# How to charge a lithium-ion battery in an electric screwdriver

## How to properly charge a lithium-ion battery in an electric screwdriver?

Charge at temperatures between 10 ° C and 30 ° C. Once every 4 months, carry out a full discharge-charge cycle to calibrate the charge level sensor in the battery controllers. That is, discharge it to almost 100% and put it on charge for 12 hours. You need to store Li-ion at a charge of 40-60%.

## How to properly charge the battery for the first time?

Swing. the basic rule of the first charge

• Fully discharge the phone before turning off the phone.
• Connect the charger.
• Leave the phone to charge for several hours, for example overnight.
• Repeat this procedure 2 or 4 times.

## How to charge lithium-ion batteries?

You need to charge a lithium-ion battery with a voltage of 5 volts so as not to wait indefinitely. In this case, the optimal charge current should be from 50 to 100% of the capacity value, that is, a battery with a capacity of 2400 mAh will optimally charge with a current of 2.4 A to 1.2 A.

## How to charge a lithium-ion battery for the first time?

• – the battery of the newly acquired gadget must be discharged 2-3 times to zero;
• – the first charge must last at least 16 hours;
• – in no case should you interrupt the first battery charging.

## How long can a lithium-ion battery be stored?

How the lithium-ion battery works

A 30% loss is considered the end of a battery‘s life cycle, which lasts from 2 to 5 years (or 500 to 1000 cycles, depending on operating conditions). May 24, 2011.

## What voltage to charge a 3.7 V lithium battery?

Now with regard to charging such a battery. You need to charge it with a voltage equal to the sum of the maximum voltages on all batteries. For lithium, it is 4.2 volts.

## How to charge a Li-ion battery in a screwdriver

Brought 6 Makitov devices for repair a couple of weeks ago.

4 screwdrivers, 1 jigsaw and 1 sander.

They told me the price of the repair. It turned out that only one screwdriver made economic sense to restore. The rest went to spare parts.

In general, by itself the time has come to replace the fleet of hand-held battery tools.

So I bought new screwdrivers with Li-ion batteries for all carpenters at once.

Guys are used to Ni-cd batteries, and Li-ion requires a very different approach. Straight to the opposite.

And, of course, it’s not just about how to charge the Li-ion battery of a screwdriver. If it is not properly discharged and / or stored, there will be little good for it either.

Therefore, I looked at a couple of dozen sites and a couple of hours of video.

Threw out all the husks and made the most “dry” without “water” squeeze.

## How to charge a Li-ion battery in a screwdriver and other important rules for its use

Depth of discharge Number of charge cycles
100% 500
fifty% 1500
25% 2500
10% 4700
• Li-ion works optimally in the range from 10 to 45 ° C. Charge at a temperature of 10 to 30 ° C.
• Once every 4 months, carry out a full discharge-charge cycle to calibrate the charge level sensor in the battery controllers. That is, discharge to almost 100% and put on charge for 12 hours.
• You need to store Li-ion at 40-60% charge. It is impossible to store 100% charged Li-ion, since in this case it will permanently lose 20% of its capacity in 3 months. With proper storage. with a charge of 40-60%. Li-ion will irrevocably lose only 1% of its capacity in the same 3 months.
• If the screwdriver is equipped with two Li-ion, then charge one up to 40-60% and store it as a backup. Use it as a worker once a month. charge to 100%, discharge to 40-60% and store again. The second Li-ion is the main worker. Work it. at the end of each day, put it on recharge, even if it is less than 10% discharged.

Use a backup Li-ion if the main working Li-ion is discharged as a result of intensive work and there is no time to wait for it to charge.

That’s all. Now you know how to charge a Li-ion battery for an electric screwdriver.

I handed this to every carpenter, and even hung it on the notice board in the workshop.

And there may still be a question. why did I switch from Ni-cd to Li-ion cordless screwdrivers?

Here are the advantages of Li-ion batteries over Ni-cd:

• at least 2 times higher specific capacity;
• self-discharge is several times less;
• no memory effect, which makes it possible to recharge at any time;
• withstands on average twice as many “charge-discharge” cycles, that is, it will live twice as long.

And finally, if you work with an electric screwdriver professionally. do not hesitate too much. it will crumble at the same time as the Li-ion battery. So you probably won’t have to buy a separate Li-ion battery.

Just with reasonable non-vandal use, an electric screwdriver should be enough for a couple of years.

And, yes, one more important rule. Do not skimp on the power of an electric screwdriver. It corresponds to the voltage of the battery. Take with a 20 volt Li-ion battery at least. Will twist like a beast.

And buy a weak one. there will be little use from him, and there will be no joy from a penny saving either.

In general, I took screwdrivers with 25 volt Li-ion batteries. The joiners will not get enough of it. Especially after 14 volt Ni-cd.

Look like that’s it. If you still have questions, do not agree with something. write in the Комментарии и мнения владельцев.

