How to cut a groove with a circular saw. PAZ Making a disk saw

How to cut a circular saw

The tree has found application in a variety of industries. This raw material has always been popular, thanks to its multifunctionality, ease of production and processing. Furniture, interior items and even whole houses make furniture from wood.

Any master faces this material, but, as practice shows, not everyone manages to make a neat cut. After the tools on the cut, chips or zabines often remain, which does not add beauty to your product. So how is it better, cut it with your own hands or order?

Many companies offer to cut your boards when buying, moreover, the price of this service is not too high. In the production of the cuts, the boards make a qualified master on accurate equipment, which allows you to get high.quality blanks of the desired size and shape.

Of course, you yourself can acquire expensive equipment, but is there any sense if you need to cut several boards. Choose only you, but if you still decide to saw the boards at home, then I will tell you how and what is more convenient to do.

Clutching spring

Everyone who often uses a disk saw can fully evaluate the usefulness and even the need for this adaptation, which ensures the absolute accuracy of processing. and above all, when sawing narrow boards and bars. and at the same time allows you to keep your fingers at a safe distance from a sawing disk. This spring is pressed to a parallel stop without the risk of jamming it.

Such a spring can be made yourself using the same disk saw. A wide bar of a hard.fiber tree with a length of 40 to 50 cm is suitable as a workpiece. The bar is cut from one end at an angle of 45 degrees. Then make several parallel cuts in the beveled end part. As a result, a kind of comb is formed. Although each of her tooth (about 5 mm thick) itself is quite soft and elastic, but a comb of 15-20 such teeth is a reliable elastic support.


The pressing spring is fixed with a clamp on the desktop with a disc saw so that the beveled end edge is located parallel to the sawing disk. The second bar is assigned as controls at right angles to the pressing spring. The bar reliably holds the spring, not allowing the details to shift it. The presence of a pressing spring in no way excludes the use of a protective casing over a sawing disk.

The slanting “comb” at the end of the wide plank presses the part to the parallel stop.

Ship-PAZ connection: a spiked device and cutters for a hand cutter

Knowing how to make a spike-puzzle with a hand mill, you can even make not only beautiful, but also reliable furniture, but also various wood structures characterized by excellent bearing capacity. According to the Ship-Paz system, not only elements of various furniture (tables, chairs and shelves) are connected, but also the frames of low-rise houses experiencing significant loads during operation.

Manual milling cutter Ship-Paz connection

In order to make a spike on a wooden beam with a hand milling mill, it is necessary to provide several conditions:

  • reliably fix the workpiece and correctly orient it in relation to the guide sole of the milling stream;
  • set the height of the working part of the cutter so that the tool removes the layer of material of the required thickness from the surface of the processed workpiece.

Even using the simplest sparkling device for the milling device when performing such a processing, you can not only increase its productivity and quality of the result, but also make the technological process safer. The use of such a device that can be made with your own hands is especially relevant, in cases where the furniture is not made in single copies, but in series (while the master has to perform a large number of such operations with both the same type and with various forms and sizes of wooden details).

The use of devices will accelerate the process of manufacturing by a milling connection with a carrier

The better to cut?

Circular saw

This is the most convenient tool for sawing boards. Compared to some other power tools, it has more performance. But it is worth remembering that circular saws differ in the characteristics and area of ​​application.

Before buying a saw, decide for what purpose you will use it. The main use of circular saws is the cutting or cut of the boards.

When choosing a saw, it is necessary to take into account the depth of saw. On sale there are disk saws with a cut depth from 30 to 130 mm. You need to find out with what thickness of the board you will saw and, based on this, give preference to a particular saw.

It is also worth responsibly to choose a disk for your circular saw. If you need to make a neat slice, you should choose a saw disk with a greater frequency of teeth. If the teeth on the disk are rare, then the work will be faster, but much rude. It is important that when working with a disk saw, the sections are even and practically without chips. Read more about this in my book. details about her in the section “Books”.

To start working with a disk saw, set the depth of the drink equal to the thickness of your board. Thanks to this, you can make the most beautiful slice on almost any surface, leaving no traces.

But it is worth remembering that if you make a cut of 90 degrees, the depth of the cut will be one, and for a cut of 45 degrees, the cut depth will be much larger. Then check so that the protective casing does not interfere, otherwise it simply will not open.

