of rooms, fire safety, etc. At the same time, no one prohibits replacing the electrical wiring in the apartment with an open one with your own hands, it all depends on your preferences and strengths.
We advise you to adhere to the following recommendations in order to correctly replace the wiring:
- The cable is copper, three-core, with a cross-section of at least 2.5 mm 2 for the socket group, 1.5 mm 2 for lamps and 4 mm 2 for powerful electrical appliances. We recommend calculating the cable cross-section in order to accurately determine the appropriate core diameter. As for the brand, it is better to give preference to the expensive foreign NYM labeling product. From domestic, which are cheaper, we recommend using VVG or better VVGng-LS.
- Protective automation. You cannot do without it, tk. it is imperative that when replacing electrical wiring in an apartment, it is necessary to protect the wiring from current leaks, short circuits and overloads. For this, an RCD and a circuit breaker (or a combined device. difavtomat) are used. The machine and the RCD have different characteristics, which are selected based on the loads on the line. For example, for a three-room apartment, it is customary to install machines for 16A on sockets. for lighting. 10A, for a powerful electric stove. 32A. The rating of the input circuit breaker on the switchboard is indicated in the power supply contract, because limited by the allocated power. The residual current device is placed at a value higher than the machine. From the manufacturers we recommend giving preference to the leading companies. ABB, Schneider Electric and Legrand.
- Junction boxes for an apartment are selected based on the branching of the groups and the cross-section of all conductors. Rectangular and square boxes are more spacious, but round boxes are much easier to install.
- The sockets must be grounded; to protect from children, purchase products with special curtains that will prevent foreign objects from entering. Pay attention to the product labeling so that the outlet can withstand current loads, otherwise problems cannot be avoided in the future when connecting powerful household appliances.
- Twists are prohibited to use, the list of permitted connections is given in PUE 2.1.21 (Chapter 2.1 of the PUE), but we have listed them in the next paragraph.
- The conductors of wires and cables can be connected using screw and spring clamps and terminal blocks, by welding, soldering, bolting, by pressing. Currently, one of the most convenient and popular types of connection is the wago terminal blocks, they are excellent for most cases and are easy to use. Crimping is not a bad connection, but a special tool is required. However, the most reliable connection is welding and brazing, but also the most time consuming. You can read more about this issue in the article https://samelectrik.ru/sposoby-soedineniya-provodov-v-raspredelitelnoj-korobke.html
- There are no special requirements for switches, the main thing is that they are convenient and safe. Among all types of light switches, keyboards and dimmers are popular.
Stage 5. Proof check
Well, the last, no less important event is the continuity of the new wiring in the apartment with a multimeter. This device will allow you to determine the health of the wiring and the presence of a short circuit, if suddenly you connected something wrong. If the device showed no errors, then you can connect the finished fishing line to the lead-in box and check the performance of all lamps, switches and sockets. We talked about how the continuity of the cable is performed in a separate article.
If all the elements of the circuit are working, turn off the power again and proceed to sealing the strobe. This completes the do-it-yourself replacement of the electrical wiring in the apartment. As you can see, the event is quite laborious and requires skills, but nevertheless, with a great desire and care, you can independently carry out electrical installation. We hope our step-by-step instructions were useful and understandable for you.!
Finally, we recommend watching the video, thanks to which it will become clear whether it is worth changing the old wiring in the apartment or whether you can get by with a partial replacement of the electrical network:
How to lay new mowing lines
If you just need to replace the electrical wiring in the Khrushchev, it is simply laid along the same channels in the plates. To do this, screw a new one to the veins of the old cable and stretch it. If the cable does not stretch. perhaps somewhere there is a walled up junction box or outlet and the cable is held on asbestos or plaster. you need to find where it is. When you break it, the line will tug with ease.
The video below clearly shows how to do it correctly:
But if you want to increase the number of outlets or move them, difficulties arise. It is not always possible to gouge load-bearing slabs.
