How to cut a 45 degree baguette

How to cut a baguette at 45 degrees

Sometimes it is necessary to trim a particular part or product at a certain angle. As a rule, you need to trim baguettes, moldings, casings, baseboards and similar interior elements at an angle of 45 degrees. Everyone can cope with this task. The main thing is not to hurry, not to be nervous, and everything will work out.

Buy pre-cut corner elements

Of course, the easiest way not to bother with trimming a part, and buy it already ready, not in need of treatment and trimming. These parts and elements are now sold everywhere in large supermarkets or smaller stores.

For example, as for the baguettes or fillets, they are sold special corner elements that fit perfectly into the corner and do not need to be trimmed. It is enough just to glue them in place and press them well.

The method of connecting trim without trimming

Roof architraves today are often not trimmed at an angle to be joined together, but the joint is made at right angles. This method of connecting the platbands does not require any special trimming, which is very convenient. In addition, this method looks more modern and attractive.

Trimming at an angle with a wire cutter

If it is still necessary to trim at an angle to one or another part, then it is worth stocking up on a wire cutter. a simple device, which looks like a small box. The mitre has slots that are designed to fit a saw or long, sharp knife. Of course, these cuts are made so that they form an even and accurate angle of 45 degrees.

However, the chisel can have many notches at once, at different angles. This is convenient, because with one device, you can trim any parts at different angles.

Chisels are on sale adjustable. Slots in such a chisel can be adjusted, allowing the craftsman to set exactly the angle that is required at the moment. In particular, it is quite easy to translate the slots of such a chair to a position of 45 degrees.

Now the workpiece can be trimmed elementary. Put a molding, a platband or a baseboard in the chair, and then insert the saw into the slots and cut off the excess elementary. The angle is eventually perfect, exactly 45 degrees.

What to do if you do not have a power drill? Very easy. You need to make a template, on which it will not be difficult to transfer the necessary markings on the workpieces. As a template, you can choose a thick cardboard or anything else that will be appropriate in this case.

How to cut a corner with a jointer

The chisel is a joinery tool, with the help of which any material can be cut at an angle of 45 and 90 degrees. The mortar can be made of wood, plastic or iron. Even the simplest device has openings for a hacksaw, more expensive models even have a swivel mechanism.

The principle of working with a wire cutter is very simple. Lay the plank in the hollow, press it down and cut through the side holes. As a result, a cut at the desired angle is obtained.

  • Measure.
  • Put the skirting board face up into the groove of the wood skating rink.
  • Press with your hand on the plank, but not too hard (if the skirting board is made of foam plastic, it is easy to break it).
  • Insert the hacksaw at an angle of 45 degrees into the opening of the jigsaw and make the cut
  • In a mirror image in a similar way cut the second piece. The formed inner corner is obtained.

Tip! You can cut the skirting boards with a metal hacksaw, but if the baguette is narrow, it is better to use a construction knife, it makes the cut more even.

Cut the outer corner just as easily. Step by step instructions:

  • On the underside of the baseboard, mark the desired length, but its edges should protrude slightly.
  • We put a slat in a chair at an angle of 45 degrees and through the holes we do the cut.
  • Mirror cut the second slat.
  • The prepared elements are attached to the wall. If everything is straight, we glue it, and if there are flaws, we simply remove them with a sharp knife.

If you have to work with a wire cutter for the first time, then it is better to pre-practice on extra pieces.

How to cut a corner without a mitre

You can cut the corner and glue the skirting board without a joiner. Let’s tell you how not to spoil the appearance of the baguette.

  • On any solid basis we draw a line for a trimmer.
  • From the line we indent 10 cm and draw another line for the trimmer.
  • At right angles draw a line through the parallels.
  • From the line we make a 5 cm mark on each line and connect the opposite points.
  • Lines with parallels in the end form a corner of 45 degrees.

So we get a homemade plinth, and now it is necessary to determine the slope and make a cut of the baseboard.

  • Place the slats against the ceiling and determine the direction of the cut for accurate and correct installation.
  • For the inside corner, the top edge must be shorter than the bottom edge.
  • For outer corner the upper edge must be longer than the lower one.
  • It is necessary to cut the baseboards in a mirror image.
  • On the baseboard, which will be located on the right, you need to make a cut on the left side. On the slat that will be on the left. the cut on the right side.
  • We lay the strips on a selfmade jig along parallel lines and, taking into account the direction of the angle, make the cut according to the marks.