Fix the board, it is necessary that in the process it does not slide on the table, this requires emphasis along and at the end of the workpiece. By the way, some saws are equipped with a screw with a rolling head, which allows you to set a cut angle. Typically, disc saws have a range from 90 to a little less than 45 degrees, which allows you to make neat cuts at an angle.

Do not forget about safety measures when you work with a circular saw. Always put on the goggles, and even better the mask for the whole face. Remember that almost all tools are intended for right-handedness, this means that all sawdust and other garbage will fly out from under the saw on the left side, so the lefties should take care of the safety of the organs of vision and the respiratory tract.

Angular grinding machine or corner grinder

Some masters advise using a corner grinder, if you have a large amount of work, low quality requirements.

In no case do not try this method. The corner grinder is designed to give a beautiful appearance to the weld or for cutting brick and without a saw you just can’t cope. Cut the boards with a corner grinder. this is traumatic.

When cutting boards, this tool is advised to put a disc with zazubins for a circular saw on it. Imagine that when working, the corner grinder captured a piece of wood into one of the Zazubrin, you immediately release the power button (the one who worked with it knows that after turning off the disk will make several more revolutions) and it is not known where you will find your tool after this, on the floor paired meters away from yourself or in your body.

Or, for example, the disk was heated and burst, which is also quite possible, pieces of a hot cut.out circle scatter throughout the area, and some of them can land on you and. Other craftsmen use a winth attack disk, which can also be easily in your leg.

Therefore, it is better not to take risks, but to use a tool specially adapted for this work.


In order to make a flat cut with a hacksaw, first you need to draw a fishing line for a trimmer to cut with a pencil on the board, then install the workpiece so that you are convenient to work with it, fix it in this position. The next step, you need to install a hacksaw in a position of about 60 degrees to the product, direct the saw with your thumb so that it goes exactly along the cut line.

The main connection to the groove

Drinking grooves on a desktop circular with a set of drives for grooves is much faster than manually. But with long or wide details it is difficult to maneuver around the table. The pendulum saw solves this problem, but it is inherent in the disadvantage-usually its console is not enough for the recharge across wide details.

The milling cutter helps to cope with this misfortune. But here there are shortcomings.

Firstly, if you choose more than one pair of grooves, the installation of a ruler for each side can take a lot of time. Therefore, use the insert with a width equal to the distance from the edge of the base of the milling to the cutter. To install the ruler, move the insert along the planned lining line on the processed part

Secondly, the thickness of the processed part almost never corresponds to the cutter to guarantee the obtaining a tightly fitted connection. You can drive or clean parts from whole wood, but it is difficult to cut parts from plywood parts. Drinking a groove for fitting more clear. But this requires two passages by a milling. one for each pitch one.

Colliding closely with a sample of grooves, you can make a simple device (photo a).

Choice parameters

When choosing a particular method of milling wood, you should first pay attention to the possibility of installing a milling nozzle on a drill. For this, the power tool must have a cylindrical neck, in the continuation of which a cartridge is installed

In the absence of such, it is not recommended to use a specific model of a milling drill. If a specialized device for a drill intended for milling is installed, then you can choose mills. First of all, you should pay attention to the type of work. Milling tools are not universal, so each operation will require its own equipment model. The diameter of the shank should provide the possibility of a clamp in a specific drill cartridge. It is not recommended to use large mills, as they may require significant spindle power.

It is also necessary to take into account the processing modes. Many wood tools require a high number of revolutions unattainable for drills. It should be remembered that any electric drill is not designed for long loads. Therefore, it is not recommended to make great efforts to it, and perform work continuously, for a long time.

How to cut square holes

Thus, we just have to transfer the object to Editable Poly, edit the position of the grid and squeeze the windows out to the thickness of the walls with the Extrude team. Unnecessary landfills inside can be immediately removed.

For those who do not remember how to close the hole: go to the BORDER level, select the edge of the hole and press CAP.

The method really quickly helps to cut openings in the wall of the building, but it has disadvantages. Firstly, it does not work if the walls are not being built from boxing, but for example, according to the method of recording modeling from the drawing. Secondly, the 3D object is cluttered with excess edges, absolutely unnecessary, for example, on the ceiling. Of course, they can be removed, but who needs extra work?