Important! You cannot make horizontal grooves. According to some regulatory documents, this is prohibited, for example, Decree of the Moscow Government dated February 8, 2005 N 73-PP “On the procedure for reorganizing premises in residential buildings on the territory of the city of Moscow” and its editions. There is also information about the prohibition of horizontal strobes in slabs longer than 3 meters. This is due to the fact that due to the axial load, the plate can “fold” along the groove. Therefore, it is worth doing without strobing.
Consider 3 options for laying new wiring lines in Khrushchev. New mowing lines are laid:
- By floor. The cables are laid in a corrugation under the floor screed. The disadvantage is the difficulty in the event of a cable failure. you have to hammer the tie. We talked about how to conduct electrical wiring in the floor in a separate article.
- In the skirting boards. There are a number of skirting boards with cable channels on sale, in which case you only need to make a small vertical line to the new outlet. You can learn more from the article: how to wire the skirting board.
- Under a suspended or suspended ceiling, or behind other elements of plasterboard structures. You will also have to make vertical grooves, but this is actually a semblance of external wiring laid in a corrugated pipe along the ceiling or its corner with a wall.
Interior partitions made of bricks, aerated concrete, “shingles” and other materials can be cut and laid as you like.
How to replace electrical wiring in Khrushchev. step by step instructions
- Three reasons to replace wiring
- Where to find wiring
- How to lay new mowing lines
- 5 stages of replacing wiring in Khrushchev
Where to find wiring
Wiring in panel houses is laid in special channels inside the panels. They are provided for by the design of the plates. In the picture below you can see some examples of typical channel locations.
You may notice that the channels are angled rather than always vertically or horizontally as is generally assumed. In addition to these channels, it is possible to lay wires in beams under the ceiling. These beams resemble curbs protruding from the wall surface in the corner with the ceiling slab.
Wiring requires connections, so find the location of the junction boxes as well. They can be open. protrude slightly above the wall, then their contents are hidden behind a plastic cover, or they can be plastered.
Interesting! In a one-room apartment there can be only 1 switch box, which is accessible without removing the wallpaper.
In this case, in order to find the switch box, you will have to not only remove the wallpaper, but it is also possible to tap the entire wall along the ceiling corner until you hear the characteristic sound of emptiness. After which this place simply breaks through. The same is done on the ceiling. We talked in detail about how to find a junction box in a separate article.
Once you find all the boxes and sockets, you can see how the wires are routed. The figure below shows the appearance of the wiring duct at the bottom of the overhead junction box.
By the way, Khrushchevs can be divided into two types. The first is houses with load-bearing external walls, that is, those in which there are windows, and the second. with load-bearing internal walls. In any case, concrete slabs are a load-bearing structure, and those that do not perform a load-bearing role are stiffeners, more on this below.
Replacing electrical wiring in Khrushchev requires at least an approximate knowledge of where it can be (where the cable runs), as well as knowledge of typical circuits. The electrical diagram of the apartment depends on the number of rooms. Generally, the following situation comes out: in each living room there is 1 lamp and 2-4 sockets (depending on the area), while in small rooms, about 10 sq. m. maybe even 1 outlet.
Below is a selection of typical solutions for wiring Khrushchev.
For 1 room apartment:
For 2 rooms:
The video below clearly shows how to find the wiring in the Khrushchev:
Three reasons to replace wiring
People remember the state of electrical equipment only when problems arise in its operation. Most of these houses were built from the 50s to the 80s, that is, more than 30 years have passed. So, why is it necessary and is it worth changing the wiring in Khrushchev?
- Old cracked insulation. The service life of PVC-insulated cables is 15-25 years. But in Soviet times, cables in rubber insulation, and even with aluminum conductors, were used for electrical wiring. The service life of old wiring in rubber insulation, depending on the specific case, is two or more times shorter than that of PVC insulation.
- Aluminum and its conductivity and softness. Aluminum is a soft and fluid metal and has been banned from household wiring for more than 15 years. Contact connections of aluminum wires must be tightened once a year (depending on operating conditions).
