How to cut a long workpiece correctly
Once the animal has been struck, the first thing to do is to bleed the carcass. If you neglect this and do not do a quick exsanguination, then the meat will deteriorate much faster.
To get as much blood out of your body as possible, you need to cut off the large blood vessels in your neck. This should not be done with a wide incision along the neck, as this spoils the skin, which is of great value to hunters. For this purpose, a puncture is made with a sharp long knife in the lower part of the neck. You need to try to cut the blood vessels located there and remove the knife, causing as little damage to the skin as possible.
The carcass of the animal is placed so that the puncture site is lower than the rest of the body, that is, the front part of the body should be lower than the back. This will help shorten the bleeding time.
When the blood has drained from the carcass of the animal, you need to immediately start skinning.
The skin is removed in several successive steps.
- The killed animal is placed on its back with its limbs up and fixed in this position. To do this, you can support the carcass with something on the sides, or tie it by the limbs to the trees.
- The first step is to make a circular incision around the forelimbs in the wrist area.
- Next, a similar incision is made in the hind legs below the hock.
- Next, the circular incisions on the hind legs are connected by a straight incision running along the inner thighs through the groin.
- The procedure is repeated with the forelimbs. A new incision connects the circular incisions at the wrists, going through the armpits and crossing the chest.
- Next, a “main” longitudinal incision is made in the center of the torso, crossing the incisions in the groin and chest that were made along the limbs. During this, the anus is outlined in an even circle, the testes are removed, the incision is made to the end of the tail. In the front of the torso, this longitudinal incision should go straight through the hole through which the blood drained during exsanguination.
- When you reach the throat, you should make an incision around the head, and not continue to move along, to leave as much skin as possible on the head and upper neck. If we neglect this, then in the future it will most likely not be possible to make a stuffed animal out of this head.
When making cuts, you need to hold the knife with the tip up and push it forward. Thus, the skin will be cut against the blade, due to its own tension.
If the head is intended for a stuffed animal, then the skin of the animal must be cut around the base of the neck. Next, the skin is removed from ear to ear, and only then you can separate the head from the mascara. After that, the nostrils, mouth, flesh and neck should be carefully rubbed with a mixture of alum and salt to prevent the head from deteriorating. Such a blank is handed over to the taxidermist as soon as possible, who will make the stuffed animal.
When all the cuts are made, you need to start separating the hide from the body. Starting from the places of incisions, the skin is pulled and with jerky movements with a fist is separated from the body. In places where it is attached too tightly, neat cuts are made with a knife in the fabric that holds the skin.
During this, you need to be careful not to cut through the skin, because this is a very valuable resource. For example, the skin of a moose will become a very expensive and respectable trophy for hunters. Removal begins with circular incisions on the limbs, gradually moving towards the body. Then it becomes convenient to lay the carcass on its side to continue skinning the side of the carcass to the ridge. After this, the animal is turned over on the other side and the separation of the skin from the body is completed.
The difficulty of skinning varies from animal to animal. For example, it will be much easier to skin a roe deer than from a wild boar, in which it adheres very tightly to muscle and adipose tissue. In this case, the hunter will almost always have to wield a knife. And in some areas of the front part of the body, the wild boar has such a thick skin that it is almost impossible to even just bend it by hand. In this case, you need to start skinning from the hind legs, and all the pieces of fat that remain on the skinned skin must be carefully scraped off the flesh.
If skinning in a short time is impossible for some reason, then the first thing to do is to gut the carcass so that it does not start to rot from the inside.
After the skin has been removed from the bear, it must be gutted. The belly is parted to the ribcage with a neat incision that goes to the anus and goes around it in a circle. The intestines are removed, followed by the rest of the internal organs. The esophagus and trachea are cut at the neck, after which it becomes possible to remove the lungs and stomach. A heart and lungs with a trachea are taken out of the chest part of the body, the skinned carcass is put on its side so that the blood accumulated in the chest will drain out.
When the gutting is over, butchering the bear begins. To begin with, the head is separated from the body, and after that the carcass is cut lengthwise into two halves. The neck is separated from the resulting halves. The hind legs are cut off in the area of the hip joint, and the front ones in the area of the shoulder joint together with the shoulder blades. The chest is separated from the abdominal torso.