### Selection of the charging block suitable for the characteristics

On the battery, or the electric screwdriver itself, the parameters are indicated: voltage value (volts), battery capacity (ampere / hour). The same dimension of current, identical power should be given by the charger. A charging module from any other device that has identical indicators can charge the battery of an electric screwdriver: you need to strip the wires, connect the battery connectors using crocodile clips.

## How to charge the battery of an electric screwdriver without a charger: methods

The absence or complete breakdown of the memory of the electric screwdriver will stop all planned work. But, using ingenuity, some available tools, the question that has arisen about how to charge the battery of an electric screwdriver without a charger can be successfully solved. There are several ways to solve this problem.

### Using the car battery charger

Such a device can damage the battery of an electric screwdriver, because its output characteristics are different, therefore the charging process can be carried out only after their leveling. The safest use of a car charger equipped with a voltage level control system. If there is one, it is recommended to set the following parameters: with a battery power of 1.3 ampere / hour, the current value is set at 650.130 mA, that is, the current value is 0.5. 0.1 part of the total battery power.

### The use of a universal memory

For purchase, there are universal charging units, the output parameters of which are adjusted according to the needs of the user, the individual characteristics of the type of device that needs to be charged. Their complete set includes an adapter for the most popular connectors, crocodile clips, such gadgets are suitable for many types of devices, tools.

### Making a homemade charging block

It is possible to fabricate a homemade unit to charge the drive. To do this, the terminals of the failed battery are soldered, respectively, the polarity through the expanded holes are soldered wires. The location of the wires is sealed with some kind of filler, for example, a roll of thick paper / cardboard. The lid is fixed with glue on the charging glass. The assembled unit is placed into the battery through an adapter.

## How to charge an electric screwdriver battery without a charger: safety

Before using any other charging method, except for the native charger, it should be remembered that:

• The process must be continuously monitored, at the end of filling the battery it is recommended to stop the procedure, because from overflow, the electrolytic cells of the battery are capable of boiling, the temperature will rise sharply, the appearance of the slightest spark will explode the entire structure;
• Non-native, homemade chargers threaten to completely ruin the battery, excluding the possibility of its subsequent restoration;
• It is necessary to ensure the correct inclusion of all elements of the circuit, strict consideration of the technical parameters of the battery when installing the circuit, the safety of the procedure, the observance of polarity;
• If the characteristics of the modules differ slightly (for example, 10 and 13 volts), then you cannot charge the battery for a long time.

### Charging via external sources of electricity.

If the power tool is very worn out, it is possible to purchase a universal charger for an electric screwdriver, or a unit that matches your particular model of tool. You will find a huge selection of power supplies for screwdrivers at MegaBattery.ru

Continuing the topic, you can connect the device to any source of electricity. This is usually done using an old battery of commensurate parameters. A 10A fuse is integrated into the circuit. Wiring must be oversized.

## What you need to know about the battery

The charging process always depends on which battery is being charged. It is impossible to replenish the charge of models of different characteristics and types with the same mode.

To summarize, you can approximately choose the correct charge mode if you have data on the type of battery, its capacity and voltage.

• Battery type. Why is it important to know the type? It is enough to compare the nominal voltage of the lithium titanate and lithium ion batteries. 2.4V and 3.7V respectively. It is not difficult to guess what consequences the charge of a lithium-titanate battery can lead to by some kind of abstract charger for a lithium battery, which is intended specifically for Li-ion.
• Battery capacity. This parameter of the rechargeable battery is important due to the fact that the current, as a rule, is selected as a percentage of the nominal capacity. Lithium-ion batteries, for example, are not recommended to be charged with a current higher than 0.5C-1C (current equal to 50% and 100%, respectively, in relation to the capacity in ampere-hours). This indicator can vary significantly from model to model. A striking example of this. lithium titanate batteries, some models of which allow charging with currents hundreds of times higher than the nominal capacity.
• Battery voltage. The type of lithium battery only indicates the voltage of one cell or an individual battery consisting of one cell. Nevertheless, in order to select a charger or a suitable mode on an existing memory, it is necessary to know the total voltage of the entire circuit, since it can be increased many times by connecting the cells in series. In ready-made batteries based on many cells, the voltage is always indicated in the marking.

## How to charge a lithium battery

At the moment, depending on the application, the most popular are two types of batteries: lithium and lead-acid. Lead-acid batteries are gradually losing popularity, as they do not have a high energy density and a long service life. If you need the most compact power source, the choice always falls on lithium batteries.

As with lead acid counterparts, lithium batteries come in many types. The most common are lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-pol). They are used in mobile gadgets and even in electric cars. For example, Tesla model S has more than 7 thousand Panasonic Li-ion NCR18650B lithium-ion batteries.

