How To Charge A Screwdriver Battery
What voltage do you need to charge a car battery
Battery Charging Warta
A discharged battery does not always require the purchase of a new one, often it is enough to charge the old one, the procedure is inevitable with frequent cold starts and short trips. The most affordable chargers are manually controlled, the owner must know what voltage to charge the car battery.
Requires direct current, voltage up to 16.5 volts. Charging takes place in one of two modes: at a constant current strength or a constant voltage value.
Bosch Battery Charging
A current equal to 10% of the nominal capacity is set on the charger. For example, for a 12-volt battery with a capacity of 55Ah, a current of 5.5A is required, for 60Ah. 6A. In this case, the current strength must be regularly monitored and adjusted, since it has the property of straying.
While maintaining the current strength at 10% at the end of the charging process, a strong outgassing occurs. Therefore, upon reaching 14.4 Volts, the current strength is reduced by 2 times. For maintenance-free batteries, it is halved again when the voltage indicates 15 volts.
The 12 Volt battery of the car is charged when the voltage and current indicators do not change for 2 hours. For full operation, it is enough to save the parameters for 1 hour. This usually happens at 16.3 (± 0.1) Volts.
The battery of 12 Volts per day will be charged:
For a very discharged battery, the current strength at the beginning of charging can reach high values, which can lead to battery failure, so the indicator is limited to 20A.
As you charge, the current decreases, and in the end tends to zero. This method does not require constant monitoring by the owner. You can control the process a day after the start, by measuring what voltage is at the terminals. If it is 14.4 (± 0.1) volts, charging is completed. Maintenance-free batteries usually require more than a day to achieve this. On devices equipped with an indication, the signal indicating completion is lit.
Charging Calcium Batteries
Charging Calcium Battery
Old dry-charged batteries are charged with 10% current, for them a voltage of up to 16 volts is permissible. The new 12 Volt Ca / Ca batteries quickly fail from such a high voltage.
The maximum permissible value for them is 14.4 Volts at a current of 10% of capacity. Such charging requires more time, but does not reduce the battery life.
Charging batteries 6 volts
6 Volt batteries are often used in:
- motorcycles, scooters;
- trade, warehouse, industrial equipment;
- children’s cars;
Given the widespread use of 6 Volt batteries, they are available in a wide range of capacities, can have both 1.2Ah and 16Ah, or any intermediate value. Charging such batteries with a car charger is problematic. It will require close monitoring, constant current adjustment. The risk of overheating is high.
The most suitable charger for a 6 Volt battery is an Imax B6 charger or the like. Current 10% of capacity, voltage up to 7.3V.
Charging lithium polymer batteries
Lipo 3.8 V is charged with the devices that come with them, or with chargers like the Imax B6.
Batteries are charged with current from 20 to 100% of the rated capacity. For battery, lower values are preferred. The main question is, what voltage does a charged battery show? Having gained 70-80%, charging starts at a constant voltage and a decreasing current.
Lithium polymer battery
Special devices for Lipo 3.8 V signal the end of charging when reaching 70-80% capacity. A further set of density provides rarer charging, but reduces the battery life as a whole.
When charging 3.8 Volt lithium-polymer batteries, the charger should show 4.2 Volts. If it is possible to set 4.1 Volts, it will take a little longer to charge, but the battery will last much longer.
Charge the battery without removing it from the machine
The methods described above involve charging from a wall outlet, which usually requires removal of the battery. However, charging can occur under the hood. Modern portable devices, such as CTEK, are compact in size and can charge a 12V battery under the hood. They can be left overnight so that the battery is operational in the morning. Such chargers are especially relevant for car owners with calcium batteries.
Battery Charger Generator
In cars with an internal combustion engine, the battery is paired with a generator. When traveling, the generator recharges the battery, subsequently it gives a charge to start the car.
Battery and generator
It is important to follow the manufacturer’s recommendations regarding battery capacity. It is closely interconnected with the power of the generator.
If the battery capacity is excessively excessive relative to the recommended one, it will require significantly more time to charge from a regular generator. Often in such cases, the battery does not have time to recharge to the desired level, it begins to quickly discharge up to deep discharges.
When installing the Battery with a capacity less than recommended, the generator current strength for it is too high, it quickly overheats, can boil.
Battery life is sharply reduced in both cases.