6 common things you might be doing wrong with your table saw
In order for the butchering of the wild boar to be successful, it must be properly gutted.
Gutting a wild boar begins with a longitudinal incision strictly in the center of the belly and chest. It must be remembered that the boar has glands in the bladder area that can give off a very strong smell that is well absorbed by the meat. It is important not to damage them and carefully separate them together with the genitals from the mascara in the first place.
Next, it is desirable to separate the intestines, gallbladder and stomach, and then deal with the lungs of the heart and liver. The trachea and esophagus are cut without cutting the neck, in the area of their entrance to the chest, after which the stomach and lungs can be removed.
During evisceration, you should pay attention to various signs of disease, because in some cases, a sick animal may not be suitable for food. The by-products of a healthy wild boar obtained after gutting can be cooked and eaten, the intestines are used for the production of sausages.
The gutted carcass must be properly cut. The butchering of the wild boar is often carried out by means of fasteners on which the carcass is suspended. Even a tree is suitable for this purpose. Using a carcass knife, the hunter should separate the head and legs from the carcass. The incisions are made in the posterior hock and anterior metacarpal joints. If the boar is small, then the remaining carcass is left intact, but you can also cut it into two equal parts. If the carcass is left intact, then you need to take care of the spacers that will keep the abdominal part open so that it is ventilated.
Elk are very valuable cattle. To hunt for him, you need to have a license, as well as a lot of knowledge and skills. They will allow the hunter to use the carcass of the killed animal with maximum benefit, so that the horns and skin of the elk remain intact, because these parts of the animal will bring a lot of benefits to the hunter if he knows how to cut the elk correctly.
Butchering a moose, as in the case of any other animals, begins with gutting it. In the larynx, an incision is made in the trachea and esophagus, the belly is cut lengthwise, and the internal organs are removed from there. It is better to put the carcass on its side. First of all, the intestines, bladder, and stomach are separated. Then everything else. Anything that is not planned to be eaten can be taken away and left to wild animals, or buried.
After all organs are separated from the body, the resulting carcass is cut into several parts. The legs are separated at their junction with the trunk. It is desirable to separate the forelimbs together with the shoulder blades. The remaining carcass should be cut into at least two parts, as it has an impressive size. This completes the cutting of the elk, and the resulting pieces of meat can be moved to the place of their subsequent storage.
Trophy sharing rules
Among hunters, traditions and rules have long been established, according to which they act during the hunt. Following these rules, the one who made the shot that knocked down the beast gets the main trophies. the head and hooves. In the case of elk hunting, such a hunter, together with the animal’s head, will receive the most valuable thing. its horns.
The rest of the carcass is divided equally among all participants in the hunt. So that no one is left out, each of the participants, including the huntsmen and beaters, must receive equal pieces of meat from the brisket, back and all other parts of the body. This ensures the integrity of the division of the loot.
How to protect the skin of the beast from damage
So that the skin removed from the animal does not deteriorate, it must be handed over to the collection point as quickly as possible. If the goal was to independently process the skin that was removed, then generously sprinkle the skin of the skin with salt and fold the skin in 4 times. In this case, the weight of the salt used should be about 35% of the weight of the hide. Properly salted skin will not deteriorate.
Most small and medium sized ungulates follow the same cutting plan. For example, a description of how to carve a roe deer is suitable. Evisceration begins with opening the neck and cutting off the esophagus and trachea above the larynx. It is convenient to put the carcass on its back, and if it is a male, then fix the head by sticking the horns into the ground.
Next, you need to slightly stretch the esophagus through the cut made with a knife and tie it to a knot in order to protect against possible loss of stomach contents through the resulting opening of the esophagus. The abdominal cavity is cut with a longitudinal incision in the center of the abdomen, reaching to the chest. The esophagus can then be pulled out and the stomach removed. Next, other abdominal organs are separated.