Cutting Steel with Circular Saws | Metal Cutting vs. Standard Sidewinder

Some tips when working with a pendulum.

It is imperative to use cutting cutters. For example, Freze Enkor, Article 10504. It is such a mill that provides a smooth surface. The most important parameter is the total length of the cutter. Working length is not more than 10 mm. Slightly better in terms of cutter Encor Expert, article 28026. It is advisable to take more diameter mills, they provide a greater removal and speed. However, long cutters with a diameter of more than 16 mm is unlikely to be able to find.

Homemade groove selection device

Although the device looks complicated, it is easy enough to do it cut the workpieces in size, and then carefully delay the planes and edges. Then, in a fixed bar for a fixed ruler with several cuts on a circular, select a groove. Then, to ensure dense fitting and rectangular edges, with an acute chisel, cut its shoulders. The connection of an undertaking on the adjustable ruler is made so that its upper surface is in the same plane with a fixed ruler.

Cheat all the cracks in the strips and rulers using a ruler pressed to the base of the milling cutter at first, releasing the cutter by approximately 3 mm in each passage, for several passes, finish the narrow through gaps. Then fraud s for the heads of the screws and T-shaped nuts.

Small clipping was used as a clamp. A clamping pillow is a T-shaped nut at the end of the screw. Ruthagica does not allow the pillow to weaken when it presses the processed part. In the adjustable bar, select so that the presses can hide behind its rib.Rice. ten. Groove selection.

How to Use a Circular Saw. Everything you need to know. | Woodworking Basics

Hello! In principle, you can put the cutter in the drill if we are talking about the milling cutter milling. But the effect will not be very. I tried to put and process manually, the quality of course wanted the best. Yes, and the cartridge was constantly relaxed and the cutter flew out. Made a special table, put a new cartridge. The quality of course improved, but the processing speed is small and the depth of processing is difficult to regulate. In general, you can put it, but there will be some inconvenience and the turnover has small ones, not for milling, and the motor may burn out!

If the question is only that it is possible or not!, then you can certainly adapt the cutter to the drill and can be frozen by it, only this is the result. this is a completely different question.

Firstly, the drill is not enough, for the clean cut of the cutter, the sample will be torn and ugly-you will have to additionally process everything with sandpaper, and perhaps there will be no even surface at all, since wood fibers will be torn out due to lack of revolutions!

Secondly, in order to work with a drill with a planted mill, it will be necessary to construct the adaptation of the holder, because the working mill will constantly break out of the processing and hold it with the effort of the hands will be very problematic!

groove, circular, making, disk

Thirdly, if it is a large curly cutter with a significant diameter, then working with such a cutter is not possible at all, but even more dangerous!

In general, this is the conclusion, if any rough work, such as a sample or grooves for example, for a castle or internal details, then it is quite possible to cope with this work with a drill with a milling cutter!

Types of wood mills

For processing soft materials, a large number of modifications of cutting tools have been developed. Share them according to the resulting geometry of the surface of the product.

Simple end mills are used for cutting sheet material and sample grooves of small width. The design of such equipment resembles a drill, processing is carried out as end, the same side blades. The number of blades in wood models is small. The most widespread are single.rise and two.set models.

Groove cutters are used to form long recesses in the array of workpieces. Depending on the geometry, such equipment is divided into rectangular, V-shaped and fingering. When using shaped models, together with milling nozzles for a drill, in wood blanks you can get more complex geometry.

Chergery cutters are aimed at processing the side surfaces of flat blanks. Their main feature lies in the bearing installed at the end of the cutter. This element allows you to rest the tool on the edge of the workpiece for the sample of the corresponding part. Sick models are produced to obtain both direct and shaped edges.

A spip-paz type tool is used when forming a connection board on the edge of the corresponding type.

Such cutters are supplied with a set of two pieces. Depending on the specific model, the geometry and the number of blades differ. It is not recommended to install such mills in an electric drill due to low engine power. Similarly, FIGIRAL and CLASSIC DISCOMS are not recommended for use.

Milling of complex drawings or sculptures on wooden blanks is available when using balls. The surface of these mills is dotted by many cutting teeth and in the first approximation resembles a rashpil. Grinding nozzles can be used for finishing. Instead of cutting blades, the working part of this tool is covered with sandpaper.