To make the cut without roughness and splinters, you need to move the knife carefully in one direction.

Necessary tools

The following tools are used to trim the baseboards:

  • For foam plastic products and all types of polystyrene foam. a sharp office knife;
  • For polyurethane products, a metal hacksaw;
  • For woodwork. a jigsaw (hand or electric).

Although for cutting polyurethane baseboards most often a hacksaw is used, it can also be done with a box cutter. the rather low density of the material allows it.

Instead of a clerical knife, you can take an ordinary kitchen knife. It is a must:

degree, baguette

To cut wooden baseboards, a metal hacksaw can be used instead of a jigsaw. But the blade will have to take with the smallest teeth. Otherwise, the saw will crumble the wood and get stuck in it during work.

With a wire cutter and a hacksaw

First of all, when calculating the right direction for the cut, you need to remember one thing: in contrast to the usual skirting boards, the ceiling plinth is installed on the base at a certain angle, usually 38-45 °, so exactly measure the “right” 45 ° will be very problematic.

Consequently, when cutting the ceiling plinth, it is necessary to keep it in the position in which it will be installed on the surface.

READ How to Cut Corners of Ceiling Baseboards

Chisel is a device for cutting the baseboard at a certain angle.

The main task is to determine how the mowing line will be cut on the joined “left” and “right” parts of the baseboards. If the corner is uneven or irregular, you need to find its middle. there should be a line to trim the junction.

The skirting board must be positioned in the jig as it will be glued to the wall: hold the top (a) element, and press the bottom edge (b) against the wall of the jig.

degree, baguette

So, to begin with, you need to put a straight tack to the corner of the room and visually determine the line for the trimmer cut (if the angle in your room is flat, that is about 90 °). Next, we put it in the wire cutter and put it under the desired hole for the cut. Tack in the chair should be put so that it lies at the angle at which it will be attached to the wall, that is, in the corner. Now all that remains is to saw or trim with a knife. If you use a hacksaw for metal. make light movements, do not allow pressure, it will lead to rips or chipping (applies to plastic). To avoid confusion in the materials, mark the inside of the ceiling baguette with a marker or pencil. Note that for the outer and inner corner the direction of cutting will be different, so it is recommended to mark directly on the jigsaw: to sign the holes for the “right” and “left” fillet outer and inner corners.

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Useful Tips for Cutting Ceiling Baseboards

There are two things to keep in mind when working with the jigsaw:

    The inner corner of the ceiling plinth is formed from two elements: the first bring the right into the wire and cut from right to left, the second bring it to the left and cut from left to right.

    Before proceeding to cut the baguette with a wire cutter, try to cut a test plank so as not to make any mistakes.

We have become familiar with the question of how to cut the corners of the ceiling plinth with a jigsaw, using a template or the method of marking. Of course, you can try trimming “by eye”, but then the result will be appropriate. If you follow the instructions, you will promptly and correctly cut the fillet at the right angle.

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Selection of tools for cutting ceiling skirting boards

To properly and accurately cut ceiling plinths, you need to use the right tool for cutting. It is chosen depending on the material from which the fillets are made:

    Styrofoam. Characterized by low strength and is relatively inexpensive, and therefore foam models are becoming increasingly popular. Their strength does not particularly affect the performance, because usually the ceiling plinth is not subjected to mechanical stress. An ordinary office knife is suitable for cutting.

It can be purchased in a construction store or make your own hands according to these instructions:

    Three boards 5015 cm nailed a long rib in the shape of a tripartite rectangular box. Pay attention, between the side planks and the transverse board must comply with the angle of 90 degrees.

In order to work with this homemade device was convenient and safe, the boards should be well sanded before fastening.

The technology of cutting ceiling plinths

For prompt and quality work it is necessary to choose the tool according to the material of the plinth and choose the way of cutting. If you have a plane, then special difficulties in the process will not arise. If it is not there, then there are two options: to cut according to the template and measurements on the ceiling, or to make this tool yourself.

Features of cutting ceiling plinths in the jigsaw

Work with this device should be extremely carefully, so as not to dull the tool and not to leave cuts in unnecessary places. In the process, we adhere to the following instructions:

    Fix the baguette in the jig as planned to place it on the wall. The side, which will be pressed to the ceiling on the jig, should be adjacent to the sidewall.

