How to Choose a Quarter In a Blackboard with a Handmade Circular
Quartering with a circular saw: how to make a selection, methods
Choosing a quarter in a wooden part is one of the frequent operations in carpentry and carpentry. Why this is done and as discussed below.
Wood, like any material, has specific properties that need to be considered. This obvious fact, however, novice masters often ignore. The result is a spoiled mood, time spent on remaking, and often spoiled material.
One of the characteristic properties of wood is that when the humidity changes, the linear dimensions of the wood part change. When drying, the wood shrinks, with increasing humidity expands. In addition, resins evaporate from the wood over time. Because of this, the wooden part gradually decreases in linear dimensions regardless of humidity changes. They say about this phenomenon: the tree is drying up. These effects are especially noticeable in coniferous wood, from which the most popular lumber is produced.
In construction and summer cottage facilities, boards made of spruce and pine are most often used. These types of wood, when dried, change their size the most.
What does drying out lead to
Typical case: you made a shed in your dacha for storage of household equipment and for other needs. They did it for themselves, so they rallied the boards from which the walls were made, carefully, without the slightest click. Two to three months pass; the boards are drying up and the whole wall is glowing with cracks. In winter, snow blows through them; in summer, wind causes dust inside the barn.
Shrinkage reaches 10-13% of the linear size. That is, a board 100 mm wide after drying is reduced to 88 mm.
To prevent this from happening for wall cladding, you need to use a quarter board. A wall sheathed with such boards will never have through slots. With their quarters, the neighboring boards overlap each other and when the through slits are dry, they no longer arise.
Unfortunately, lumber is rarely sold with a finished quarter. Therefore, an amateur master should know the ways in which boards are modified, if necessary.
Methods of making a quarter
You can select a quarter by several methods using different tools. For instance:
- electric planer
- milling cutter
- hand saw
- stationary circular saw.
The last way. choosing a quarter with a circular saw. is the most convenient and productive. We will consider it.
If you need planed boards, it is more convenient to first plan the boards and only then move on to making a quarter.
Quarter selection sequence
- We adjust the reach of the saw blade so that the depth of cut is equal to half the thickness of the processed board. The easiest way to do this is directly "in place." To do this, attach the board to the saw blade on the side, as shown in the photo, and adjust the reach of the blade.
- We install a parallel stop on the machine so that the cut width is also equal to half the thickness of the board. We take into account the thickness of the disk itself. This completes the setup of the machine.
- We make longitudinal cuts from opposite sides of the board.
- We make cuts from the ends of the board. A quarter is ready. As a by-product we get a glazing bead)).
As already mentioned, a stationary circular saw is very convenient for choosing a quarter. (There is a separate article on the types of circular saws and the features of their choice on our site.) But it is not always in the arsenal of the master, and sometimes it is impossible to use it purely physically.
If you need to choose a quarter in thick long boards, you can use a hand saw. The principle of manufacture and the sequence of operations are the same. The difference is that in this case the processed board and tool are interchanged. The board is fixed motionless, and the master moves the saw blade with a parallel emphasis along manually.
If you do not have a circular or a hand saw at hand, you can use an angle grinder with a wood disc or a hand milling cutter with a suitable cylindrical milling cutter. Both methods are very slow and are not suitable for a large amount of work. In addition, choosing a quarter angle grinder is inconvenient, dangerous and uneven.
Another way is to use an electric planer. However, most modern models of planers are not suitable for this because of the design features. Watch a video that shows just this way of choosing a quarter.
- Do not forget about safety.
- If the boards are long, work with an assistant.
- Boards should be the same thickness.
- Do not use freshly prepared lumber. Let them dry for at least 1 year.
In the following articles we continue the story about woodworking techniques and tools used.
How to choose a quarter in the board
Knowing some tricks, you can save very well during construction. True, you will have to spend a little more time, but when working on a large scale, the savings will be significant.
The most common way to reduce the cost of purchasing lumber is to buy second-class products to give them the right look with their own hands.
How to choose a quarter in the board yourself? To get started, buy a board of 2 varieties. You can do this on the website of our company Mosbrustorg. Our prices will help you keep your budget, but at the same time get the required amount of material.
After buying a board with a simple configuration, you can select a quarter in the board using a circular saw or an electric planer. Then carefully draw the edges and now you have a product whose price is two times higher.
Work begins with the fact that a cut is made from the end of a regular board with a depth equal to half the height, and then a cut is made in the middle of the end. Next, a ruler measures the width of the future product. The depth should be two times more than half the height due to the fact that then the sawn part will have to be removed.
As a result, from second-rate raw materials you will receive a product that will differ in its positive properties.
The quarter board has the following characteristics:
- excellent thermal insulation;
- esthetic and presentable appearance;
- great attribute for decoration;
- excellent material for exterior cladding.
