How to cut laid laminate flooring
How to do without disassembly?
If you do not want to engage in full-fledged disassembly of the laminate, you can proceed as follows:
- free the room from furniture;
- remove the baseboards;
- stepping back from the wall 15-20 mm, outline the cut line and walk along it with a jigsaw;
- to speed up the leveling process, you can put a heavy object in place of the deformation, then the plates will fall into place faster;
- put back the plinth.
Still, it is not always possible to avoid dismantling, but you can try to limit yourself to replacing only one panel, without disassembling the entire structure.
- measure out a small rectangle inside the damaged panel, which will be several centimeters smaller than the original panel, and cut it out;
- with the help of a chisel and a hammer, pull out the cut out piece and, after the weakening in the structure, the remaining parts;
- knock a row of panels about 10 cm towards the wall;
- remove the remaining pieces of the panel and cut off the lock connection;
- glue the new panel and what it is attached to;
- insert the panel at an angle of 45 degrees and lower. Using a glass jack, pull up two panels and, after connecting, lower them to the floor;
- crush something heavy.
And how to replace a damaged panel without disassembling the entire laminate, see the next video.
For those who decided to solve the problem on their own, first you need to figure out what the laminate is and what parts it consists of.
- The lowest layer of the laminate is somewhat reminiscent of a thick sheet of paper, on which a film is applied on one side. This layer is needed just in order to protect the material from moisture.
- Then comes a layer of fiberboard, along the edges of which there are small connectors for fastening, it is with their help that the plates are connected to each other during installation.
- Colorless paper with a pattern printed on it is the layer due to which we, as a rule, choose one or another type of laminate.
- The last layer is a protective film of acrylic resins and melamine.
When dividing the products of different companies into price categories, it is the quality of this layer that is the determining factor. The better it is made, the higher the price of the laminate, and, accordingly, the higher the degree of protection of the coating from external influences.
The reasons why the surface of a laminate is swelling depends on a variety of factors. Here, not only how the owner of the room takes care of the laminate plays a role, but also how the installation was originally carried out.
Among the most common reasons that people regularly encounter when choosing laminate flooring are the following:
- Selected initially low-quality material. It is no secret that during the renovation, accompanied by colossal expenses, people tend to give in to tempting promotions and discounts. This leads to the fact that trying to save extra 100 rubles, you can choose a product of low quality, which will lead to subsequent expenses on repairs.
Laminate is a rather whimsical material, and therefore in this situation it is better not to “save on matches”, but to choose from the very beginning the covering of a good and proven company in the construction market.
- An error was made when preparing the base surface. In particular, here a big role is played by how well prepared the base for the laminate.
According to the rules, the base base must be carefully leveled and dried, otherwise unwanted unevenness on the surface of the laminate will appear.
Sometimes builders even lay the flooring directly on top of the old parquet, which is also unacceptable. In addition, sometimes during installation, they forget about the substrate, which will subsequently work for thermal insulation, or they choose a substrate of the wrong thickness, for example, a too thick and soft substrate will not fit under thin strips.
- Installation technology was not followed. A common mistake when laying the flooring yourself is that the gap of the required size between the wall and the panel is not made. According to the standards, this space is 1 or 1.5 cm. Otherwise, the temperature regime and humidity level will be violated and the floor will go in waves. over, the same norm must be observed if the laminate is in contact with heating pipes or other elements.
There is one more nuance. sometimes the panels are attached with nails, which violates the protective layer of the material and also leads to further violations.
- The laminate is wet from the water on the floor. Unfortunately, all the advantages of this flooring often pale in front of one and obvious disadvantage. the slightest ingress of water on the surface can lead to swelling. An overturned flower vase, insufficient sealing of windows during showers, and even too much water during wet cleaning can play a bad role here. Of course, in this situation it all depends on the quality of the laminate. But even the most expensive material from being in a humid room or prolonged contact with water will become unusable.
- Careless handling and lack of grooming.
It is necessary to determine the reason why the laminate is swollen in order to correctly choose a way to fix the problem.