When cutting and trimming foam and polyurethane products remember that these materials crumble and squeeze, so tools must be sufficiently sharp, and a strong mechanical impact on them is undesirable.

Technique of cutting ceiling plinths on a template

This method can be used if you have the corners. even, and you want to trim the baguette exactly 45 degrees. To do this, before you cut the ceiling plinth in the corners, you need to draw a jig on heavy paper. Draw two parallel lines and mark the angles at the right degrees, using a protractor.

We place the fillet in this case in the same way as on a traditional mortar. Take into account that the skirting boards must be cut keeping the tool strictly vertical.

Rules of cutting ceiling skirting boards by the marking

This method is used to cut the baseboard in cases where there is neither a chisel, nor parts from which it can be made.

To do this, you need to make a marking on the wall in this order:

    Put the baguette in the corner to the place of fastening.

Performing cutting in this way, it is important to accurately draw all lines and mark points. A mistake of even a few millimeters will cause a gap. This method is suitable for cutting and docking both inside and outside corners of the ceiling plinth.

How to cut a ceiling plinth without a joiner

To accurately join the internal corners of the boards, you can do without a pitchfork.

    We enclose the end part of the baguette to a sheet of paper and trace the contour of the convex side. It is more convenient to use a small section of the skirting board (if it is available).

Ceiling plinth. fillet

To do this correctly, it is important to strictly follow the existing recommendations and rules of finishing work. And then you will be pleased with the result.

In fastening the fillet (so called this element) there are no difficulties: in fact, all varieties of products are mounted on a reliable adhesive.

degree, baguette

In order to hang a ceiling plinth, even inexperienced repairmen have no difficulty. Worries them quite another thing: how to properly cut the ceiling plinth? In fact, almost every room, no matter how intricately shaped, is equipped with corners.

And here in these internal corners of the individual elements of the plinth must be beautiful and evenly docked. And in rooms especially complex configuration will have to fudge and over the outer corners. Let’s try to figure out how to be in each of these situations, and how to cut the right part with the available tools.

Baseboard materials and cutting methods

First of all, let’s try to determine what can be made of the fillet, and what a particular material is better to cut.

On sale today you can find products made of foam (polyvinyl chloride), wood, polystyrene foam and polyurethane.

Perhaps some of the cheapest skirting boards are made of foam, which is a fragile, soft and brittle material.

Even the fingers of the hand can leave dents on them, they easily form creases and defects. Trim beautifully and evenly the corner of the PVC baseboard is quite difficult.

Inexperienced masters a large amount of purchased material can go to waste for this reason. Also, this polymer has high electrostatic properties, which explains its ability to collect dust.

It is more convenient to cut these skirting boards with a hacksaw or a sharp construction knife.

Products made of polystyrene foam are also inexpensive, although this material is more durable analog of traditional foam.

Handled also with a sharp tool.

Extruded polystyrene foam

Extruded polystyrene skirting boards are slightly more expensive, somewhat denser and more difficult to cut. But they are much less likely to crumble and break.

That is why it is more convenient and easier to cut them. For this purpose it is convenient to use a hacksaw or a sharp knife.

Polyurethane skirting boards for the ceiling are currently, perhaps, one of the most expensive.

But they justify their cost: moisture-resistant, quite strong and dense, quite elastic.

Located over the kitchen stove, the baseboard can deform and even crack a little.

They are perfectly cut with a special knife, without forming crumbs. But these products are very sensitive to temperature changes.

Wooden skirting boards for the ceiling. it’s quite heavy and thick products, solid and durable.

They are well amenable to processing with a special fine-toothed hacksaw. You can also use a reliable metal blade. So how to cut a ceiling plinth correctly?

Prefabricated corners

Note that every craftsman has the opportunity not to pore over the precise cutting and fitting of corners.

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In a construction store you can buy a prefabricated corner element, into which the prepared edges of the baseboard can easily be inserted.

It is enough to measure the required length of the workpiece, and cut it at right angles.

All defects and flaws will hide this special element. But this convenient way to use is not always possible, since the standard sizes of these factory corners can differ markedly from the size of the baseboard itself.