To remove the large intestine, you will have to cut open the cartilage that covers it, which grows from the pelvic bone. This should be done very carefully so as not to damage the bowels or bladder. When the abdomen is released, you need to remove the chest organs. For this purpose, the diaphragm is cut, after which the trachea, lungs and heart can be removed. There is usually some blood left in the chest, it must be drained by turning the gutted carcass on its side.
After gutting, the roe deer is cut up. The limbs are cut off from the body at the points of their attachment to the body. The head is separated from the neck. The carcass itself can be cut in two in the middle of the spine. This completes the initial cutting of roe deer, then the meat can be frozen, or salted and used for food.
So, how to properly butcher the meat of wild animals?
First of all, from the gutted carcass, you need to separate the head and limbs at the hock and metacarpal joints. Further, the carcasses are cut along the spine into two halves, after which each of them is divided again in half in the place between the last and the penultimate vertebra.
As received, parts of the carcasses are frozen and stored.
How to cut a corner of a ceiling plinth using a miter box
The miter box is a simple carpentry tool that allows you to cut the workpiece at the desired angle. Most often it is a plastic, wood or metal tray with vertical slots for cutting at an angle of 90 ° and 45 °. There are also more complex miter box designs. for cutting at angles of 90, 60 and 45 degrees. For more professional work, a miter box with a swivel mechanism is used, where the hacksaw can be fixed at any angle to the workpiece.
How to cut a skirting board with a miter box. inner corner:
- We apply the plinth to the ceiling, measure the required length.
- Then we install the plinth strip in the miter box so that the position coincides with the position of the plinth on the ceiling.
- The plinth strip must be pressed against the far wall of the miter box.
- Hold the plinth with your left hand.
- We choose such a position of the hacksaw when the angle is 45 degrees and at the same time the handle of the hacksaw is as close as possible to the left hand.
- We cut the workpiece without making excessive pressure on the saw.
- The next step is to trim the plinth striker. We also install it to the far wall of the miter box.
- Press and hold with your right hand.
- We choose such a position for the hacksaw when the angle is 45 degrees and the handle of the hacksaw approaches the right hand.
- Cut off the skirting board.
Next, we join the trimmed plinths and check the cutting accuracy. For a more accurate orientation, they also say that in order to complete the inner corner, it is necessary to start cutting from the front of the skirting board. After cutting, wooden skirting boards will most likely have to be adjusted with a file.
How to cut a ceiling plinth with a miter box. outside corner:
- In order not to be mistaken with the dimensions, it is better to start by marking the inner corner, and then cut out the outer corner. Otherwise, a situation is possible when the planks may not be enough in length.
- It is necessary to attach the plank to the ceiling and outline the dimensions.
- Install the plinth strip and press it against the nearest wall.
- Hold with your left hand and choose a position for the hacksaw at an angle of 45 degrees, when the handle approaches the left hand.
- Cut off the workpiece.
- We install the striker to the nearest wall, hold it with the right hand.
- We set the hacksaw at a 45 degree angle when the handle approaches the right hand.
- Cut off the workpiece and join the corner.
Trimming the workpiece with a miter box is only suitable if the angle between the walls is even. 90 degrees. If the accuracy is poor, you will have to use other methods.
Ceiling plinth performs not only a decorative function, visually separating the walls from the ceiling, but can also hide the joints of various finishing materials of the ceiling and walls. Not every interior design involves the use of a skirting board, but more often than not, the overall appearance of the room seems incomplete without it. There is nothing difficult in fixing this element. fillets. almost all types of skirting boards are attached with glue. But the question of how to properly cut the ceiling plinth in the corners of the premises can confuse many. Indeed, even in the simplest room there are internal corners where the plinths of the ceiling plinth must be precisely and beautifully docked. And in a more complex configuration of the room, you will also have to dock the skirting boards, performing the outer corner. In this article, we will look at various options for how to cut a ceiling plinth with and without tools at hand.
First you need to figure out how to cut the ceiling plinth, the answer to it depends on the material from which the fillet is made. At the moment, we sell ceiling skirting boards made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), expanded polystyrene (polystyrene), polyurethane and wood.