By the way, in a situation, if you are faced with this in a recently purchased room, where repairs have already been made and do not have information about how exactly the installation was carried out, you can always determine the cause by the appearance of the swelling. So, if the irregularities are more like waves, the reason is a poor-quality laminate or errors during installation. But if the swellings are more like tumors, curved and rough, it’s all about the penetration of moisture into the structure.
What to do?
Of course, if the laminate has risen at the joints and seams, the problem can only be fixed by dismantling. As a rule, the reason for the violation here lies in the fact that the coating was not laid correctly.
The actions in this case are as follows:
- remove the baseboards;
- find those laminate slabs that rest against the walls;
- saw off the protruding part with a jigsaw so that the plinth necessarily covers the space that has appeared;
If the laminate is swollen by waves after water, in summer it is enough to simply wipe the surface with a dry cloth and ventilate the room properly.
However, if it is not possible to partially get rid of the moisture, you also need to dismantle:
- the laminate must be disassembled to the point where it swelled, as well as several plates around it must be removed (all panels must be carefully removed at an angle of 45 degrees);
- thoroughly dry both the plates and the substrate;
- replace the damaged panels, put the covering back (also gently return the laminate to its place at an angle), install the skirting boards.
In this case, it often happens that the slabs change their color and appearance from moisture, therefore, when buying a laminate, it is better to always take a little more material than is actually needed, so that in such situations there is always a replacement for old and worn out slabs.
Without replacing the panels, you can try to solve the problem with the help of a glass jack. after disassembling the coating, “pull out” the distortions using the device. In addition, there is such a “folk” method. it is believed that all irregularities can be corrected with an iron, smoothing the plates, as if you were ironing linen.
Bloated laminate: how to fix it without disassembling?
- Why swells?
- What to do?
- How to do without disassembly?
- How to protect from moisture?
For many years, laminate flooring has been one of the most demanded floor coverings. it looks decent and expensive, perfectly suits almost any style of interior and, importantly, it is quite easy to lay it on your own, without the help of workers.
True, the laminate, with all its obvious advantages, simultaneously has one significant drawback. for various reasons, the uniformity of the coating may be violated.
However, if you study the issue and understand the causes of bloating, you can not only get rid of this problem yourself, but also prevent further irregularities.
How to protect from moisture?
As stated above, most laminate flooring problems can be avoided if properly cared for.
Today there are a huge number of ways to do this:
- Polishes and impregnations, which include wax. These products have a water-repellent effect, but this method only works if the coating is regularly processed and all instructions are followed (for example, the product is applied twice with an interval of 4 hours, and then the coating will be absorbed for at least 12 hours). In addition, you must always carefully read the accompanying information in order to purchase an impregnation specifically for the laminate, and not for the parquet. By the way, impregnation, as a rule, is applied precisely at the joints of the plates. The approximate volume of one tube is 500 ml, this should be enough for processing about 10 m2. And polish should be used to treat the entire area of the room. the product will create a thin protective film, which after a while needs to be updated.
- A protective film that is almost invisible when carefully glued on.
Sometimes it makes sense to put a protective film underneath the laminate. This is necessary when the room is located on the ground floor and draws dampness from the basement below.
There is a general recommendation for the use of any care product. the surface that is being treated must necessarily be pre-cleaned of dirt and thoroughly dried. Otherwise, there is a risk not only of not being useful, but also of allowing damage, moisture stagnation, and even the appearance of all the same blisters.
for various types of cement
Scope of the material
Despite all the artificiality of the laminate, its behavior during operation is not much different from OSB boards or plywood. The main element in the composition of laminated boards is a board created by pressing sawn timber.
The base of the laminate determines the scope of the laminate. Manufacturers do not advise using poor quality material when decorating floors in rooms with a high level of traffic and a high humidity coefficient. Also, do not put material in rooms where systematic wet cleaning is provided.
Laminate board is one of the best and most suitable coatings:
- in living rooms,
- for bedrooms,
- on insulated balconies,
- in workrooms,
- for children’s rooms,
- in the halls.
For the hallway or kitchen, it is recommended to use a moisture-resistant material made by HDF technology.
The only unpleasant moment is the cost of such material. Often, the buyer does not like it, and he makes a choice in favor of cheaper alternatives.