### VOTO 12 Volt Lithium-ion Battery Cordless Screwdriver. Battery Replacement

Most of the equipment that uses lithium batteries have built-in charging mechanisms, so the user only needs to connect to the mains. In other cases, the charge must be carried out independently. The battery needs to be properly charged for the battery to last for a long time.

How do I charge a lithium battery so as not to harm it? Despite the obviousness, let’s try to figure out how to charge a lithium battery, and how. it is impossible.

## How to charge the battery

Often, users are interested in the network, how to charge a motorcycle lithium battery. Considering that the lithium battery is for a motorcycle. this is a factory-made device, not home-made, all important information, including the charge current, is usually located on the tag. Another thing. this is when there is a battery assembled from one or more cells, including the previously mentioned panasonic batteries.

It is important to consider the presence in the battery or in the protection circuit in the form of BMS. BMS. it is a controller that performs many functions at once. It can protect batteries from dangerous voltages and currents, balance the cells in the last stages of charging, and adjust the supplied voltage. Charging lithium-ion batteries directly can pose a hazard to the battery, especially if a makeshift charger is used. It is not recommended to use handicraft devices both on the basis of a transformer with a diode bridge and on the basis of converted computer power supplies, even for lead-acid batteries.

If, for some reason, there is no BMS in the lithium battery, it is required to set the voltage on the charger, which is the maximum for this type of battery. For example, lithium-ion batteries, when fully charged, produce 4.2V per cell, and LiFePO4. 3.65. If the current, at the same time, exceeds 0.5C, it is recommended to limit it. If the charger does not allow you to regulate the current, you can lower it by lowering the output voltage. Once it is reached, it can be raised to the final value corresponding to a full battery charge.

In the case of lithium batteries equipped with BMS (fortunately, there are most of them), everything is much simpler. The controller will simply not allow the supply of dangerous current and voltage ratings. The only exception. this is when the user solders the BMS to their battery assembly by themselves. In such a case, it cannot be guaranteed that the controller is configured correctly in accordance with the requirements of a particular battery pack. In principle, if the user assembles the battery and solders the controller on his own. apparently he knows what he is doing.

However, the best way is to safely and 100% charge any type of battery pack. it is to use a smart charger that works in automatic mode. Such a device not only produces a constant current with a certain voltage rating, but changes the charge mode depending on the stage. Also an important advantage are the numerous configurable parameters that allow the same instrument to be used with completely different battery assemblies.

The choice of a charger should be taken as seriously as possible, since the battery life largely depends on the quality of the charge. And if the battery consists of many cells with a high total cost, then even a small increase in battery life saves a significant amount.

## Two-stage charging scheme

This is considered the best method for charging Li-ion batteries. Here the controller circuit has a heavy load, but it does not in any way affect the battery life.

The first stage of charging for a li-ion battery depends on the saturation of the charging current. The calculated value of the current is from 0.2A to 0.5A, and the power is 12.6V. A stable charging current is produced by the operation of the charger, which increases the battery potentials. When a value of 4.2V is reached, the battery has a state of charge of 70%. This completes the 1st stage of lithium battery charging.

The second stage has a constant voltage and a gradually decreasing charge current. The device supports voltage at the level from 4.15V to 4.25V and controls the current parameter. The higher the value, the lower the current will be. A parameter from 0.05A to 0.01A indicates the completion of the procedure.

## How to properly charge a Li-ion battery

Among the batteries that are made on the basis of lithium ions, the most common type is 18650. The area of ​​its use is quite large: these components are used in batteries for screwdrivers, smartphones, tablets, stationary phones, for powering electric cigarettes or ordinary flashlights.

In addition, it is now gaining popularity to convert the nickel cadmium battery of an electric screwdriver to a lithium ion battery. This type is used largely due to the fact that they function much longer than the components of the previous generation.

To work with this type of battery, you need to know how to charge the lithium battery correctly and how to control this procedure. Lithium-ion batteries are charged using the circuitry and controlled by auxiliary boards.

## How much to charge a lithium battery

The duration of battery charging, including for the first time, is determined by the procedure for restoring energy capacity.

Energy consumption is measured in a / h. This means that if you give a charge corresponding to the value of the capacity, then in 1 hour the required voltage value is formed, and the degree of charge will be equal to 75%. Charging time in fast mode will take 1 hour.

For a full cycle of recharging batteries from several components connected in series, two modes are used. CC and CV. The first mode continues until the voltage reaches the operating parameter. The second mode: at a constant voltage, current flows to the battery, but as the charge increases, it approaches 0. It takes 3 hours to complete the energy recovery, regardless of the energy intensity of the device.

## How charging parameters are monitored

To learn how to properly charge ionic batteries, you need to be able to monitor the charging performance. Since lithium-ion batteries operate in a small voltage range, therefore, they need to be monitored. The best value for this parameter is between 3V and 4.2V.

The controller circuit is installed in the charger, but each battery has an individual distributor and protection system. If any violation occurs, the protection system will immediately disconnect the faulty bank.