PVC ceiling skirting boards are the cheapest. Dents and creases are easily formed on them, which cannot be repaired, so the product must be thrown away. Also their disadvantage is electrostaticity. the ability to attract dust. You can cut them with a sharp construction knife or hacksaw.
Styrofoam ceiling skirting boards are also cheap. This material is very fragile, it easily crumbles during processing, therefore, it is necessary to cut the expanded polystyrene with a sharp knife or a hacksaw on metal, without making too strong pressing forces.
Ceiling skirting boards made of extruded polystyrene foam are slightly more expensive than polystyrene foam, they are denser and more difficult to cut. However, they crumble less, making them easier and more comfortable to work with. Cut with a construction knife and a hacksaw for metal.
Polyurethane ceiling skirting boards are the most expensive at the moment. They are durable, elastic and moisture resistant, can be easily cut with a construction knife and do not crumble. The disadvantage of polyurethane skirting boards is their dependence on temperature changes. For example, over a gas stove, a polyurethane skirting board will permanently deform and crackle slightly. If you try to process or cut such a skirting board, it may bend or deform in other ways.
Wooden ceiling skirting boards are dense, heavy products that can only be cut with a hacksaw, preferably with fine, dense teeth. You can also use a cloth for metal.
Before proceeding to the enumeration of the ways of how to properly cut the ceiling plinth, I would like to note that there is a possibility not to cut the plinth with great precision. On sale there are special corner pieces, into which the edges of the skirting board are inserted. In this case, it is enough to cut the plinth strip at an angle of 90 °, and the corner element will hide all the flaws. But this method is not always used, since the dimensions of the corner elements are slightly larger than the skirting boards themselves, so the corners in the room will stand out against the general background. Sometimes it can look bulky. However, if the design of the room allows the use of corner pieces for ceiling skirting boards, it makes sense to use them. Further instructions will be useful to those who nevertheless decided to accurately cut the skirting boards at a given angle.
How to trim the corner of a ceiling plinth using ceiling markings
Marking the skirting board on the ceiling also allows you to cut the corner straight and precisely. The only drawback of this method is that it is difficult and inconvenient to keep the plinth plinth suspended during the cutting process. Otherwise, you can mark the cutting angle in this way even more accurately than in other ways. Applying the skirting board to the installation site, all wall flaws and deviations in the corner size are immediately taken into account.
Cutting the corner of the skirting board:
- First of all, two workpieces must be cut at an angle of 90 degrees.
- Then we first apply one plank, resting its end against a perpendicular wall. We draw a line on the ceiling, outlining the contour of the plinth.
- We remove this bar and apply a striker, also resting its butt against the wall. We outline the line.
- The point of intersection of the outlined lines will be the mark at which the skirting board needs to be cut.
- Again we apply each bar in turn and mark the cutting point on them.
- We draw the line from this point to the other edge of the plinth.
We cut off the skirting boards along the outlined lines, join them and apply them to the installation site. Please note that this method is more convenient to cut the inner corners.
How to cut a ceiling plinth with a miter box template
Something resembling a miter box can be done by applying the required cut angles to paper, cardboard or wood. Draw two parallel mowing lines, locate the center, and then set the required angles with a protractor. The advantage of this method is that you can postpone any angle, including more than 90 degrees. Of course, before cutting the corners of the ceiling plinth, you must first check the angle between the walls using a corner and measure with a protractor.
The technique for cutting a ceiling plinth using a painted miter box is exactly the same as using the miter box itself. We press the plinth plinth to one of the parallel lines, then set the hacksaw at the desired angle, which is already outlined, and cut off.
DIY impromptu miter box
Making a miter box with your own hands is also not difficult.
You will need three wooden planks or boards, which must be put together in a U-shaped box. Then the necessary angles are marked on the walls of the box, and a cut is made with a hacksaw. As a result, you should get a wooden miter box, in which grooves are cut.