Features of the base
Wood is a rather capricious material, like most natural coatings. It is vulnerable to pests and rodents, is not moisture resistant and is highly flammable. Laying a laminated board on a wood base is more difficult than on another rough surface.
Manufacturers of laminated boards do not recommend laying the material on a subfloor made of natural wood. This is due to the property of wood to deform over time, which will also affect the evenness of the final floor.
However, if there is no particular choice and it is not possible to concrete the floor, be warned at least minimally.
- To begin with, make sure that the base is suitable for subsequent loads and is complete. It should not have chips, cracks or crevices.
- If the flooring is made from untreated wood, examine the planks for fungus, rot, or pests.
- The floorboards themselves must lie flat, without bending.
- Check that the boards are not rotten. Wood should not crumble in the hand, turning into dust.
Important! If there is one of the above defects, the strips need to be repaired or replaced.
If the floorboards are not flawed, but the entire coating is loose, just fix the planks with any hardware. Laying the laminate provides for the most even, not wobbly base.
What is a substrate for and how to choose it?
The use of underlays for laminated floor panels is a must.
It performs a number of functions:
- final alignment of the rough surface,
- protection of the laminate from deformation,
- protection of the floor from moisture,
- even distribution of the load between the slats,
- additional floor insulation,
- noise absorption.
There are three types of substrates on the construction market for laminated sheet flooring:
- Polyethylene foam. It is considered the most popular substrate due to its low price. The material has a foil layer, is resistant to moisture and microorganisms and protects the room from the cold. The disadvantage is that such a substrate quickly sags and needs to be replaced over time. When choosing this type of backing, pay attention to the density of the foam layer. The higher it is, the better the material is. As a rule, for household purposes, a substrate 2-3 mm thick is sufficient.
- Two-layer polystyrene backing. Instead of foamed polyethylene, expanded polystyrene is added to the foil layer, which has higher performance characteristics. The substrate is not afraid of the formation of fungi and rot, it is resistant to mold and moisture. The disadvantage of the material is the difficulty in installation: due to the highly compressed foam, the substrate does not roll out well.
- Cork. This type of substrate is the most expensive. It is made from pressed crumbs of cork bark, it can be natural or combined. Such a substrate is very rigid and resistant to stress, environmentally friendly, perfectly insulates the floor and protects the room from extraneous noise. Despite its naturalness, the cork backing is bio-resistant. Thanks to the manufacturing technology, the material better than other substrates masks irregularities in the subfloor. A significant disadvantage of cork backing is that the material is afraid of moisture.
When choosing a high quality cork backing, pay attention to its structure. If you are paying for durability, make sure the material does not show through.
Elimination of defects
If, during the inspection, deficiencies were found that impede further work, they must be eliminated.
Ways to eliminate the shortcomings of the boardwalk:
- Subsidence of the floor surface. At the place of damage, the site is dismantled by dismantling several boards. Support wedges are placed under the logs and the floorboards are fixed. If the floor sags almost over the entire area, it will most likely require replacement of the entire base.
- Rot and fungal microorganisms. To get rid of mold that affects the surface of the coating, it is required to replace the affected fragments, including their neighbors, with new beams or boards and treat the surface with an antiseptic. If for some reason this is not possible, lay a layer of waterproofing on the damaged base and level the surface with chipboard materials (fiberboard, OSB, MDF or plywood). This approach should prevent further fungal damage to the planks.
- Squeaks of planks. Often, if the wooden floor creaks, it means that the boards are not properly nailed to the logs. Old hardware loosened during the operation of the floor, and new fasteners are required. Drive the nails on the floor into the boards until they stop and secure the base with black self-tapping screws. When screwing in hardware, make sure that their caps are well sunk into the surface.
- Depressions or small pits in the boards. Traces of lesions by woodworms are sealed with wood putty or a mixture of sawdust and PVA glue, and after drying, the surface is treated with bioprotective materials.
Sometimes the floorboards make a squeak when they rub against one another. In this case, it is enough to treat the joints with talcum or graphite powder, and close up noticeable gaps with a mixture of sawdust and PVA glue.
Should I use?