- Equipment capacity “then” and “now”. At the time of designing electrical wiring for Khrushchev, potential residents could have such electrical equipment at home. a radio, a TV, an iron, a refrigerator and a light bulb. Therefore, the cross section of the TPG was selected accordingly. Now the load has increased, they are already using copper cables with a cross section of 2.5 sq. mm for outlet groups, which allows powering more than 3 kW on one mowing line.
These reasons are enough to replace the wiring with modern copper, made with VVGng-LS cable or similar.
5 stages of wiring replacement in Khrushchev
In principle, the renewal and modernization of electrical wiring in Khrushchev does not differ much from other housing. We’ve outlined five basic steps to help you figure out where to start:
- Scheme. The first step is to draw up a wiring diagram. It is more convenient to do this on the plan of the apartment. On it, mark the estimated location of all electrical equipment and calculate the number of outlets and lamps, with an approximate value of their power.
- Section of veins. You can calculate the cross-section of wires and cables by hand or using our online calculator. In this case, calculate the wire from the meter to the junction box taking into account the maximum load that will be powered from this box, taking into account all subsequent connected boxes and rooms. The latter is especially true for owners of large apartments (3 or 4 rooms) where there are several walk-through rooms, often they are connected in a loop one after the other through distribution boxes.
- Markup. the stage of marking the walls begins, where switches, sockets, sconces and so on will be located. This will help in calculating the length of the cables and calculate the number of wiring accessories, after which you can draw up an estimate for the wiring and a procurement list.
- Searching for channels and laying new lines. Taking into account the above, it is necessary to replace the old wiring, slash new lines or prepare for installation on the floor, behind the GK-structures or in the baseboards.
- Installation of wiring and assembly of wiring diagrams. After all the wires take their places, they check the circuit for short circuits from the shield to each junction box, outlet, lamp. The final chord is the assembly of the connection diagram for the electrical switchboard of the entire apartment.
Also, it is worth considering separately such an issue as grounding in Khrushchev. In recent years, grounding issues have become especially relevant, because due to the abundance of electrical appliances, the risk of electric shock increases. In Khrushchev, there has always been a two-wire power grid, or the so-called. TN-C system. Since it is forbidden to interfere with the power supply scheme of the house yourself, the only thing that remains for you is to wait for the supply company (or management organization) to re-equip the power grids in your house or entrance. An excellent solution would be a collective appeal of the residents of the house.
While there is no grounding in Khrushchev, we recommend connecting an RCD in the shield, it will protect against electric shock in case of current leakage.
Important! Do not ground anything to radiators, plumbing pipes or fittings. This is ineffective, and in the first two cases it can be life-threatening for you and other residents.
You can find out more tips on replacing the wiring in the apartment from the article of our colleagues who are engaged in this type of work: http://mrelektrik.ru/zamena-elektroprovodki-svoimi-rukami/.
We hope that after reading this article, it became clear to you how to change the wiring in the Khrushchev with your own hands and where the old wiring goes. Please note, if you do not have experience in electrical work, you can make mistakes. Therefore, it is not recommended to start work in such a case. Better to call an electrician, at least for a consultation.
Why you need to put the knife on the trimmer
A trimmer with a knife mounted on it is most convenient to use for more comfortable mowing of tall and coarse grass in the country. The line on the lawn mower in such cases does not cope. Thin tears very quickly. Using 2.3mm thick cord or homemade rods with cables causes the vegetation to wrap around the spool. This increases the load on the engine. As a result, the piston group and other moving parts of the unit wear out very quickly.
If the weeds are mowed with an electric trimmer without a knife, only a fishing line, even a thick one with a curly section, will not solve the problem. There is always a risk of overheating the motor and damaging the flexible shaft. And it’s all about the large torque of the electric motor. Grass wrapped around the spindle creates a strong resistance to the shaft, which resembles a speedometer cable, which does not withstand and twists.
In order to protect the equipment from premature wear, manufacturers have provided for the possibility of installing special knives on the trimmers. The design and shape of the existing cutting elements allows you to easily cope not only with coarse and overgrown grass, but also successfully deal with young shrub growth.