A combination of an impromptu miter box and a template with marked lines. For the convenience of cutting, it is necessary to build something in which it will be convenient to hold the plinth strip, since it is difficult to keep it suspended. It is enough to put together a corner from two wooden planks or boards. On paper, you need to draw a mowing line with angles for cutting at 45 degrees or at any other. Then we apply the skirting board blank to the corner, press it by hand, as described in the technology for using the miter box, move the piece of paper with the template under the edge where we are going to cut it, and cut it off. In the process of cutting, we focus on the line drawn on the paper.
As an impromptu miter box, you can use anything, anything. that we form an angle. For example, a table pushed against a wall.
Important! Pay attention to the rule of making measurements for trimming the ceiling plinth. To mark the inner corner, you need to measure the length directly from the corner itself. To outline the outer corner, you need to be guided by the fact that the plinth will protrude deep into the room at a distance equal to its width.
You should not fix the plinths of the ceiling plinths before you cut the striker and try on their location. Only after the two strikers are perfectly aligned in the corner, you can start attaching them to the ceiling. Minor imperfections can be finished with a file or a nail file in the case of wooden and polyurethane skirting boards. To fit foam products, you will have to wield a sharp knife.
If suddenly, even after adjusting the skirting boards, a small gap remains between them, do not despair, it can be repaired with a putty. Cutting the ceiling plinth yourself is not difficult. But in order not to spoil many products, it is better to pre-train on small blanks.
The same methods and tools can be used to join the halves of the skirting board in the inner corner. The location of the halves in the miter box when cutting for the inner corner is identical to the location of the parts used for joining the outer corner. But, you do not need to turn the right half of the plinth for a cut, but only change the slope of the cut (use a different cut). In any case, on the left side of the plinth, the line will be angled to the left of the corner point located on the side adjacent to the wall, and on the right side of the plinth, the line will be angled to the right of the similarly located point.
For perfectly flat corner surfaces, you can use a regular square instead of a miter box. To do this, you need to press half of the plinth to the inner corner of the ruler and cut off the unnecessary part at an angle of 45 degrees. It is not difficult to do this, since the side of the ruler and part of the plinth form a total of 90 degrees, the notch line divides this angle in half, which means that part of the plinth will be cut at an angle of 45 degrees.
For wooden and plastic skirting boards, it is not possible to make an incision in place, you can only apply a marking on the surface of the skirting board, and then cut the cut along the mark using a hacksaw or a saw.
In order to properly cut and then join the halves of the skirting board for the inner corner, you need to measure in place with a simple pencil. The right workpiece must be applied to the corner from the corresponding side until it stops. On the ceiling surface, draw a line along the half and remove the workpiece to the side. We do the same with the other half.
At the intersection of the two lines, a point has formed with which you need to make marks on each half of the skirting board. To put a point, you need to attach a half to the docking place. From the resulting point, you need to draw the line to the bottom corner of the half, as a result, you get a small triangle, which you need to cut off.
The halves cut in this way must be adjusted to each other, with inaccurately cut edges, the cuts can be leveled with a knife if the material of manufacture is foam.
To eliminate minor blemishes on the cut of wooden or polyurethane skirting boards, you will have to use a file. Only after complete coincidence of the cuts can you start fixing the halves.
Sometimes you can’t get the perfect fit, but there is always a way out. To eliminate cracks, you can use a putty. The choice of filler depends on the baseboard material. In order to eliminate inaccuracies in trimming the skirting boards, you need to practice using small pieces of the skirting board or cut the planks slightly longer than the intended size. Such a margin will make it possible to make a new undercut in case it was made with the wrong slope or the material at the cut point was deformed.
Ceiling skirting boards: how to cut corners?
Any renovation work is always completed with finishing. In rare cases, the interior of the room does without a ceiling plinth, its presence helps to hide the joints of the finishing materials used for wall and ceiling surfaces, in addition, do not forget about the decorative function that this element carries. It is not difficult to arrange the perimeter of the room by simply fixing it in a straight line. It is much more difficult to cut it correctly in the corners without spoiling the material and spending a minimum of time and money.
Features of the
Previously, the ceiling plinth had a different name. fillet. Translated from German means “notch” or “groove”. The material for the manufacture of this decorative element was gypsum, which was poured into a prepared mold. The cured gypsum element was fixed to the ceiling surface with mortar. Today, gypsum ceiling plinth is very rare, its cost is high, and it is much more difficult to install it in comparison with modern counterparts.