The circuit is also designed to perform the following operations:

• transfer to CC / CV mode;
• control of energy supply in storage batteries;
• current supply to prevent self-discharge;
• temperature measurement, which helps to prevent overheating of the battery;
• disconnect charging.

It is possible to recharge the battery without such a circuit only when using a resistor, which must be connected in series with the device. You can also make the controller yourself, you just need to calculate the charge current, resistance, and power in advance.

## How to charge a lithium ion battery?

Most household electrical appliances operate on the basis of li-ion batteries, so all responsible owners need to know how to properly charge lithium-ion batteries and how to use them. To the greatest extent, such batteries have become very widespread due to their small size and good energy conservation.

In our article, we will talk in detail about how to charge a lithium-ion battery correctly, what is the energy recovery scheme, what rules are used to control the procedure, what current to charge the Li-ion battery, how long it takes to charge lithium batteries, and whether it is possible to charge the battery ordinary charging.

## How to charge a 12 volt lithium battery

To find out how to charge a battery with a voltage of 12 volts, you first need to find out what this device is, as well as what features and characteristics it has. All batteries made on the basis of lithium ions represent an impermeable structure made in the form of a cylinder or a prism. Each battery has a voltage from 3.6V to 4.2V and a different energy capacity.

However, there is one peculiarity, if you connect 3 batteries one after another, you get a battery with a voltage of 10.8V to 12.6V. In this case, the energy capacity is measured by the weakest lithium bank.

To restore the power consumption of the device, you need to use a charger that is equipped with a controller. You also need to have a control module (PCM) for all batteries and an over- and under-charge protection system. In addition, there is also another battery protection system. PCB. It is better to install it with balancers so that the batteries are charged evenly.

On the charger, you need to set the voltage at which the battery will operate (12.6V). On the charger, you must also set the number of batteries and the current to be used.

Ways to restore the energy capacity of lithium batteries:

• Use a USB connector from electrical appliances or a computer. In this case, you can get a charge current equal to 0.5A, but this way the recovery of energy capacity will take much longer.
• From the car cigarette lighter. To perform this procedure, you need to purchase a special adapter that can work with a 12V battery.

Experts recommend using only original chargers for recharging lithium batteries, since using an external charger of dubious quality can adversely affect the functioning of the battery.

## Is it possible to charge a lithium battery with regular charging

Lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries require a special approach to charging. Alkaline models are not as demanding on parameters as ionic.

For recharging at the 1st stage, lithium-ion batteries need a stable charging current, and at the 2nd stage, a stable voltage. If you do not control the 1st indicator, then an overcharge may occur. However, if the battery has a built-in overcharge protection system (BMS), monitoring is not necessary.

In alkaline batteries, the main parameter is constant voltage.

Currently, they began to manufacture universal chargers that can independently choose the required charging mode.

## Checking the battery condition with a multimeter

It will be helpful to determine the reason why the battery is not charging. The procedure will reveal the health of the batteries. Here are some easy-to-implement methods that you can use at home. Prepare the equipment: in addition to the multimeter, you will need tools for disassembling the battery (pliers, soldering iron, screwdriver, knife.

• Check the battery on charging by taking readings at 30 minute intervals. The voltage should rise steadily until fully charged.
• A quick method to check the condition of the battery. We measure U with no load. We compare the result with the real voltage and the number of elements. The indicators differ. the battery has non-working parts that need to be replaced.

## Charging methods without using a charger (non-standard methods)

NEED TO KNOW! We do not recommend using the information from this paragraph in practice. We provide for informational purposes.

There are non-standard methods on how to charge the battery of an electric screwdriver without a charger:

• car charging,
• universal charger,
• external energy source.

The effectiveness of such actions can be justified if there is no proprietary charging. Safety questionable. recharge possible. We do not recommend using these methods. they can lead to failure, damage to the battery and are dangerous for the user. Purchase a branded battery of a brand similar to the screwdriver or suitable in terms of characteristics.

## How to properly charge the battery for an electric screwdriver?

The cordless tool is convenient in nature, in places where there is no stable permanent access to power supply. The absence of a cable allows you to avoid inconvenience with extension cords, fear of overloading the network, entanglement with wires, inability to crawl to hard-to-reach areas.

The operation of the cordless tool has its own characteristics. How to properly charge the battery without damaging it? What are they made of, how do they differ? Answers. in the article.