Laminate is an affordable replacement for expensive parquet. It is actively used for the renovation of residential and commercial premises. The material is easy to install, but too picky about the quality of the subfloor. It is possible to lay laminate on old floorboards, but only if a certain number of requirements are observed, the main of which is high-quality and competent preparation of the base, including the repair or replacement of damaged elements, leveling the base and applying a substrate.
Piece strips have locks for connection and fixation in the desired position. Their additional fastening to the base is not required. Laminate flooring is laid loosely on a prepared wooden base, allowing it to “breathe”, contracting and expanding in accordance with temperature changes and the degree of humidity.
The structural difference between the laminate board is that during installation, the material does not need to be firmly fixed with glue or hardware.
The adhesive method of installing laminate flooring exists, but it is rarely used due to the high consumption of glue, the laboriousness of installation, the impossibility of reusing the coating after dismantling the floor and the immobility of the surface.
The image above clearly shows what happens to a laminate if it is firmly glued to a wood floor.
The most widely used method of fixing laminate flooring is without the use of adhesive mixtures. Its advantage is that it provides good self-aeration of materials and, accordingly, decent ventilation to the floor. A well-ventilated design, as you know, does not rot and lasts much longer.
If the room is not heated or the level of humidity in it is high, you will have to abandon the installation of common types of laminate.
for various types of floor skirting boards
When the material is calculated and purchased, you can prepare the necessary tool for work. A person who is not professionally engaged in interior decoration of premises may have questions, but, as a rule, all the necessary arsenal is in every home pantry.
- chopping thread,
- building level,
- pipe bypass cutter,
- scissors or knife,
- jigsaw or hacksaw,
- screwdriver or Phillips screwdriver,
- rubber mallet,
- miter box for cutting wood plinth,
Also, in certain cases, you may need a puncher, but not everyone has one. In any case, if a tool is not available, it can always be rented.
Do I need glue when laying laminate
For everyone who is accustomed to the traditional free or “floating” planting of lamellas on a soft substrate, the use of adhesives looks rather unusual, violates the prevailing ideas about the operating conditions of the material. But this is only a one-sided view of the problem. There are at least four reasons for using adhesives to fix laminate flooring:
- Providing reliable protection against moisture;
- It is necessary to change the behavior of the floor covering;
- Improve the characteristics of the laminate;
- Extend the life of the laminate, especially in concrete floors.
Laminate Installation- Cutting laminate flooring around a doorjamb
Of course, we are not talking about the continuous gluing of the laminate on the floor, although such solutions exist. Most often, to ensure the stability of the flooring, only gluing the laminate seams and fixing the floor in certain areas is required.
The use of mastics and water-repellent aerosols is not always an effective barrier. For premises such as a kitchen or a corridor at the entrance to a house, this is clearly not enough, therefore it is better to glue the laminate to the concrete on the threshold than to suffer with the protection of the seams with wax mastics.
What is the best laminate adhesive
All of the above grades of adhesive compositions based on polyurethane and epoxy resin are considered the best materials for installing a classic laminate. For quartz vinyl and vinyl lamellas, polyester, vinyl chloride and epoxy two-component mixtures are used. They give a high-strength elastic seam, but they are more expensive, moreover, they have environmental restrictions.
For joints you can use Kleo
A simple middle-class laminate can be laid on a wood floor made of OSB and even fiberboard using PVA-M. The adhesive is inexpensive and at the same time strong enough to ensure reliable fixation of the cellulose-based laminate. In this case, it makes no sense to use high-strength Italian and German materials.
How to glue laminate with thixotropic mixtures
The first step is to prepare the adhesive for the laminate. The process itself takes about 15 minutes. Two-component mixtures are mixed with a hardener and mixed with a mixer for 5 minutes, allowed to settle and the operation is repeated. Usually, the manufacturer guarantees the preservation of the adhesive qualities for an hour, so you should not prepare a large amount of glue for laying the lamellas at once.
Thixotropy means that the glue laid with a trowel in a path will not spread as a stain and will ensure that the lamellas are held at the same level.
It is easier to level the laminate with a thixotropic mixture
In the second step, we vacuum the surface of the rough base, this must be done immediately before installing the lamella. Some grades, such as Basf Fast 3000, are sensitive to cement dust, so it is best to clean the surface with a steel brush, and only then go through with a vacuum cleaner.