How to put the knife on the trimmer
With the arrival of summer, many owners of personal plots are worried about the question of how to put the knife on the trimmer. No less relevant are the questions of why and when it is advisable to replace the line on a lawn mower with a more durable cutting element. In our article we will try to disassemble all this and give useful recommendations to summer residents.
What knives to put on an electric and lawn mower
Before buying and putting a knife on a lawn mower, let’s find out what they are and in what cases they are used. Today manufacturers offer the consumer a large number of types of these consumables. In general, all cutting tools designed for mowing grass can be classified:
- By the type of material from which it is made;
- By the shape of its cutting blades.
The main material for the manufacture of trimmer knives can be plastic or metal. The use of such consumables largely depends on two parameters:
- Lawn mowers type;
- Mowing areas.
For safety reasons, manufacturers do not recommend putting steel knives on electric trimmers. Almost all electric and battery powered lawn mowers are equipped with plastic blades. Depending on the manufacturer, they can be of a solid disc-shaped design, with several blades or in the form of a special mowing head providing for the installation of removable plastic blades.
Straight bar for petrol trimmer and curved for electric
To put a metal knife on an electric trimmer is not allowed by its design features.
- The curved bar of the machine reduces the distance from its working part to the mower’s feet. In the event of a collision of the blades with a stone or other solid object, the scythe is thrown to the feet.
- The high torque we mentioned above, in the event of a metal blade hitting a hard object, transfers a large load to the trimmer flex shaft and its motor. What causes them to fail prematurely.
- The handle of the electric scythe most often does not have a limiting bar acting as a stop. Which does not exclude injury to the legs.
It is these features that make it possible to use exclusively plastic knives on trimmers with electric motors. When hitting an obstacle, the blades are destroyed, thereby protecting the mower’s legs from possible injury.
Plastic knives do a good job on overgrown and dry grass. They can mow nettles and burdock stalks.
The use of metal knives only on gasoline trimmers is also due to design features.
- Straight bar design increases leg clearance for complete safety.
- Comfortable U-shaped and J-shaped handles provide a firm grip. D-shaped handles of lawn mowers are equipped with a limiter that rests on the leg of the mower, which does not allow the head to come close to the feet when the cutting disc meets a solid obstacle.
- The clutch of the gasoline engine allows for smooth acceleration to the optimum level. And when the blade hits a hard surface, it is able to extinguish part of the impact.
Thus, gasoline trimmers with a metal blade installed are best used in large areas. They will successfully cope not only with high coarse grass, weeds, burdocks and nettles, but also shrubs, as well as young trees.
The shape of the blades of the disc supplied to the trimmer in no way affects the quality of the work performed. Speed does not depend on them either. Triangular, trapezoidal, rectangular shapes are all the marketing ploy of manufacturers.
If you plan on making hay, it is best to use knives with a large number of blades on the mower. Note the discs with eight teeth, or discs with four large blades and four additional blades. Two and three bladed knives will chop the grass hard.
How to put a knife on the trimmer correctly
Putting the knife on the trimmer is not that difficult. The manufacturer completes its tools with a special pin that allows you to block the gearbox and a wrench with which the spool and fishing line are unscrewed. The most important thing is to observe safety precautions and the sequence of assembly and disassembly when changing cutting elements.
The algorithm for setting the knife to the trimmer is as follows:
- Remove the protective cover;
- We block the drive. To do this, it is necessary to align two holes. in the shaft hub and in the gearbox cup. After combining them, insert a pin into the holes;
- We unscrew the spool with line or the fastening nut holding the boot (if the trimmer has not been used yet) from the hub clockwise;
- Next, we install the cutting knife, so that the slots on the hub washer coincide with the recesses in the hole of the cutting disc;
- Install the boot;
- We tighten the fastening nut (counterclockwise) while holding the locking pin;
- We tighten it using a tubular wrench;
- Putting back the protective cover.
As you can see, there is nothing complicated. Now you can safely start mowing weeds on the site.