## Electric screwdriver battery device

• The case on which the contacts are located (connected to a charger or a power tool).
• “Banks” (as a rule, there are several of them), united by a common chain.
• For safe operation, there is a temperature sensor to prevent overheating.
• Voltage (V) is an indicator that characterizes the capabilities of the tool. It affects how difficult tasks can be accomplished with it. The voltage can be described as the equivalent of the power of network devices. The indicator is not constant: it reaches its peak when the battery is fully charged, gradually decreases during the discharge process. That is why it makes sense to perform work that requires a high impact force, at first.
• Capacity characterizes how much energy the device stores. Affects the duration of work on a single charge. We must remember. one device with one battery will work for different times (depending on the complexity of the tasks).
• Weight and dimensions affect how comfortable they are to use with the tool. It will be inconvenient to hold a device with a heavy battery on the weight for a long time, which will affect productivity and quality of work performed.
• Additional functionality. The indicator reflects how much energy is left before a complete discharge. Useful to plan working hours. Some manufacturers produce batteries that are compatible with a wide variety of tools: trimmers, screwdrivers, power saws, jigsaws.

## Features and rules for charging the battery of screwdrivers

The batteries are made from different materials. This affects the size, weight, the ability to drill at subzero temperatures, voltage, capacity, susceptibility to the memory effect. The latter especially affects the principle of charging an electric screwdriver.

The memory effect is the loss of capacity achieved by incomplete discharge of a battery. If you stop using the tool before it is completely discharged, the device will “remember” this and will not use the resource in full. Failure to properly handle the battery will reduce capacity.

## What types of batteries are there?

What types of batteries are used by screwdrivers?

• Nickel cadmium (NiCd). The first type of devices, holds a charge for a long time, is equipped with sufficient capacity. There is a memory effect that prohibits charging when the battery is not fully discharged. Therefore, frequent recharging is unacceptable, this leads to a reduction in the battery capacity. Before using for the first time, first fully charge the unit, then start using the tool. Nickel-cadmium are used with budget-class screwdrivers. They are cheap. Suitable for infrequent use.
• Nickel metal hydride (NiMH). They replaced nickel-cadmium. environmentally friendly and weigh less. Worse keep charging when idle, which can quickly deplete battery capacity. It is advisable to recharge before each use, always take the charger with you.
• Lithium-ion (Li-Ion). They are characterized by sufficient battery capacity. Free from memory effect, designed for intensive and regular use. They are quickly charged, cycles are up to 1000. They are distinguished by a relatively high cost. Discharges faster when operated at low temperatures, giving an unstable flow of energy. Store such batteries half-discharged, periodically replenishing capacity.

## Charge the battery before storing?

As with the previous point, it depends on the type, whether it makes sense to charge the battery before storage.

For storage, the lithium-ion battery must be removed with a charge of 50%, periodically (1 time / 1-2 months) removed and recharged.

Maintain charge level at all times, periodically replenish.

## How long does it take to charge the battery of an electric screwdriver?

Before charging a cordless drill or electric screwdriver, you need to determine how long this procedure will take. The period is prescribed in the instructions attached to the instrument. Some models have a light indication. it will show when the device is fully charged. After charging is complete, immediately disconnect the battery from the charger.

Typical charging times range from half an hour to 7 hours, depending on the type of battery and charger. Nickel-cadmium batteries are fed with energy for the longest time. 3-7 hours.

## What state should the battery be stored in?

The general recommendations for all batteries are cool conditions (temperature 10 to 15 ° C). It is important to note that different types of batteries must be stored with different charge levels.

These batteries should be stored in a discharged state. the level is closer to 10-20%. This is due to self-discharge, as well as the “memory effect”. A deep discharge is less harmful. When the battery is already discharged, the self-discharge current is very low.

Before use, the battery must be completely discharged, then fully charged to 100%.

Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries should be left fully charged. A deep discharge is so destructive for them that it will not be possible to return the lost capacity later. To avoid this, it is necessary to completely discharge the battery every three months and charge the battery with the port.

## How to properly charge batteries in an electric screwdriver

The battery is a must-have for any electric screwdriver. Its presence provides the tool with autonomy. This allows the device to be used in places where there is no electrical network. Battery devices in terms of performance are not inferior to network counterparts, which are powered by a 220 V network. Due to autonomy, there are no wires that are always confused or restrict movement. And knowing how to charge an electric screwdriver according to all the rules, you can use the tool for a long time.

### USB plug help

Since lithium-ion batteries are used in most cases, they can be charged via USB. Only a battery protection and control circuit is needed. The current should not exceed 1A, otherwise the board will overheat. A striking example of such a device is a USB block, which is equipped with a fuse.

### Car charger

It is recommended to use a device where voltage and current readings can be adjusted. The main thing is not to overcharge. It is necessary to set the value correctly. the current parameters should be 5-10% of the battery capacity.

## Battery charging time

How long to charge the battery of an electric screwdriver? It will take from 30 minutes to 78 hours to fully charge the battery, depending on the capacity indicators. Equipment manufacturers indicate more accurate data in the operating instructions. It is recommended to adhere to exactly these recommendations, and not pay attention to the advice of familiar “masters”.

over, most chargers are equipped with special indicators that clearly demonstrate the progress of the process. When the battery is charged, it must be removed from the charger to avoid damage.