The adhesive is placed on the floor with a notched trowel, the layer thickness must be at least 8 mm. When laying, part of the material is squeezed into the joints, so there are no special problems with sealing the joints between laminate panels. The hardening time is 24-72 hours. The longer, the higher the ductility and strength of the seam. In addition, it is important to comply with the surface moisture requirements for wooden floors and air temperature. for drywall and concrete.
How to glue laminate to chipboard
Chipboard is a rather difficult material to handle, its surface has a high roughness, which should improve adhesion to the adhesive mass. In reality, on the surface of the chipboard there is a large amount of residues of resins and binders used in its production, so the material is not importantly glued with PVA and water-soluble compounds.
You can lay the laminate on the chipboard using Sipol Leacher or U BOND X-TREME, but Legnopol 2000 two-component polyurethane adhesive from Lechler is better suited.
The glue consists of two components, which are mixed with an ordinary mixer in an open container. Unlike most polyurethane formulations, it does not have a suffocating odor and dries in just 24 hours. The mixture must be used within an hour and a half from the moment of mixing.
Has high elasticity, so it can be used to glue almost any floor, from laminate to mosaic parquet.
How to glue laminate to plywood
For laying laminate flooring on a plywood base, you can use the same “U BOND X-TREME”, but most often experts recommend a specialized one-component Italian glue “Ecosimp”.
One of the few adhesives considered completely safe and environmentally friendly. Recommended for laying laminate flooring on planks and plywood subfloors in bedrooms, living rooms and children’s rooms. Possesses high elasticity and resistance to flooding.
The cost of the material is about 2000 rubles. per kg.
Do I need to glue the laminate to the floor
The very idea of laying laminate coverings on an adhesive basis is often encountered by craftsmen, as they say, “with hostility.” The reason is simple. There is a strong belief that the laminate glued to concrete will warp with “waves”, as is often the case with inlaid parquet. A similar situation is possible only if, when laying the material, the joints between the lamellae were not sealed.
To glue means to fix the problem with locks
Some laminates can only be installed using glue. For example, for PVC laminates, glue remains the only option for fixing the flooring to a concrete base. The same quartz vinyl laminate can be glued or laid with locks, but maximum strength and durability is achieved only on an adhesive basis.
What is the effect of gluing lamellas? Firstly, the laminate does not creak or clap underfoot if the floor in the apartment is not completely flat. Secondly, there is no risk of pushing through the coating if heavy furniture or household appliances are installed. Thirdly, it becomes possible to use a warm floor, since there is no insulating substrate, and heat freely penetrates through relatively thin lamellas.
Adhesive for laminate: for joints and floors, which is better, how to choose
One of the options for installing laminate flooring is to use laminate floor adhesive for fixing. In this case, the joints and locks are glued, which gives the assembly additional strength and, most importantly, rigidity. The conditions for laying the lamellas are not always so ideal that the floor of the lamellas recruited into the lock can remain unchanged for a long time. Most often, the lamellas make micromotions, so laying the laminate on glue remains the only way to reliably fix the coating from movement and destruction.
The adhesive base will only improve the adhesion of the coating
First you need to decide on the styling method. There are two styling options in total:
Everything else is the gradation of these options relative to the light source:
or the location of the planks relative to each other:
- Simple (distance 10-20 cm).
- Chessboard (distance 50% of the plank length).
You can also give a patterned type of styling as a separate option. In this case, a pattern is laid out on the floor from laminate planks of different shades. But this option is the most consumable, and you will not be able to lay the laminate flooring with your own hands in this way without experience. And a very important point. without a breakdown, you cannot lay the laminate.
Are you doing repairs in your apartment or house on your own? The article “Laying laminate with your own hands with Video” will be useful to you more than ever.
Calculate the amount of laminate flooring per room. calculator
You can calculate the amount of laminate for a room either independently or using our calculator. It is quite simple, and knowledge of elementary school arithmetic will be enough. But let’s leave the laminate calculator for now, and turn to theory.