Processing of wooden details

The first thing to learn is to properly set the depth of milling. To do this, install a zero point. It is impossible to install it firmly, because with each cutting change, it changes. The zero point is the position of the tool when the end of the cutter touches the material and is fixed by a special device called the latch.

It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that each milling cutter has a different position when fixing. To control the depth of immersion of the cutting tool in the body of the material, a stubborn pin with a rough setting scale is used.

When milling the end cutter, the power of counteraction from the cutting force is taken by the milling cutter to the side. To prevent this from happening, you need to use parallel emphasis. The milling process is as follows. Set the cutter along the marking line, fix the position of the stop with a special screw. Put the depth of milling and turn on the machine. If the parallel emphasis is installed on the left side, you need to pull the milling cutter on yourself when on the right side. from yourself.

In order to choose a quarter on the beam, you need to install the cutting edge of the milling cutter along the very edge, fix it, set the depth of the quarter, turn it on and pull it on yourself (if the emphasis on the left edge of the beam). Milling the surface of narrow bars has its own peculiarity. The problem is that on the narrow side of the workpiece the milling cutter is very difficult to keep. If it swings during operation, the groove will turn out to be inaccurate.


In order to do something useful, for example, a casket is not necessary to have a whole arsenal of complex equipment and expensive tools. You can do with a minimum of tools and mechanisms. To perform carpentry, you will need:

Absolutely everything can be used as a material-for example, scraps of a parquet board, pieces of plywood and waste of the stove of a woody stove, but necessarily with a right angle. To simplify the work, you need to make a simple milling table. For processing blanks, you will need a straight.up.diameter string cutter. The process looks something like this. On a homemade table to build the ends of the scraps of a parquet board. Mark the sidewalls of the caskets and use the jigsaw to remove all the excess.

The resulting blanks must be treated with a flight to withstand the size of all sidewalls. In the absence of a flight, you can use the milling table. To do this, set the emphasis on the size of the workpiece and move the part between the emphasis and the rotating mill towards yourself. The next operation to calibrate the sidewalls in length perform a jigsaw.

You can connect the sidewalls with each other on the mustache. To do this, it is necessary to milling the ends of the sidewalls with a conical mill with an angle of 90 degrees. You can do this using a milling. Thus, the ends of the sidewalls have the same bevels of 45 degrees. Next, you need to make grooves in the sidewalls for the bottom. To do this, the end cutter is used with a diameter of 6 millimeters equal to the thickness of the plywood. Parts are connected by glue. The product looks neat and beautiful both outside and inside. What else can be done by a hand.on wood mill? Anything: for example, a shelf for things, boxes for storing vegetables or tools, kitchen furniture.


In order to make a tool box, it is necessary to strengthen the carpentry connection of the sidewalls by inserting additional spikes. The operation is called cutting spikes with a hand mill. It is very difficult to perform it manually, so you need to make a simple device. a milling table. The principle of its manufacture is simple:

  • Collect a simple wooden table consisting of countertops and legs.
  • At the bottom to the countertop, attach a hand milling machine, making a hole in the countertop to exit the cutter.
  • Make a carriage with a stubborn bar out of thick.layer plywood in size. A groove is cut in a carriage for a milling cutter.

The cutting device for cutting the spikes in the board works as follows. Mark the place of milling and, pressing the board to the stubborn bar, perform the movement of the carriage, directing it to the cutting tool. The resulting stud joint will be strong and reliable.

How to make a pholenka

One of the most frequently performed carpentry operations is the manufacture of files. It is performed by a special milling cutter. For high.quality work, it is necessary to make a simple device for the countertop of the milling device. To do this, you need a thick.layer plywood size of 500 x 300 x10 millimeters. A hole with a diameter of 100 millimeters is cut out to release the cutter. Parallel emphasis is attached to the table with clamps. The milling cutter is set taking into account the distance from the surface of the table to the sharp edge of the cutting tool in one millimeter. All sides of the workpiece are processed sequentially. The thickness of the file is regulated by the rise of the milling.

Using a hand cutter, it is very easy to create a furniture facade on the doors. This will require a curly end cutter, a copying sleeve and a plywood template. The technological process is very simple:

  • attach the template to the workpiece using thin cloves;
  • establish and fix the depth of immersion of cutters into wood;
  • install a copying sleeve on a milling mechanism;
  • milling machine, pressing to the template, leading along its contour.