## How different types of power supplies are charged

The procedure for how to properly charge the battery of an electric screwdriver is fraught with a number of features, depending on the specific device. In many respects, it all depends on the qualities of the materials from which this or that battery is made. In this case, both conventional and impulse memory devices are used. If the former are used most often for domestic purposes, then the latter are suitable for purely professional power tools.

A self-made device is also suitable for charging the battery of an electric screwdriver. It can be created from a power supply unit of a native memory or a laptop (for example), the main thing is that there are the same parameters. The product itself includes the following elements:

• transistors;
• fuse;
• condenser filter;
• electromagnetic relay;
• LEDs (for indication and rectifier);
• microcircuits (HCF4060BE, CD4060);
• Zener diode 12V.

A thermocouple will help protect against overheating, and it is rational to use a compact heatsink to cool the board.

## General rules for charging screwdriver batteries

There are several types of batteries and each has its own charging rules. Nevertheless, there is a general list of recommendations and they must also be strictly followed.

Firstly, use only the standard chargers (charger) supplied with the screwdriver. Secondly, it is highly discouraged to carry out the process indoors at temperatures above 40 ° C, as well as in direct sunlight. The battery gets warm while charging.

How do you know if the electric screwdriver is charged? You need to carefully monitor the indicator on the memory. you will receive a corresponding notification and the process can be completed. Many Chinese models (DEKO) have this. Then you need to wait a little for the battery to cool down and only then is it ready for use.

Important! To properly charge the battery, you must first discharge it correctly. The more energy the battery gives up, the more it will take during charging.

It is also worth considering the following points:

• A new battery must be completely discharged before use, and then be sure to charge 100%.
• The temperature during the charging process should vary between 10 and 40 degrees.
• Disconnect the charger immediately after charging the battery.
• In the case when the electric screwdriver has not been used for a long time, it is necessary to charge every month for preventive purposes.

Also, do not insert a charged battery directly into the instrument if it is not going to be used. Better to put the battery in the case. Subject to all these rules, the battery will serve for a long time.

## How to properly charge and operate a lithium-ion (Li─Ion) battery?

A person in modern life is surrounded by many electronic assistants. In everyday life we ​​use tablets, mobile phones, laptops, etc. At work we use screwdrivers, portable drills, flashlights, power bank and starting-charging batteries for a car. All of these devices use different types of rechargeable batteries. But the most common lithium ion batteries. They have become popular due to their small size and weight combined with their high energy consumption. At a reasonable cost, they have a decent lifespan (300-400 charge-discharge cycles). Since these batteries are widely used in various devices that surround us, you need to understand how to properly charge them. Therefore, today’s material is devoted to charging Li─Ion batteries.

## What is a lithium ion battery?

Since many users have a vague idea of ​​what a lithium ion battery is, let’s say a few words about its device. If we look at the example of a mobile phone battery, then the battery there has the following design.

In the vast majority of cases, a mobile phone battery has one battery cell in its design, which is often called a bank. The nominal voltage of a can is usually 3.7 volts. In laptop batteries, there can be from 2 to 12. But there they are not rectangular, but cylindrical (type 18650). The battery also includes a controller, which is a board with a control microcircuit soldered on it. It controls the process of charging and discharging the can, preventing it from overcharging or deep discharge.

Thus, battery manufacturers have already taken care to avoid abnormal situations when charging and discharging the battery. And the user can only follow some operating rules, which will be discussed below. If you are interested, you can read the detailed material about the lithium-ion battery in the article at the link.

## Using Li─Ion Batteries

Now let’s briefly talk about the basic rules for the operation of lithium-ion batteries.

## How to properly charge a lithium ion battery?

When charging a Li─Ion battery, remember that it is best to keep the battery at 20─80% of full capacity. Lithium ion batteries do not like overcharging. As mentioned above, the controller monitors the state of charge of the battery cell or cells, if there are several. He will not allow them to be recharged. But this does not mean that the battery can be kept on charge for days. It’s completely useless.

In any case, the controller does not allow overcharging and deep discharge of the can. He simply disconnects the bank from the outside world. In addition, many lithium ion batteries have built-in overheating protection.

Now let’s list several options for how to charge a Li─Ion battery.

• Standard charger. This is the best and most recommended option. It is recommended to charge the Li─Ion battery using standard charging. It is safe and as fast as possible;
• From the USB connector of the computer. The option is also safe, but quite lengthy. The fact is that in the case of the USB port, the current is limited to 0.5 amperes;
• From the cigarette lighter in the car. If this is a standard USB adapter, then the process can also be delayed. But now there are quite a few devices on sale that have a set of USB ports with different amperage. There are even models that allow you to charge laptop batteries with a nominal voltage of 19 volts and 4 amps. You can find out the maximum allowable current for charging the battery of your device from the documentation or look at the standard charging. For smartphones batteries, usually 1, and for tablets. 2 amperes;
• “Frog”. This is what universal chargers are called. They are usually used to charge lithium batteries for mobile phones. One of these “frogs” is shown in the image below. The design includes a battery dock and contacts that are adjustable in width to fit different models. To inform about the end of charging, there is a LED indication.