How to calculate the amount of laminate
Sizes of strips and material consumption
The most common sizes of laminate planks are 128. 139 cm in length and 18.5. 19.6 cm in width, we will include them in our calculation. There is no one standard for all manufacturers. There is a laminate with a length of 0.5 to 2.1 m and a width of 1.8 to 60 cm. Therefore, it is definitely impossible to answer how many m 2 of laminate in a package. On each package of laminate, in addition to dimensions, there is the total area of all strips in the package.
The total area of the required laminate will always be greater than the total area of the room. The amount of waste depends on the method of installation and the experience of the finisher:
- Patterned. waste up to 33%.
- Diagonal. waste 11-14%.
- Direct. waste 5%.
The calculations are presented on the example of a 33 class laminate, because it is the most common option.
The easy way
Use our online room size calculator:
The area of the room is 4×5 = 20 m 2. we divide it by the area of the strips in the package 20 / 1.912 = 10.46 (≈10.5) packages. Or 10.5×8 = 84 planks.
Let’s check, 20 / 0.239 = 83.6 (≈ 84) strips.
Add 5%, (84/100) x5 = 4.2 (≈4 bars).
This means that 11 packages are required. The total area of the purchased laminate is 11×1.912 = 21.032m 2. Taking into account the obligatory indent from the wall of 1 cm, this amount should be enough for careful installation. Calculating how many pieces you need to buy is quite simple, the main thing is to decide on the size of the rooms and packaging.
This method of calculating the laminate for a room is suitable for pedantic householders. But the result will not be approximate, but accurate. And so, direct laying is planned, parallel to the light source (window). Room 5×4 m.
Along the length of the wall, 5 / 1.28 = 3.9 planks fit. Those. 3 whole strips, and from one you will need to cut 1/10 or 12.8 cm (13 cm). A total of 4 bars. Covered room width. 0.186 (≈0.185) m.
The second row can be set with a break in half the plank, i.e. Saw one plank in half, and start from this half. At the end, lay the remaining half, having previously sawed off 13 cm.
The third row is similar to the first. In other words, even rows start with a whole bar, odd rows with halves. In total, the room will have 4 / 0.186 = 21.5 rows of laminate. Those. The 21st row will consist of whole planks, and the 22nd of the halves. This means that you need 22×4 = 88 planks, or 11 packages of laminate. One row, you will have to saw lengthwise, in half. You don’t have to worry about the saw cut, it will be hidden under the plinth.
Also, you will probably be interested in an article on choosing the right underlay for your laminate.
The above laminate calculations are simplified as much as possible to show the general principles. Rooms can be with niches, ledges, appendixes, but knowing the sequence of calculations, you can’t go wrong.
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Vapor barrier flooring
The need for a vapor barrier layer depends on the substrate chosen. It will definitely be needed if the laminate with your own hands is laid on a material with a cork base. How to properly lay a moisture barrier on concrete? It is important to pay attention to waterproofing if you need to finish the floor on the first floor of a building, the foundation of which is poorly protected from moisture, or on the floor below there is a room with a constantly high level of humidity (kitchen, bathroom, basement).
The waterproofing layer is formed from a pure, one-piece 0.2 mm thick polyethylene film. Its stripes are laid across the future direction of laying the substrate and laminate. Neighboring strips should overlap at least 20 cm and stick to each other with adhesive tape. The waterproofing layer should extend to the walls by a few centimeters.
Important! The film does not replace the liner. It is pointless to lay it in several layers.
The substrate for laying under the laminate on a concrete floor should be 3. 5 mm thick. The following types are suitable for this purpose:
- polyethylene foam. a cheap option, additionally performs the function of a heat, noise and waterproofing layer, but will not last long;
- cork. an environmentally friendly material that gives the floor a high degree of heat and sound insulation, but is afraid of moisture, which means that a plastic wrap will have to be placed under it, it is not suitable for installation on a warm floor;
- bitumen-cork. not suitable for residential premises due to the bitumen contained in the mixture, but perfectly protects against moisture;
- expanded polystyrene. one-, two- or three-layer, provides good sound insulation, affordable, suitable for a warm floor and the elimination of small irregularities in the screed, disadvantages: it loses its shape over time, contains formaldehyde, is highly flammable;
- coniferous. an environmentally friendly heat and sound insulating material that is resistant to moisture, but can cause allergies, crumbles during transportation and laying, sometimes insects appear in it.