The result is a neat pattern of the furniture facade.

Pipe trimming technology at right angles

If you exclude the options used in industry. mirrors, devices for radial cutting. then there are not so many solutions available to the home master. In any case, you will need either a hacksaw for metal or a manual grinding machine. The configuration is facilitated by the fact that the tubular product always has only linear contact with the plane of the cut.

groove, circular, making, disk

How to drink a metal pipe evenly? Squeeze the metal workpiece in parallel with clamps, mark the cutting area with a marker and cut into size. Of course, within the gaps between the hacksaw cloth and the installation bases of the hacksaw, the backlash is always possible, as a result of which a burr will turn out on the surface of the joint. If the subsequent inclined section of such a junction is attached to another element of the pipeline with manual arc welding, then this is not scary: everything can be (within reasonable limits) by changing the thickness of the weld. Otherwise, you should just choose a new tool and in the process of cutting to constantly control the marker marking.

It is even easier to cut the end using a pipeline (it is inexpensive, in extreme cases, you can borrow from a more skilled neighbor). This tool is equipped with a special supplier of a screw type. The sequence of actions using a single.roller pipeline is as follows:

  • The surface of the workpiece is thoroughly cleaned of traces of dirt, lubrication or scale.
  • The separated area is tightly squeezed with lips (if the pipe is made of soft metal, for example, aluminum, it is better to lay a rubber plate between the lips: the clamp friction will increase).
  • Rotating the feed screw, they make a gradual deepening of the cutting roller into the wall, until the video wipes through it through.
  • Change the position of a round pipe, rotating it by 1200, so that the cutting video comes into contact with the new section of the cut, and repeat the transition.
  • We carry out another reinstall. and the straight segment of the pipe is ready. It remains only to clean the overlapse areas.

There are three- and four-rope pipelines, there the process of the segments is completely simple, since the number of reinforcements decreases accordingly.

How to cut a steel pipe at an angle of 45 or 90 degrees? First, you should check whether an existing pipeline is suitable to cut a specific part. The calculations are taken:

Note: in particularly critical cases, you should first practice on an unnecessary piece of pipe.

Advantages of the sharpening technology of ends of the tile

The development of sharpening ends under 45 degrees allows us to exclude the need to use decorative corners when decorating external angles. Thanks to this, it will be possible to make a neat type of wall. Such angles have a more cautious and elegant appearance than those that are trimmed with corners. Agree, this is much more exciting than the applied tiles on the tile or inserted plastic.

Electric tile cutter

The tile cutter is a machine for cutting tiles at 45 degrees, also for its longitudinal and transverse clipping. Such a device has a water cooling system. In addition, water helps to remove actually all the dust that occurs in the process of cutting porcelain tile or clay tile. The main advantage of tile cutter is its accuracy. He cuts one at a time, behind the previously this line of movement. This allows you to exclude the impact of reasons such as trembling the hands of the master. Ultimately was cut off very even and careful.

Tiles can be cut at almost any angle. True, often masters cut a tile at an angle of 90 degrees or 45 degrees.

How to set a saw saw for a flat sawing?

The saw disk should be strictly perpendicular to the support platform. This is visible both in the position of the disk, and on the scale of degrees on the adjusting arc. If the disk is at an angle:

With a tightening should be more careful. On some models, with excessive puff, you can break the thread or break off the head.

Further depends on how and what to saw.

The board across

With such a saw, the length of the workpiece should be accurate. The desired size is measured with a roulette. With a pencil (marker, sharp object), two marks are made. at first the future drank and at the end. Tags are connected by a line. This place of the future drank.

On the front (end) of the platform of each manual circular there is a risk. It is located opposite the disk and shows where to go. The risk is combined with marking the cut and sawing, making sure that the risk goes on marking.

Sometimes it is more convenient to make a strip and dick not in place, but on the left edge of the platform. Then it will be easier to control the accuracy of the cut. With this markup, the full length of the workpiece is noted, the disabled saw disc is put to it and on the left is a mark along the edge of the platform.

When sawing problematic blanks (solid, thick, steamed or jerking wood with twisted fibers), there is a possibility of a disk leaving from the mark. In such cases, instead of the mark, from the edge of the platform is screwed onto screws or pressed with clamps a guide bar. Drinking, pressing the platform to the bar.