How to choose a quarter circular
The use of a circular saw in the manufacture of a quarter of the board will greatly facilitate the process. If the tool is high-quality, with sharp blade blades and works at good power, this will help you a lot. After all, now you can set the necessary values and not be afraid to cut off the excess.
How to choose a quarter in a circular board? The process does not differ much from the usual one, the only thing is that you now have a circular saw in your hands. From the end of the board is made a cut half the height of the board. Next, a second cut is made in the center of the end. Next, make the necessary measurements and cut so that the quarter has acquired the necessary shape.
Power Planer. how to choose a quarter in the board
An electric planer is a convenient tool for working on wood. With it, you can evenly cut the wood and get the product of the required shape. How to choose a quarter in the board with an electric planer? The process is no different from working with a circular saw. The only thing that may be the advantage of working with this particular tool is ease of use and a clearer vision when completing a task.
Such works will help you to make a high-quality product yourself from a cheaper product, which is perfect for decoration and interior decoration both inside and outside.
Hand Circular Saw
Typically, summer residents think about buying a hand-held circular saw the field of how they had to manually saw a couple of boards along their two-meter length, or so. In other words, dissolve the boards.
For these purposes, there is a manual circular circular saw. Once you get used to working with it, you can no longer avoid the temptation to use a circular tool wherever it can replace a conventional hacksaw.
A couple of months after buying the saw, I realized that for any household needs it’s enough to buy only wide boards of the required thickness. And from them you can "cut" any workpiece. For benches, stools, various country furniture, garden grates and a host of other things useful at the cottage.
For the frame of a small lightweight wood shed, it is quite enough to make racks 75×50, which can be easily obtained from a standard board 150×50. From it, it’s easy to cut slats for decorative “chlamyds” in the garden under climbing plants. Believe me, the savings are o-very substantial.
Further more. Having learned to use a circular saw to choose a quarter, you can focus on quickly and efficiently making profiles for finishing door and window openings and lining the outer corners.
The blanks will look solidly, not like purchased ones, which can be broken with just one finger. At the same time, costs will be reduced by a factor of three, or even more, taking into account the “exclusivity” of the product.
So, I won’t persuade you. the circular is an extremely useful thing in the household!
Video: How to Choose a Quarter In a Blackboard with a Handmade Circular
Controlling a circular saw is quite simple, but requires skill and care. I tried to demonstrate the general principles of adjustments in two interactive flash drives:
I would like to dwell on some features of working with a circular saw. I think that these points will help with the choice of tool.
1. The depth of cut. Always set the cutting depth equal to the thickness of the board you are going to saw. Take it as a rule. Less is possible if a groove is required, but no longer follows. Not just for security reasons. For example, you can saw by placing the board directly on the workbench. The barely noticeable grooves on the surface of your workbench after such cuts will not interfere with your work for many years.
The nominal saw cut depth is selected based on your individual needs. In practice, to cut a 50 mm board at an angle of 900, you need a cut depth of 50 mm. Everything that exceeds this size will fit only for cuts at an angle. So for sawing at an angle of 450, you need a saw with a characteristic of interest to us at the level of 71 mm. Based on this. draw conclusions. Do you often have to cut at an angle?
2. Other structural elements. Lower saw blade guard (openable). Keep in mind that the casing will open the saw blade by itself only if nothing interferes with it. For example, as in option A, when the end of the board is like a canopy.
If the board lies on a workbench, then an attempt to “automatically” open the case can end badly: realizing that the case is “interfering”, you will try to pry it by lifting the back of the saw, the disc will enter the material when the saw is “on weight” , without emphasis. It can easily be thrown away, which in itself is unsafe. Yes, and spoil the board.
In this case, it is necessary to carefully manually pre-set aside the protective cover. It is good to adapt to do this in such a way that with your left hand and the saw firmly hold the tip of the retainer of the designated protective cover. Safety first!
First, think about how all the elements involved in the sawing process will behave, taking into account the specific situation. then act!
Align the front end of the backing plate with the marks where to start sawing, firmly press it to the board. Please note that when turning on the drive does not touch (!) The workbench, for which the back of the base plate can be slightly lifted. Turn on the saw, gain speed and feel free to start cutting.
An ideal option with a board on a workbench: when the edge of the board from which the cut begins, protrudes a few centimeters beyond the edge of the workbench.
Saw along the board, which is in a very "suspended" state (already bending!) Categorically should not be.
The “wedging knife” serves to prevent the clamp from clamping, and so that you cannot “crash” the disc into the board by leading it in the opposite direction. And it is almost guaranteed to get a tangible backstroke, similar to that found in similar situations with an angle grinder, chainsaw, and other “rotary cutting” tools.