Ceiling elements are now available in several types of materials in numerous configurations. They are cheaper than gypsum ones, but they look no worse. The cheapest copies are made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC). This material is subject to deformation with insignificant mechanical stress, the formation of irreparable dents or creases leads to a complete replacement of the element. In addition, all manufactured PVC skirting boards are electrostatic, dust accumulates very quickly on them.
Ceiling plinths made of polyurethane and polystyrene are among the most demanded products. They gained their popularity due to their reasonable price, a wide range of profile patterns, a variety of sizes (their width varies within 5–250 mm), as well as resistance to moisture. Polyurethane ceiling elements can be found in the design of many rooms, they look great in any interior. But, there are also disadvantages, the material does not tolerate temperature changes well, is prone to cracking, especially if installed above a kitchen stove.
The classic version of the ceiling plinth is a wood product. Wooden elements, unlike the listed types, are not installed on glue; self-tapping screws are used to fix them. Plinths made of this material are used to decorate wooden houses or rooms, whose style is dictated by the use of wooden elements.
Installing a skirting board means trimming the excess length and adjusting it in the corners. In order to do a pruning, you need tools. The choice of this or that type of tool depends on the material from which the plinth is made.
When working with wood and plastic, use an electric miter saw. Cutting with this tool is accurate, fast and effortless, you just need to set the desired parameters and correctly lay the skirting board. It will not be difficult to choose the appropriate tool, since manufacturers produce this tool in a wide price range.
But, with wood and plastic, you can cope with another well-known carpentry tool. a miter box paired with a hacksaw. This tool is in the form of a tray, made either from wood, or from plastic, or from metal. In the two parallel sidewalls of the miter box, there are slots for the saw, for easy cutting of the plinth at the desired angle. In a simple tool modification, the ceiling element can be cut at an angle of 45 or 90 degrees, and in a more complex version, the plinth can be cut at an angle of 60 degrees.
A miter box and a hacksaw are cheaper than a miter saw, but they also have their drawback. this is the risk of damage to the material, especially if the quality of the purchased material is poor. In addition, the miter box is more suitable for rooms with smooth walls and corners.
For a smoother cut without the risk of damage to the material and without delamination of the structure, a jigsaw is suitable. It is easy to operate this tool, with its help you can set any direction and make the most accurate cuts. For materials lighter in weight and with a less strong structure, you can use an ordinary construction knife, the main thing is to pick up a specimen with a sharp blade.
How to cut?
There are two main questions facing the installation of a skirting board. How to properly cut a skirting board without gaps and with perfect fit in the corners, and what tools should you use to get a beautifully positioned ceiling element in the end? In order to understand these issues, it is necessary to study all the methods and tools used in trimming the baseboard. Almost all methods and tools can be used to adjust the skirting board in both internal and external corners.
For the outer corner, the skirting board is trimmed at an angle of 45 degrees. First you need to check the evenness of the outer corner. If the wall surfaces are in contact with each other at exactly 90 degrees, you can use a miter box to trim the skirting board. In order to properly cut the outer corner planks, it is necessary to correctly position both parts of the skirting board.
First, you need to outline the length of both halves, and only then trim them at an angle of 45 degrees. In order not to change the position of the saw and not to get confused with the location of the halves of the plinth, it is necessary to correctly position them in the miter box. The left half is laid face up, with the part adjacent to the ceiling closer to the center, and the second side adjacent to the wall should be pressed against the slotted sidewall. With the right half, everything is different: it must be laid face down in the miter box, and the location of the adjacent parts to the ceiling and wall here will be the same.
For a straight cut, the bar placed in the miter box must be pressed against the sidewall, placing it as close as possible to the slot. Holding the workpiece with your left hand, you need to carefully make a cut and put it aside. The second half of the skirting board should be cut in the same way, remembering to turn it face down.
In the absence of a miter box, you can make a draft of it on paper or cardboard. First, we draw a rectangle, inside which on the longer sides we draw two more parallel mowing lines. On each side, inside the lines, using a protractor, set the desired angle in different directions. Preparation and subsequent trimming of workpieces is exactly the same as using the tool itself.