Board along

The easiest way to make a drink along the entire length on a trimming board. For this, a support bar is used on two rods, which is included in the set of most models. Also, it is also called parallel emphasis.

The rods are inserted into the audience on the platform. Set the desired cut width and fix the rods with screws. Drinking, pressing the support bar to a trimming board. Pencil markings do not need.

They are required when you need to cut off the wedge.shaped blank (one end wider, the other already) and for the sawing along or cutting of the droppings of an unsolved board. In these cases, a disc is carried out according to the marking, similarly as with the above transverse cut. But it must be remembered that the longitudinal cuts are many times longer than transverse.

At the same time, the engine works with a fairly large load, especially on thick boards (35-50 mm). Therefore, they saw, moving the circular with such a speed that the engine does not lose speed, and the disk manages to choose wood and throw the sawdust from the cut.

How to work correctly with a circular saw

For pure transverse sawing of massive wood, decorative plywood and other sheet and slab materials, replace a standard disk with 24 teeth, which are equipped with most models, in a disc with 50-60 teeth. And for most cuts, when quality requirements are not too high, use a disc with 40 teeth. And only for longitudinal sawing of massive wood again install a standard disk with 24 teeth.

Get rid of chips in one of three ways

Follow the two tricks instead of one. The first shallow pass is purely cutting the wood fibers located on the surface, and under the final cut they will not be torn upward.

To press the surface wood fibers, especially on the materials lined with a stampy veneer, and prevent the formation of chips in places where the diesel teeth come out of the material, attach the plate from a solid organ to the sole of the circular saw. Smoothly plunging into a spinning disk and drinking it through, you will get an lining, the width spilled in which it will accurately correspond to the thickness of the saw disk. She will help minimize chips.

Attention! Be extremely careful when working with such a lining, since it prevents the protective casing from closing the disk from below. 3. Make a guide tire

Such a guide tire will help not only cope with chips, but it also simplifies work on opening, and you will not have to resort to calculations. Make it as shown in the figure. Give the width in accordance with the size of your saw. We made a guide tire a mine for about one and a half meters for cutting plywood sheets. The distance between the edge of the base and the emphasis should be 10-12 mm more than the distance from the saw disk to the edge of the sole of your saw. Fold the edge of the guide tire, pressing the sole to the stop. Now one edge of such a tire will play the role of an anti.scatter lining, pressing the fibers from above. Before cutting, put the tire over the future part, since on the other edge of the cut, where the fibers are not pressed, chips will occur.

What is the drying of

A typical case: you made a shed in your dacha for storing an household and for other needs. They did for themselves, so they rallied the boards from which the walls are made carefully, without the slightest click. Two to three months pass; the boards are dry and the entire wall shines with cracks. In winter, snow blows through them, in the summer, dust applies dust inside the barn.

So that this does not happen for walls of walls, you need to use boards with a quarter. A wall sheathed with such boards will never have through gaps. By their quarters, neighboring boards overlap each other and when the through gaps are drying out no longer arises.

Unfortunately, lumber is very rarely sold with the finished quarter. Therefore, the amateur master should know the ways that are finalized by boards if necessary.

Pilomaterial processing options

We will figure out how to choose a quarter in the board with your own hands. We buy a board of 2 varieties and process it in a convenient way. How can you do this work:

First, it is necessary to make a drink from the end of the board, half a height deep, and then in the center of the end. Then we install the width of the working part of the board and drink another fragment. Here the depth should be 1.5 times more than half of the height, so that it is more convenient to remove the sawed part. Thus, you can form a finished product with your own hands twice as much as the source.

Despite the production of second.grade raw materials, excellent characteristics are inherent in a quarter:

There is an opportunity to use this material for external skin.

A circular saw

The work scheme does not radically differ with the previous ones, differs only in that the processing of the tree is carried out by a circular saw.

Electric russian

It is convenient for them to cut the boards and give them a shape. The process of obtaining a quarter board does not differ from working with other equipment, but the rubies are better due to convenient operation. This device provides an open overview of the work surface of the board.

In the absence of circular and rubbish, a corner grinder with a wood disk or a hand cutter is suitable for work, on which a cylindrical mill was pre.installed. But both options are characterized by low productivity, that is, it is unlikely that they are suitable for processing a large volume of material due to low speed.