As you can see, you can charge a lithium ion battery in a variety of ways. But it is recommended to charge the battery with standard charging, and use other methods only if necessary. Immediately after purchasing the gadget, get used to charging it correctly. You can read about how to properly charge a new smartphone battery at the specified link. Back to content

### Calibration

This procedure should be carried out every 3 months. It consists in completely discharging and then fully charging the battery. This must be done in order for the battery controller to “calibrate” the charge and discharge limits of the battery.

When calibrating manually, you need to wait until your phone, tablet or other gadget turns off. Then, in the off state, put the device on charge. You can see the duration until fully charged according to your passport. Then remove and insert the battery, turn on the device and see the charge level. If it is less than 100%, then turn off the device and charge again. This must be done until the full charge level is shown when turned on.

For calibration, you can also use the utilities that exist for iOS and Android.

If you are interested in converting a screwdriver to 18650 lithium batteries, you can read the article here.

### Storage

Before sending a lithium ion battery for storage, it must also be charged. But the charge level should be around 50 percent. This is considered the optimal value. Battery storage temperature should ideally be 15 degrees Celsius. Under these conditions, the lithium battery retains its capacity best. The higher the storage temperature, the greater the loss of capacity during storage.

For long-term storage, once every three months, fully charge-discharge the battery and recharge it to 50%.

### Charging via external sources of electricity

External power supplies are used only for worn-out devices that will work for a limited period. In this case, the purchase of a universal or “native” charger is inappropriate.

To obtain energy directly from the network, you can use a power supply from a computer or other device with suitable voltage and current parameters. If it is of a suitable size, it can be inserted into the battery case.

Do not store batteries discharged. The recommended amount of charge when sending for storage depends on the type of battery:

• Nickel-cadmium storage devices must be charged at 90-100%;
• Nickel-metal hydride cells are prone to strong self-discharge, so they need to be charged to 95-100%, and after long-term storage, they must be slowly restored with a low current;
• lithium-ion devices have only 50% charge.

After a month of storage, serviceable Ni-Cd batteries lose up to 20% of their charge, Ni-MH. up to 30%, and Li-ion. up to 8%.

Regardless of the type of battery, it is forbidden to store it connected to a screwdriver. There is a special slot for storing the battery in the tool box.

The inevitable has come. the batteries in my old Hitachi DS 12DVF3 are completely dead. They have become disgusting to hold a charge for a very long time, but the available capacity was enough for small household needs, so I never thought about solving this problem. Until the moment when I needed to drill a hole in a stainless steel kitchen sink, which took me forty minutes! One hole! One battery could not be swung at all, while the other did not work, twists for twenty seconds, charges for about ten minutes. It was then that I realized that it was time to give a new life to my favorite instrument. It is clear that first it was necessary to familiarize myself with the theory a little in order to understand what in general I have to do. Of course, this topic is not at all new and everyone who is not lazy is engaged in the translation of screwdrivers into lithium. But each does it in his own way, depending on his education, the amount of laziness and the concept of beauty. I needed everything to be done absolutely correctly from the technical point of view, so that it did not look scary from the outside and that the batteries could be conveniently used. After re-reading and reviewing a huge amount of material, I took a project from AlexGyver as a basis.

Here you need to carefully break off the upper contact pad, it will be needed later. You will also need nickel jumpers to solder the second unit to the batteries, so I move this stuff aside for now. Next, I try on new components in order to understand the front of the upcoming work.

Hello!

Brought 6 Makitov devices for repair a couple of weeks ago.

4 screwdrivers, 1 jigsaw and 1 sander.

They told me the price of the repair. It turned out that only one screwdriver made economic sense to restore. The rest went to spare parts.

In general, by itself the time has come to replace the fleet of hand-held battery tools.

So I bought new screwdrivers with Li-ion batteries for all carpenters at once.

Guys are used to Ni-cd batteries, and Li-ion requires a very different approach. Straight to the opposite.

And, of course, it’s not just about how to charge the Li-ion battery of a screwdriver. If it is not properly discharged and / or stored, there will be little good for it either.

Therefore, I looked at a couple of dozen sites and a couple of hours of video.

Threw out all the husks and made the most “dry” without “water” squeeze.

## General charging rules

When charging the battery of a construction tool, the following rules must be observed:

• The battery should be charged indoors at a temperature of 10 40 ° С.
• To prevent overheating during the accumulation of charge, you can disconnect the battery from the network from time to time (if there is a built-in thermistor, this measure is not required).
• New drives should not be installed on an electric screwdriver without first charging and checking with a multimeter.
• You need to recharge the battery immediately after it has sat down: during self-discharge, the voltage may drop below a critical level, as a result of which the drive will fail.
• Do not leave the battery connected to the network after the charge is restored: the recommended time interval between the end of the process and shutdown is no more than 20-30 minutes.