This method is good in that you can postpone the angle not strictly 45 or 90 degrees, but a little more or less, because the surfaces of the walls in the corners are not always directed towards each other at an angle of 90 degrees, there are errors. Therefore, for a more accurate cut on the miter box depicted on paper, you can draw any angle using a protractor. The degree of the angle is first checked using a protractor, the resulting value is divided by 2. The resulting number will be the exact degree for the correct undercut.
If desired, you can build a miter box with your own hands. The easiest way is to make a tool out of wood, you just need to take three planks and put them together in the shape of the letter P. Then make marks on the side parts at different degrees, using a hacksaw to make slots. You can also make a miter box from two planks, having previously made slots in them, or use a drawing with the desired angles on paper to accurately determine the slope.
You can even use a table as an improvised tool. The main thing is that he has angles along which he could navigate.
In order to properly cut the outer corners, you can do without any auxiliary tools and drawings on paper at all, you just need to design the future corner in place.
The outer corner skirting board always protrudes into the room by an amount equal to its width, therefore, to determine the exact cut, it is necessary to make marks on the right and left half of the skirting board. You need to set aside the width from the side adjacent to the wall. Then, from the resulting point, lead the line to the upper corner of the half. The resulting triangle must be cut, and the halves must be joined in place for a preview.
For a good fit of the ceiling plinth, it is not enough to properly cut and join the halves, you also need to glue them correctly. In order not to later cover up the cracks in the corners or alter the work altogether, you need to adhere to certain recommendations.
- Before the final installation of the skirting board, it is necessary to properly prepare the surfaces that will come into contact with it. Priming or simply treating parts of the ceiling and wall surfaces will help improve the adhesion between the skirting board and the surfaces.
- The corners of the room in which the skirting boards are installed should be decorated first. The remaining sections of the perimeter are mounted only after the complete installation of the corner elements.
If there are not only internal, but also external corners in the room, the priority in the design is at the internal corners, since there is a risk of making a mistake with the length of the plinth.
- In order to fix the ceiling element without gaps, it is necessary to press the plinth quite tightly to both surfaces. It is worth remembering that excessive pressure on some materials can lead to deformation of the element.
- To avoid glue residues getting on the front surface of the element, you should immediately remove the excess adhesive before it has time to dry.
- Sealing joints and cracks with a sealant should be carried out only after the glue has completely dried. Compositions with acrylic are most suitable as a sealant.
For information on how to cut the ceiling plinth, see the next video.
How and how to properly cut decorative stone
Decorative stone is understood as materials of artificial origin, repeating the appearance and, in part, the properties of natural stones: granite, marble, tuff, sandstone, etc. Modern development of technologies allows not only to imitate any natural finishing material, but also to ensure its good workability.
It is important for a finisher on an object to know how to cut a decorative stone, how to drill it, how to assemble a solid object from separate parts. Solving these problems requires familiarity with the properties of such materials.
- Physical properties of decorative stone
- Stone Cutting Tools
- Technology and instructions for cutting stone
- Helpful advice from professionals
Physical properties of decorative stone
Four types of artificial stone are used in interior design:
- cement based;
- from plaster, as the main component;
- porcelain stoneware;
- acrylic stone.
Decorative stone on cement and gypsum bases have an uncomplicated manufacturing process. It is not difficult to organize it in a construction site or a small artisan workshop. It boils down to mixing the prepared components, mixing the mixture with water and pouring it into molds, followed by drying. By introducing the appropriate dyes, the required shades of the material are obtained. Decorative cement stone is moisture resistant, durable and not afraid of moisture.
The continuation of the listed advantages is a relative disadvantage. the specific gravity is close to the corresponding parameter of natural finishing materials. It is used for external work: finishing the walls of the house with stone, laying paths, in small architectural forms and sculptures. Decorative gypsum stone has a lower weight compared to cement, it is easier to install on the walls of the house, but does not have high strength and moisture resistance. Indoor use.