3. Parallel emphasis, or guide. If there is a markup, and the corresponding skill, you can make an even cut without parallel emphasis, but I see this only in those rare cases when you need a board like this:
In all other cases, the parallel emphasis is indispensable:
4. Fixing the workpiece. In all cases, the workpiece must be securely locked. It is unacceptable when the workpiece begins to move with the saw or deviate somewhere to the side. Having fixed the workpiece, before you start sawing, you must necessarily mentally go over it with a saw. It is important that there is no interference on the entire path of the future movement of the saw! The stops used by you and other possible fasteners should not be anywhere on the path of the tool or its element.
In the photo above, I give only an example from my practice, although there are a lot of possible options. I think that in this regard one should not blindly use other people’s recommendations. Take them as a basis (from various sources) and adapt for yourself as a belt, tightened to an individual size.
On the one hand (blue color), I have a rail attached to the workbench, which serves as a morning, so that the sawn board does not move sideways. She stands a little lower than 2 cm, that is, less than the thickness of the boards that I usually process on this workbench. So that the sawn board does not slip forward, it is pressed to the second stop (green). This emphasis is knocked down from the bottom to the desired height, so that in turn it does not interfere with the saw when the wiring is completed. I have developed this scheme of work for several years, and it is convenient for me. In this configuration, you can use a planer and milling cutter (for rough work). I do not pay attention to the grooves from the old cuts. The workbench is already 7 years old and it always winters in the open. I fastened the upper boards from below, so that the blade of the saw blade could never run into the screw.
Peculiarity (1): Try to avoid situations when cutting longitudinally when the following board, right next to the sawn wood, is followed by a board, without reliable fixation:
In the border zone, the board can twist or pull dangerous chips out of it, and the saw can be thrown back. This, for example, can happen when, as is the case with my “green” focus A, if the saw blade hits it.
In some difficult situations, when it is required to choose a quarter for the profile, I additionally fix the workpiece with screws that I tighten in places where the disc will not run over them, and which will then be cut off when the workpiece is finally trimmed. A little tip: when “in-line” production, change screws more often. Their quality is poor, the head wears out quickly, you can easily screw in and not screw out.
When preparing the board for cutting, make sure that there are no internal stresses that can jam the disk.
5. Posting. Lead the saw gently without overloading the motor. Try to give the saw a break when you have to do a lot of lengthy longitudinal cuts. If “wet” boards are continuously dissolved by hand circular for several hours, then it is easy to “burn” the motor even with a reliable professional-class saw.
Having finished the drink and raised the saw up, keep it with the disc away from you, even if it is already covered by a protective cover. Put the saw on the floor or workbench only when you are sure that the blade is completely stopped and “sheathed”. Cultivate a similar “habit” to the level of reflex.
Despite the huge selection, almost 90% of the commercially available circular saws represent one “average” weight category. These are the most popular saws, capable of sawing the most popular board in construction up to 50 mm thick. The diameter of the discs used is from 180 to 200 mm. Such a saw is universal. The characteristic power range for such saws is 1100-1800 watts.
Smaller saws make sense to regularly perform specific work. When you don’t need to do deep cuts. Then you can realize the undoubted advantage of such a saw. its lower weight.
Among the very “small” saws. “SUVs” tested by their reliability, it is worth highlighting Skilsaw with a power of 500 watts, although now it is already available in the 800-watt version. This model, in fact, is very convenient for working with clapboard, picket fence, OSB boards, laminate. This is a super lightweight circular saw. So light that you quickly begin to use it with one hand, tightly "turn off" the lower protective casing, losing vigilance in front of her insidious charms. What is unacceptable! But perhaps this is its only drawback.
So back to the middle class saws.
External examination. take the saw in your hands and feel how convenient it is for you. Saw is a dangerous tool. Continuous work with a tool not comfortably in the hands is very tiring. When posting a circular saw, a person at a subconscious level is always very focused, and experiences incomparably more stress than holding an “iron” on the same board, which can be much harder. Therefore, I put the ergonomic factor of the tool for a circular saw in the first place.
This should also include inspection of the quality of performance of the tool itself and the materials from which it is made. For example, a plastic upper protective cover is not a good sign, but it is in my opinion. The lower protective cover must open and close smoothly and without backlashes. At the same time, it should not look so that it can be easily bent if it is not too carefully “thrown” (by accident of course) the saw onto the floor.
Brand A quality circular will cost from 4 to 6 thousand rubles. In this range, you can choose a worthy copy of a well-known brand with a reputation, and tailored exactly for you.
For someone it will be Metabo, for someone Black&Decker, for someone Makita, but, in fact, a specific brand among the "equals" as a factor in decision-making will be less significant compared to ergonomics.
Other adjustments and features.