The charging time can be from 0.5 to 6-7 hours, depending on the type of drive and the degree of discharge. When using a pulse charger (charger), it is reduced to 60-100 minutes.

## The nuances of charging various types of batteries

Charging storage devices made of different materials differs in the following aspects:

• rated voltage, current and recovery time;
• the need for a charge-discharge cycle;
• storage features;
• possibility of recharging at incomplete discharge.

Charging parameters are indicated in the instructions for the tool and the battery label. The rated voltage is a multiple of the voltage of 1 supply element and depends on the number of cans.

The cycle of full discharge and charge is necessary to restore the nominal capacity when the “memory effect” appears. It is recommended to repeat the procedure several times.

 Drive type The need for a discharge-charge cycle Rechargeable Other features Ni-Cd When the battery capacity decreases, completely discharge and charge it 3-4 times in a row. It is recommended to fully develop the battery life and immediately charge up to 100%. The battery is dispersed with a loss of capacity, first with a current higher than the rated one, and then with a low current.

Effective use of pulsed memory in recovery mode.

Ni-MH The storage capacity decreases after 200-300 recharging cycles, therefore the recovery cycle is carried out infrequently. Due to the strong tendency to self-discharge, it is recommended to generate a capacity of 50% and then recharge the device. After storage for more than 1 month, the battery is charged with low current for 24 hours. Li-ion No discharge cycle required. Recharging is possible at any time.

It is not recommended to completely discharge the battery, because this can turn off the circuitry, which protects against overheating and power surges.

Do not charge with a current higher than the nominal (due to heat generation, a thermistor turns on, which slows down charging until the battery cools).

### Making a homemade charging block

A homemade unit can be soldered on the basis of a “native” charger or a device with similar charging parameters (for example, a laptop power supply). The charging unit consists of the following elements:

• transistors;
• fuse;
• capacitor filter;
• electromagnetic relay;
• LEDs for rectifier and indication;
• microcircuits (for example, HCF4060BE, CD4060);
• Zener diode 12V.

To protect against overheating, you can add a sensor in the form of a thermocouple to the circuit, and a small radiator to cool the charger circuit.

## Electric screwdriver battery device

Batteries are made up of several parts:

• Feeding elements (banks). They are located inside the case and are connected in series with each other. The drive of an electric screwdriver consists of 10 elements. Inside each of them are positive and negative electrodes, electrolyte and contacts that connect the cell to other banks. The service contacts equalize the charges in all cells. In the event of a breakdown of individual power units, you can change the entire battery unit (battery) or disassemble the battery and replace damaged banks.
• Thermistor. It acts as a sensor that warns the drive overheating. When the temperature of the system rises to 50 60 ° C, the thermoelement reduces or cuts off the current, limiting further heat release. The principle of operation of a thermistor is based on the properties of the material: as the battery temperature rises, the resistance of the resistor decreases, which creates an alternative path for the current. The nominal resistance of the thermistor directly affects the continuous operation of the tool.
• Case with contacts connected to it. The main power contacts are located on the battery box, which are designed to charge and power the electrical appliance. From the inside, wires are connected to them from the free terminals of the storage elements.

By the type of plates inside the supply elements, screwdriver batteries are classified into:

• metal hydride (Ni-MH);
• lithium-ion (Li-ion).

Ni-MH and Ni-Cd batteries have an output voltage of 1.2 V, and Li-ion. 3.5-3.7 V. The total output voltage of the drive corresponds to the sum of the parameters of the cells.

Cadmium storage devices have a tendency to self-discharge, small capacity and short lifespan. If they are not fully discharged, a “memory effect” occurs in them, which reduces the operating capacity of the battery. Metal hydride storage devices have a less pronounced memory effect and a longer useful life, but are more sensitive to low temperatures than nickel-cadmium storage.

Lithium-ion storage devices last longer than other batteries, have a minimal tendency to self-discharge and do not lose capacity if discharged incompletely. The downside is sensitivity to overheating. The lithium-ion batteries have a built-in control board that controls the process of charging and discharging the drive.

### Equipping the battery with a USB connector

The presence of a USB connector makes it easier to find the memory. The connector is mounted in the housing through a fuse, the contacts are soldered in compliance with the polarity. Contacts are insulated with heat shrink tubing or electrical tape.

## How to properly charge lithium-ion batteries in an electric screwdriver

Cordless screwdrivers allow you to move freely during the repair process and carry out work without constant access to the outlet. But if the original charger is lost or broken, the owner will have a problem, how to charge the battery of the electric screwdriver with another power source.

In order not to harm the battery, you need to select an alternative, taking into account the voltage and capacity of the battery.