Such corners will stand out for their disproportionality, and it will not look very neat. But if the design of the room and the size of blanks allow you to use this method, then you should not neglect it.

Trimming a fillet

Trimming with a plier

How to evenly trim the corner of the ceiling plinth with it?

Pliers are simple tools used by carpenters. With his help, you can cut any workpiece at the desired angle.

Is it usually a wooden, metal or plastic tray, which are made to cut at an angle of 45 ° and 90 ° special vertical slots.

There are more complicated constructions, which in addition to the corners mentioned above also have a hole to make a 60-degree cut.

A special plane saw is available for professional work. Its swivel mechanism allows you to fix the cutting blade in relation to the workpiece at any given angle.

Inner corner

The prepared skirting board is put against the ceiling, the required length is put aside.

Then this same bar is inserted into the jig exactly as it will be positioned on the ceiling. It must be pressed against the far wall of the fixture. Hold the skirting board in this position with the left hand.

Saw blade should be in 45 degree angle, with handle close to hand. Trying to avoid pressing the saw, we carefully cut the workpiece.

Then the skirting board must be cut off a mating strip. It is also placed at the far side of the tool, held and pressed down, this time by the right hand.

A similar position to the previous procedure for the hacksaw. its handle is brought closer to the hand at an angle of 45 degrees. The skirting board is cut.

Then ready, already cut planks are docked. accuracy of fit is checked. It is believed that for better orientation, in the manufacture of the inside corner, cutting is better to start with the front of the product. The cuts are usually adjusted with a file.

The outside corner

The correct way to observe more accurately the dimensions, first start to mark the inside corner, and only then proceed to the outer corner.

Otherwise, it may happen that the entire length of the strip is not enough.

The strip is attached to the ceiling, according to the size made marks. Holding the left hand, the ceiling plinth is pressed to the closest wall and the handle of the hacksaw is brought close to the hand. The workpiece is cut off.

The answer bar is pressed against the nearest wall, while holding it with the right hand. The blade of the hacksaw should be at an angle of 45 °, the handle of the tool is close to the hand of the master. A piece of workpiece is cut, the corner is neatly docked.

Such edge trimming is good if the angle between the walls is even and straight (90°).

If its indicators leave much to be desired, then it is worth using another method.

Marking on the ceiling

The method with the marking on the ceiling allows you to cut a corner accurately and evenly. It has one disadvantage. it is quite inconvenient to hold the baseboard by weight during the procedure.

In all other respects, you can use this method to mark a corner even more accurately than the other methods.

When the skirting board is applied to the intended place of installation, all size deviations and inaccuracies are noticeable and immediately taken into account.

Corner trimming

First take a pair of blanks, then trim them at a right angle. Positioning the end of the slat against a perpendicular wall, apply a single slat. We outline a trimmer line on the ceiling along the contour of the baseboard. Remove the first slat, and then, in the same way, resting the end of the slat against the wall, attach the counter slat. Exactly the same way we mark on a contour a line for a trimmer.

The intersection point of the two separate lines is the mark at which the workpiece is cut. Each plank is placed against the surface again, and the point of the future cut is marked on both of them. From the found point to the other edge of the plinth plank, draw a line for the trimmer. Baseboards we cut on the previously made marks, we accurately juxtapose, we dispose in a place of their installation.

This method allows you to process inside corners more accurately.

How to properly cut corners in the ceiling plinth. How to cut a corner with the planking mitre

In rooms with even corners and walls, it is usually not very difficult to cut ceiling plinths using a wire cutter. The tool has a U-shaped trough with 90 and 45 degree saw rails. After placing the element to be cut inside the device, insert the saw into the guides. In the process of cutting the baguette must be held firmly in place, to avoid defects. Cutting a baseboard is quite difficult, because you need to achieve its simultaneous adjacency to two planes. If the width of the baguette is small, it is more convenient to press it to the near side. ” How to cut ceiling plinths. tools and cutting rules “.

How to cut the corner of the ceiling plinth, if the outer corner is designed:

  • Before you cut the corners of the ceiling plinth with a wire cutter, make a 45-degree angle scribe.
  • The chair is set in a comfortable position. This will make it possible to determine the exact location of the baseboard: first of all, this applies to the edge of the product, which will be adjacent to the ceiling. To avoid confusion, it is most convenient to place the right-side plank on the right, and the left-side. on the left.
  • The surface is pressed against the bottom surface of the trimmer. In this case, the second part is raised, being the closest. It is necessary to put it in such a way that during the work to avoid its wobbling. In this arrangement, the front side of the product is turned to the opposite side.
  • It is necessary to make a cut at an angle of 45 degrees from yourself. If everything is done correctly, when you fold the two halves, you get a nice outside corner.