Porcelain stoneware and acrylic stone are materials whose production is possible only in a large enterprise. The implementation of the appropriate technological processes requires complex expensive equipment, qualified personnel, a large stock of initial components and, as a consequence, a well-functioning system of sales of finished products. For the consumer, this is a positive moment in the relatively guaranteed quality of products. Large-scale production is forced to strictly control the compliance of its products with GOST and TU.
Porcelain stoneware, although it does not contain a single grain of natural granite, has properties that are very similar to it. It is made from a homogenized, i.e., a homogeneous mixture, white-burning clay, chamotte (kaolin), sand, feldspars, pegmatids and water. The material is formed and takes the required shape by semi-dry pressing followed by firing. Firing temperature 1200-1300 ° C. It is mainly used where the use of natural stone would be appropriate.
In appearance, acrylic stone is closer to marble, sometimes, in accordance with the design decision, to malachite. The composition includes mineral fillers. crushed waste from the production of marble or granite, dyes and acrylic resins. After mixing the components, two technological methods are possible: extrusion or casting. The first way is more productive. The second. historically it was mastered earlier. is simpler in the composition of the equipment and allows you to get a product of almost any shape, and not just molding.
Acrylic stone is often used in kitchen equipment for countertops. an example of extrusion, and in bathrooms. for bathtubs. this is already casting.
Technology and instructions for cutting stone
Since a decorative stone can be cut by two types of tools, each of them will have its own technology. At the same time, the beginning and the end of the processes are the same, so let’s combine them into one instruction:
- Before starting work on cutting a stone, you should make sure that the safety requirements are met.
- Carefully mark the cutting line.
- Clamp the workpiece securely. Make sure that the cut off part of the stone, separated from the main massif, does not pose a threat to the worker and others.
- Cut the workpiece according to the markings.
- If you have to cut a closed contour with a jigsaw, for example, an opening for a sink in a kitchen countertop, you should first drill a hole inside the contour, with a diameter larger than the width of the file.
- Unfasten the workpiece.
- After finishing work, clean the workplace.
Stone Cutting Tools
According to the degree of hardness, decorative stones can be divided into two groups: harder. porcelain stoneware and cement-based stone, and less hard. acrylic stone and gypsum stone. To cut them in the conditions of finishing work at a construction site, two types of tools are used.
A decorative stone of high hardness is cut with a rapidly rotating disc mounted on an angle grinder, colloquially referred to as an “angle grinder”. There are two types of discs: abrasive, reinforced inside with a fine mesh mesh and metal with diamond coating. Diamond discs are significantly superior in resistance to abrasive discs. Allows you to work faster and do not change the disk longer. They cost significantly more.
Plaster and acrylic imitation of decorative stones is noticeably softer. Therefore, they can be cut with a fine-toothed saw. The saw blade can be installed in a hacksaw for metal. A more productive tool is an electric jigsaw. The file in it must also have a fine tooth, which ensures the removal of a thin layer of material in one pass. Small thickness of the removed layer, reduces the load on the cutting tool, increases the cleanliness of the cut and makes the work more productive.
Helpful advice from professionals
When cutting decorative stone, there is a set of unwritten rules for good and safe work. Here are some of them:
- work should be done in tight clothing that protects against small particles of material flying out from under the tool, eyes should be protected with glasses, long hair should be hidden under a headdress, closed shoes on the legs;
- cutting stone is a dusty process, so a respirator should be used;
- when cutting flat stones, it is more convenient to use not an angle grinder, but a special machine for cutting tiles with a diamond disc;
- dusting during cutting, significantly reduces the use of water, which moistens the processed stone and the cutting disc;
- mark the cutting path with a thin line, cut so that the marking line remains on the used part of the stone;
- from an angle grinder of three standard sizes: small, medium and large, it is preferable for an employee who does not have sufficient experience to choose a small one. This is easier and, accordingly, safer to work;
- when working with an angle grinder, it is recommended to hold the tool in such a way that if the cutting disc breaks, the debris does not cause injury;
- when working, hold the tool tightly, but not rigidly, as a caught bird is held: “so as not to strangle, but also not to let fly away”.