What voltage a charged battery should show depends largely on its type. We examined in detail the main ones. Gentle charging extends battery life. With timely service, they are able to serve up to 5 years or more.
What voltage do you need to charge the battery
As a rule, in the winter period, motorists always return to the question of how to better charge the battery of their iron horse.
At the same time, for experienced motorists who know how to independently charge the battery and understand what voltage is suitable for this, the entire charging process will not be difficult. However, beginners will have to deal with their own how to charge the battery so that it lasts for several years without problems. It is worth noting that the return on the performance of the vehicle’s battery will depend on the proper charging.
Rules for proper battery charging
In order to determine which voltage will be optimal for charging the battery, you should understand its capacity, and only then set the current and voltage. Once it has been determined how to charge the battery, it will be possible to begin the process of charging the battery.
Charge the car battery
There are two methods to charge a vehicle’s battery:
- direct current;
- constant voltage.
In this case, in the first case, charging is carried out by manual settings, that is, the motorist will have to monitor the battery after two hours. In order to charge the battery efficiently, it is necessary to set the current, which is equal to ten percent of the capacity.
Important! It must be understood that the voltage on the charged battery will increase, and the current will have to be manually reduced for at least ten hours. If the helium-type battery of 1.2 Volts or 6 Volts has not been serviced for a long time, then the voltage will have to be raised to about 15 or 12 Volts, making the current strength less than half.
The motorist must understand that a fully charged battery shows equally stable current and voltage for at least an hour. In the second option, it will directly depend on what voltage the charger will transmit to the battery.
In the event that the car is charged continuously for a couple of days, the battery capacity will be restored:
Charged Car Battery
- 12 volts by 70-80 percent;
- 15 volts for 90 percent;
- 16 volts at 97 percent.
A car can get a fully charged battery if the voltage is 16 volts or more, and charging takes at least 24 hours. The motorist must make sure that the charged battery shows a constant voltage level and the green indicator is constantly on. This indicates that the charger can be turned off because the battery is fully charged.
Features of charging a helium battery
A helium battery appeared on sale later than its acid counterpart, but its motorist must definitely recharge. This type of battery is required to be charged using a specialized charger, since the current in it is from 1.2 Volts to 6 Volts. The current strength during charging should not be lower than ten percent of the battery capacity.
For a helium-type battery, the voltage should not be higher than the boundary. In order for the car to move without stops, its battery should be charged at least a couple of times a year, be sure to bring the whole procedure to the end. In the event that you turn off the special memory before the green indicator lights up on it, the battery capacity will be lost and the voltage in it will decrease.
It should be noted that a helium battery, whose capacity is seven amperes per hour, will have to be charged ten hours in a row, and the voltage should not be lower than 0.7 amperes. In this case, the maximum allowable voltage for the charge is shown by the information located on the helium-type battery itself.
Video: How To Charge A Screwdriver Battery
Charge the helium battery
As a rule, it is 14.3 or 14.4 Volts, but do not confuse this value with the voltage, which should be added to the battery so that it is maintained in working condition.
For the helium variant, it is no more than 6.75 or 6.9 Volts. Motorists should understand that a helium battery will require more attention when charging, for which you will have to purchase a specialized charger, usually made in China. In the event that you do not follow the charging rules, the battery will fail completely, or it will show incorrect voltage, making it difficult to travel on a motor vehicle.
How to understand that the battery is fully charged
To understand that you do not need to charge the battery, you should take a closer look at it, since a battery charged at 95% does not emit excess gases. In this case, a charged battery should show a voltage of at least 12 volts, but the voltage during charging should be at least fifteen volts.
To fully charge the battery of a vehicle, you should select a quality memory. If the battery shows a voltage of 12 volts, but should not be charged at 95, but at 100%, it is worth using the equalization method. In this case, the voltage should be calculated, as shown earlier, that is, the current should be equal to three percent of the battery capacity. This option allows you to get a 100% charged car, while aligning the electrolyte density in each bank.
How to charge a car battery
The automotive electrical system uses lead-acid batteries of 12 or 24 volts. Gel is a type of acid, in which special thickeners are introduced into the electrolyte. AGM batteries have some differences, but the basic principles of operation, operating rules apply equally to models of this type. The magnitude of the voltage depends on the number of elements from which the battery is assembled. In everyday life they are called banks. Each element has a voltage of about 2V. In one case, a 12-volt battery contains six cans, and a 24-volt battery contains twelve cans. Often a 24V battery is assembled from two 12V connected in series.