Please note that with the saw you like, all the settings are made easily. For example, loosen the locking lever for the depth of cut, change this depth and try to fix the lever in different positions. I will not “point with my fingers”, but there are popular saws that are not so simple with this lever. In the position of the minimum cut, it is easily tightened firmly, and in the position of the maximum. it starts to rest against the sole, and it will not be easy to tighten it. If you try to fix this by changing the position of the lever on the splines, you get inconvenience when fixing in another position.
The lower protective cover can cause significant inconvenience when cutting at the maximum possible angle (450), or simply not allow making such a cut due to the fact that it will simply protrude from the bottom of the sole outward, along with the saw blade.
In fact, the design of the saw is not simple. There are many elements that rotate in different planes. therefore, meticulously evaluate for yourself the convenience of each of these elements.
The most important thing is that after you have installed and fixed the saw in the right position, the resulting structure does not "creep" in different directions from the workloads.
Convenient and easy access to the brushes for the purpose of self-replacement is also important, which is especially important for powerful saws.
The possibility of stationary installation. for some it may be a useful option.
Electronics. Now these modules are fashionable. In addition, for certain purposes, they can be very useful. For example, the electric brake of the saw blade in case of jamming. It will not prevent a return hit, but it will reduce its consequences (in this regard, the slip clutch works more efficiently, providing free rotation when the saw blade is stationary). Otherwise, the same electronic gadgets are typical for circular saws as for all power tools.
This is a soft start system (solves the “inrush current” problem), a system for maintaining a constant speed under load, a speed control system (to, for example, reduce speed and cut plastic, but it did not melt at the same time), and an engine overload protection system.
A lot of saw blades. I will limit myself to those designed for sawing wood. Often, the best saw blade is your own. As a rule, this is a strong, durable and versatile drive (naturally, this applies only to brands with a well-deserved reputation). But sooner or later, he wears out and requires replacement, or sharpening. Sawing a dull disk is extremely undesirable immediately for many reasons. This over-stresses the motor. This "tears" the wood instead of a straight cut. And this is dangerous with a higher probability of a back strike when jamming blunt teeth in the array.
Almost all modern saw blades have carbide brazed teeth, which ensures a long service life.
The smaller the teeth (and they are, respectively, of a relatively larger size), the faster the saw blade, but the cut is rougher. Such discs are better suited for longitudinal sawing of wood.
Disks with a large number of teeth are used for clean finishing cuts. These discs best show their advantages in cross cutting wood, although the longitudinal cuts made by such discs also do not cause complaints.
Tooth tilt can be positive and negative.
To better understand how this works, imagine that you are peeling potatoes or sharpening a peg by changing the angle of the knife. Obviously, the blade works differently, and the chips are not the same. Most wood drives have a positive tooth angle. A negative angle is useful for finishing cutting of plastic, laminate, aluminum. Also, a slight negative angle of inclination of the teeth may be required for those disks that are installed on miter and submersible saws. There the trajectory of the “introduction” of the saw into the wood differs from the classical one. Accordingly, there is another load distribution.
Compensation slots on the discs serve to prevent thermal deformation of the disc in case of overheating. This reduces noise and vibration, as well as the load on the engine during saw operation. The friction and runout of the disc, even slightly curved by the propeller, is very unpleasant.
A great influence on the speed and quality of sawing is exerted not only by the number of teeth and their inclination, but also by their shape and grinding geometry. In most cases, the subtleties of sharpening are reduced to the principles of wiring a conventional hand saw. But there is a feature, rather a marketing subtlety. If the disc is dull, and you decide to try to sharpen it yourself, or take it to the workshop, then not all sharpening methods can be reproduced “artificially” without special equipment. These are small tricks of manufacturers of saw blades, which is beneficial for you to once again buy their disc, and not undermine it all your life.
When choosing a disk, you should also pay attention to such moments.
The topic of saw blades is well chewed on the Internet, and not only in the advertising spirit, but also in the information and educational.
And one more thing: as a rule, manufacturers respecting themselves and the buyer place all the information about the disk on its packaging and directly on its surface.
Speaking of hand-held circular saws, one cannot fail to mention one rather interesting variety of them. submersible circular saws.
They are present in the range far from all manufacturers. Less commonly than miter saws. With the help of such saws, it is much more convenient to cut rectangular holes in wooden arrays, plywood, without touching the edges. I propose to look at the working principle and features of the use of such saws on the page of the catalog of the same name manufacturer. Grizzly Those who are interested in this will be able to go to the corresponding site using the link at the bottom of the picture.
And now the most important thing! A hand-held circular saw is an extremely dangerous tool. This must be repeated constantly. I suggest watching videos where the possible consequences of disrespectful handling of the circular are clearly demonstrated, all more than clearly:
I think what you see will force you to carefully study the instructions and safety recommendations from the manufacturer of your tool again. And I wish no one to see this in reality!