After the correct sawing of the ceiling plinth in the corners is completed, both pieces should first be attached to the ceiling “dry” to check the matching geometry of the corner. If necessary, adjustments are made by trimming with a knife. Small gaps are easier to fill with putty, which must be treated with sandpaper after drying. As for the inner corner, it is much easier to arrange.

The procedure, how to cut the ceiling plinth in the corners of the internal type is much like the above described. The first thing to do is to determine the side that will be adjacent to the ceiling. It is placed on the bottom of the cutter. The reverse side should be leaned against the near wall. After the sawing of the plinth on the ceiling is finished, the obtained fragments should be dryly attached to the corner, checking the quality of the junction. If necessary, adjustments are made. After that, the installation of one and two skirting boards on the mounting compound. Small gaps in the corner can be filled with a special filler.

Different materials and their characteristics

The most durable material compared to the other two listed below, the advantages of which are hardness, impact resistance and the ability to withstand certain mechanical loads. Nevertheless, wooden skirting boards (another name. tacks), glued on the ceiling, also relatively easy to handle. they can be cut (for this use a hacksaw for wood), covered with varnish. The wood will add warmth to the interior. From the disadvantages can be called a higher cost than that of Styrofoam. However, the appearance of wooden fillets retain longer than the foam.

Styrofoam. Perhaps this material is the most unstable. it is not resistant to mechanical damage, scratches, and even minor impacts. Of the pluses. light weight, the ability to paint in different colors and ease of processing (it can be cut with a stationery knife. but very carefully).

Polystyrene foam. This material can be considered a kind of Styrofoam, although its strength characteristics are somewhat higher (extruded polystyrene foam is more dense than Styrofoam). As for processing. styrofoam is just as easy to cut with a common sharp knife, and also has a small weight, and this is an important factor when considering the load on the walls.

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Ways

There are two of the most common methods of correctly, simply and comfortably cutting perfect corners for baseboards. The first involves the purchase of a special mortiser with a large number of notches on its perimeter, which help cut the corner correctly and evenly. The second option. it is a cutting corners without the help of a chisel, and we’ll talk about it today. This process for beginners is quite difficult and laborious, in addition, the presence of a chair does not guarantee 100% facilitation of this work, be prepared for the fact that the first time you may not succeed.

There are several ways to create a corner joint without the help of a chisel.

One of them is to make a marking directly on the ceiling. First we will need two pieces of baguette, cut at an angle of 90 degrees. It is not necessary to take two meter long slats at once and try to cut them, you can cut two pieces of 15-20 cm for easier holding them with one hand in the position you need. Next, we attach them in successive order to the ceiling and run a 5-centimeter trimmer line along the ceiling to the end of the baguette, pressing the baseboard tightly. After to an opposite corner we put the second molding, and we do the similar action, and in a place of an intersection of a baguette and earlier made line we do a neat notch with a pencil on a baguette. With the second skirting board repeat the same, making a similar notch at the intersection of the baguette and the drawn line.

Now we can cut the baguette under the necessary angle to us, for this purpose use a construction knife or a hacksaw depending on the material of which the plinths are made (further we will tell what materials make baguettes, and what they are better to cut). To cut a corner correctly, place the skirting on a table or chair, and make a cut from the point you marked on the ceiling to the opposite corner of the skirting. After that you can safely join the corners and glue. Please note that this method is suitable for fitting only the inner corners, fit the outer corners so do not work.

The second way is to trace a sheet of paper or plywood under the chair, to do this, you must draw two parallel lines, then from one line to perpendicular to the other, so we get a marking for the right angle. For the 45-degree line, use a triangle or protractor to draw two 45-degree lines through the perpendicular line from parallel lines. Then, as when working with a plank, we put our skirting board along the line and trim it at the required angle.

The third way is to make a primitive plinth with their own hands, from which it will not become less effective. To do this take three boards or planks and hammer them into the shape of the letter “U”, make cuts at right angles and two 45-degree cuts. That way you can cut corners without the “help” of a chair.