Automotive lead acid batteries (batteries) must be operated and stored in a charged state. The voltage of a working, fully charged device is at 12.7-13V without load. Deep discharge leads to an accelerated battery failure, as a result of the irreversible process of sulfation of the plates. The critical level is 10.8V, while it is believed that the battery is fully discharged. During continuous operation, the energy supply is maintained automatically, with the help of a generator and a car relay-regulator. It should be borne in mind that with the engine running, the generator will increase the voltage of the on-board network to 14-14.5V. Reducing the degree of charge below acceptable is possible in the following situations:
- regular short trips;
- frequent engine starts;
- the active use of electric heating, lighting in the cold season;
- long-term storage.
At the same time, the energy supply does not have time to replenish, in such conditions, recharge from an external source is required. Signals of the need for charging is:
- difficulty starting the engine;
- the absence of the glow of the control indicator on the case, if any;
- decrease in electrolyte density;
- voltage reduction in the on-board network with an idle engine below 12V.
The control indicator, the “eye”, is not an objective tool for assessing the condition, since it is installed on only one bank, it signals a decrease in the density of the electrolyte only in it. Nevertheless, the presence of the eye makes it easier to detect problems without devices, with a visual inspection. The density of the electrolyte is a good indicator of the state of the battery, since the battery capacity directly depends on the density. Density measurement is carried out using a hydrometer, the optimal value is at the level of 1.27 grams per cm3. A decrease in density indicates a discharge and a decrease in battery capacity. Unfortunately, modern batteries are increasingly being made unattended or low-maintenance, they may not have plugs on the case, allowing access to the contents of the cans.
An easier way to monitor the condition is to measure the voltage at the terminals with a voltmeter or with built-in vehicle diagnostics.
Features of Lead Battery Charge
First of all, you should focus on the value of the nominal charging current and the final voltage. A simple way to determine the charging current is to calculate the ratio I = C / 10, where C is the battery capacity. Thus, the nominal charge current of a battery with a capacity of 55 A / h will be 55/10 = 5.5A. A heavily discharged battery has low internal resistance. For this reason, the current at the beginning of the charging process is able to significantly exceed the nominal one, in order to prevent negative consequences, it must be limited to a value equal to 1/10 C. With the accumulation of energy, the internal resistance of the device gradually increases. With a stable voltage at the terminals, the current load will decrease in proportion to the increase in internal resistance.
The final charge voltage must be limited to 14.6V, otherwise, recharging and boiling of the electrolyte is possible. Charge time depends on the initial degree of battery drain. Signs of the end of charge are:
- increase in electrolyte density to nominal;
- the beginning of gas evolution, "boiling" of the electrolyte;
- reduction of charging current to a minimum;
- achievement of rated voltage.
Compliance with the rules of the charge helps to extend the battery life, which can be from 4 to 8 years.
Car battery Varta BLUE dynamic
A lead battery charger should have at least the ability to manually or automatically control the charging current.
The best choice would be to use a fully automatic memory model. Such a device will provide an optimal current and voltage mode, it will turn off automatically at the end of the battery charge cycle. As a rule, car memories are equipped with protection against:
- incorrect connection, "polarity reversal";
- short circuit in the load;
- exceeding the maximum current load.
Some memory models have additional functionality in the form of various modes of desulfation, training, automatic determination of battery parameters, the presence of a display with indication of parameters, etc.
Charger for car battery (switch) 6-12V, 220V
If there is no charger
The charge is possible without the use of a special device. There are many ways to charge a car’s battery at home. For this purpose, any DC source of sufficient power regulated in the range of 12-15V is suitable. Power is calculated by the formula P = UI. For example, with a voltage of 12V and a current of 5A, the power of the source should be at least 125 = 60 watts.
The use of unregulated power supplies is complicated by the fact that in the absence of the ability to control the output voltage, with a low internal resistance, the charging current can reach dangerous values. In another case, the current value may not be sufficient for normal operation. Too much voltage and charging currents can deform the plates, cause the electrolyte to boil, and lead to battery failure. Too low either will not be able to charge the battery at all, or the charge time will increase to several days. In any case, when using non-specialized devices, the end of charge will have to be controlled manually. The use of non-specialized memory is worth considering only as a temporary solution to the problem.
- If a powerful, adjustable laboratory direct current source is available, it is sufficient to set the current and voltage limits indicated above.
- Circuit with LATR, transformer 220 / 24V and diode rectifier.
LATR provides voltage regulation on the primary winding of the transformer, the voltage of the secondary winding will proportionally follow the changes in the primary winding. Diodes should be selected with a direct rated current of at least 20A.
- An unregulated charger can be built on the same transformer with a rectifier. When using this circuit, it is important that the output voltage of the transformer does not exceed 15V, and the power is not less than 60 watts. The choice of diodes is similar to the previous option.
- As a last resort, you can try to use charging from a laptop or screwdriver. The problem is that such power supplies have a fixed output of 12 or 18V. A 12 volt feeder will give out too little charging current and will not be able to fully charge the car battery. Direct connection to the terminals of a discharged battery of the 18V power supply will overload it. In the best case, automatic shutdown will occur, in the worst case, the charger will fail.
- For those who have good electronics skills, there is an option to purchase a board with a powerful adjustable DC-DC converter. The advantages of such a converter are a wide range of input voltages and the presence of a controlled stabilized output. To power the converter, you can use any power sources that fall into the designated range of input voltages, including those with a fixed voltage. However, the cost of such a converter will be comparable to the purchase of a ready-made charger. It makes sense to buy such a device if it is possible to use it for any other purposes.
The main disadvantage of home-made devices, in most cases, is the lack of protection.
Timely and proper battery care can significantly extend its battery life. One of the main points of care activities is to maintain a nominal charge level. The best option to complete this step would be to use a car automatic charger. The use of devices not adapted for this purpose should be considered only in exceptional situations. Violation of the charge regimes can have unpleasant consequences, ranging from shortening the service life to the complete failure of the battery.
How to simply charge a battery without a charger: video
How to charge a car battery?
Charging a car battery at first glance may seem complicated, especially for a person who has not previously charged or repaired batteries with his own hands.
In fact, it will not be difficult to charge the battery for a person who did not skip classes in physical chemistry at school. The most important thing is to be careful when studying the technical characteristics of the battery, charger, and know how to charge the car battery.
The charge current of the car battery must be constant. Actually, rectifiers that allow adjustment of voltage or charging current are used for this purpose. When purchasing a charger, familiarize yourself with its capabilities. Charging designed to service a 12-volt battery should provide the ability to increase the charging voltage to 16.0-16.6 V. This is necessary to charge a modern maintenance-free car battery.
Battery Charging Methods
In practice, two methods are used to charge the battery, or rather, one of two: battery charge at constant current and battery charge at constant voltage. Both of these methods are complete with proper observance of their technology.
Battery charge at constant current
A feature of this method of charging the battery is the need to monitor and regulate the charging current of the battery every 1-2 hours.
The battery is charged at a constant charge current, which is 0.1 of the nominal capacity of the battery at a 20-hour discharge mode. Those. for a battery with a capacity of 60A / h, the charge current of the car battery should be 6A. it is to maintain the constancy of current in the charging process that requires a regulating device.
To increase the degree of battery charge, a stepwise decrease in current is recommended as the charging voltage increases.
For batteries of the latest generation without openings for topping, it is recommended to increase the charging voltage to 15V, reduce the current 2 times again, i.e. 1.5A for batteries at 60A / h.
The battery is considered to be fully charged, in the case when the current and voltage are stored for 1-2 hours without changes. For maintenance-free batteries, this state of charge occurs at a voltage of 16.3. 16.4 V.
Battery charge at constant voltage
This method directly depends on the magnitude of the charging voltage, which is provided by the charger. With a 24-hour 12 V continuous charge cycle, the battery will charge as follows:
- at a voltage of 14.4 V by 75-85%;
- at a voltage of 15 V by 85-90%;
- at a voltage of 16 V by 95-97%;
- A full battery charge occurs when charging for 20-24 hours and a charger voltage of 16.3-16.4 V.
As a rule, the criterion for the end of the charge in these chargers is to achieve a voltage at the terminals of the battery equal to 14.4 ± 0.1. The device signals with a green indicator about the end of the battery charge process.
Experts recommend that an unattended battery be optimized in 90-95% charge using an industrial charger with a maximum charging voltage of 14.4. 14.5 V, in this way, the battery needs to be charged for at least 24 hours.