The fourth method is quite rare and inventive. it consists of intricacies with thick paper or cardboard and a small bar. To do this, bend a sheet of cardboard at the angle you need, take a small bar, which will serve you as a template for trimming the corner. Press the prepared sheet of cardboard to it and, holding the knife or hacksaw strictly vertically, carefully cut the plank at the angle you need. To trim the baseboard, simply place the block on top of the baseboard, press down firmly and cut along the cut line of the block.

The fifth way is to buy special fittings with ready-made ceiling corners: inside and outside corners. Unfortunately, there are many variations of the design of the skirting board, special inserts may not be found under your skirting. But in general, very convenient for those who do not want to engage in sawing corner joints.

But also if you have irregular corners in your home, then pre-made blanks or a wire cutter won’t help you. After all, there are only 45, 60 and 90 degrees you can cut a connection. In that case, cut off the edge of the baguette by eye at an angle of 45 degrees, and trying it on to your corner, carefully trim it, so you can achieve a nearly perfect connection, with only one thing. there can be many such attempts and trims.

How to correctly cut corners ceiling plinth. How to cut a corner using a power drill

In rooms with even corners and walls, it is usually not very difficult to cut a ceiling plinth with a wire cutter. The tool looks like a U-shaped trough with 90 and 45 degree saw rails. Having placed inside the device the element demanding trimming, insert a saw into guides. In the process of cutting the baguette must be held firmly in place, to avoid defects. Cut the baseboard is quite difficult, because you need to achieve its simultaneous adjacency to two planes. If the width of the baguette is small, it is more convenient to press it to the near side. ” How to cut ceiling plinths. tools and cutting rules “.

How to cut a corner of the ceiling plinth, if the outer corner is designed:

  • Before you cut the corners of the ceiling plinth with a mortiser, you make a 45 degree angle cut.
  • The chair is set in a comfortable position. This will make it possible to determine the exact location of the baseboard: first of all, this applies to the edge of the product, which will be adjacent to the ceiling. To avoid confusion, it is most convenient to position the right-hand slat on the right, and the left-hand slat on the left.
  • The surface is pressed to the bottom surface of the chair. In this case the second part is lifted up, so it is closest. It must be so placed against the wall of the jigsaw to avoid it wobbling during the work. This positioning causes the face of the workpiece to be turned to the opposite side.
  • The cut should be made at an angle of 45 degrees from yourself. If everything is done correctly, when the two halves are folded, a beautiful outside corner is obtained.

After properly sawing the ceiling skirting boards in the corners is completed, both pieces should first be attached to the ceiling “dry” to verify the geometry of the match the corner. If necessary, adjustments are made by trimming with a knife. Small gaps are easier to cover with putty, which must be treated with sandpaper after drying. As for the inner corner, it is much easier to arrange.

The procedure, how to cut the ceiling plinth in the corners of the internal type is much like the above-described. The first thing to do is to determine the side that will be adjacent to the ceiling. It is placed on the bottom of the mortar. The back side is leaned against the near wall. After sawing the plinth on the ceiling is finished, the obtained fragments must be dryly applied to the corner, checking the quality of the junction. If necessary, fitting is carried out. After that, the installation of one and two skirting boards on the mounting compound. Small gaps in the corner can be filled with special putty.

Different materials and their characteristics

The most durable material compared to the other two below, the merits of which are hardness, impact resistance and the ability to withstand certain mechanical loads. Nevertheless, wooden skirting boards (another name. tacks), glued to the ceiling, are also relatively easy to handle. they can be cut (for this use wood hacksaw), lacquered. Wood will give a warmth to the interior. Of the disadvantages can be called a higher cost than that of Styrofoam. However, and the appearance of wooden fillets retain longer than Styrofoam.

Styrofoam. Perhaps this material is the most unstable. it is unstable to mechanical damage, scratches and even minor impacts. Of the pluses. light weight, the ability to paint in different colors and ease of handling (it can be cut with a stationery knife, but very carefully).

Styrofoam. This material can be considered a kind of foam, although its strength characteristics are somewhat higher (extruded polystyrene foam is more dense than foam). As for processing. Styrofoam is as easy to cut with an ordinary sharp knife, and also has a small weight, and this is an important factor when considering the load on the walls.