How to lay the backing correctly? Unlike a waterproofing film, it is laid without overlap, fastened with adhesive tape. Craftsmen recommend to underlay it gradually, as the rows of flooring are laid out.
What kind of substrate to choose for a laminate? A way to save time during installation is laminate flooring with an integrated underlayment. It becomes one with the board. In theory, it is possible to attach such material to the floor with a parquet adhesive. But before gluing the laminate to the concrete screed, you need to take into account that one of the advantages of this coating is that it is “floating”. suitable for dismantling and reuse. This advantage is lost after gluing.
Heat insulating layer
often, a layer of thermal insulation is located under the concrete. If there is no such layer, and the floor in the room requires additional insulation, then before laying the laminate on concrete, a crate of wooden bars is installed. A heat-insulating material is placed between its elements.
Wooden crate with insulation
- Mark the concrete surface. For insulation made of mineral wool, the step between the beams is made no more than 60 cm.
- Place wooden blocks on the adjustable supports. Check the correct position with a spirit level, if necessary, trim by twisting the legs.
- Lay insulation and vapor barrier material (film).
- Cover with sheets of plywood with a thickness of 1 cm. Fasten them with self-tapping screws or put on glue. The joints should be centered on the beams. Leave small gaps between the sheets. This is necessary because wood deforms during operation.
- Fill all the cracks with a putty mixture.
- Scrap the surface with a sander or sander.
If you plan to install an infrared film underfloor heating, then it can be done at this stage.
Preparation of the base
Prepare the base before laying the laminate on the concrete floor. If the room is new, then they start laying on the screed 80 days after pouring (the concrete must be completely dry).
If the floor covering is laid on the old one, then it is dismantled and all debris is removed. Then check the level of the horizontal surface. If the concrete floor has no drops, then it is enough to carefully examine it and eliminate minor defects (cut off the influx with a perforator, fill the dents with cement mortar). If there is a difference in height of more than 2 mm per square meter, then it must be eliminated. This is done using a double concrete screed.
Tools and materials for screed installation:
- primer mixture, tools for its application;
- cement (grade 400) and sand;
- container for concrete;
- metal profile or wooden bars for mounting beacons;
- usually trowel, trowel.
- Treat the floor with a primer.
- Using a level, mark the walls to make a concrete screed.
- Install beacons according to the markings. The distance from the wall to the first profile is 50 cm, the step between the beacons is 150 cm.Check with the level that they are installed correctly.
Installation of beacons
- Mix sand and cement (3: 1). Add water and stir the mixture thoroughly. The harder the concrete is, the more difficult it is to lay it, but the better the result.
- Using the rule, level the concrete over the beacons. With a spatula and trowel, level the applied mixture in places inaccessible to the rule.
Screed alignment with the rule
- Drive out air bubbles formed on the surface with a needle roller.
- Let the solution dry. Remove beacons. Seal the holes from them with concrete.
- After complete drying, apply a layer of self-leveling mixture or grout the concrete surface.
Important! Lighthouses are made from small amounts of concrete. They freeze for a long time, but the screed will turn out to be even, there is no need to close up the cracks from remote beacons. Another plus is savings on the profile.
Laying laminate on a concrete floor. how to lay it yourself
The technology of laying laminate on a concrete floor is easy for even an inexperienced craftsman to do it yourself. You need to start by calculating the amount of basic and auxiliary materials. When calculating the laminate, add at least 5% to the area of the room (for diagonal laying 15%). This type of material is sold in packs, so the calculated figure is rounded to an even number of packs. The total weight of the floor covering, even for a small room, will be at least 120 kg. It is convenient to purchase a substrate together with a laminate. This means that you need a truck to transport the material.
How to lay laminate flooring? Work order:
- Preparation of the base.
- Decking a vapor barrier (if not created when pouring the floor).
- Substrate flooring.
- Laying laminate (it is more convenient to combine the last two stages).
It is recommended to bring the packs of laminate into the room in advance (2. 4 days before the start of installation). This will help the coating to adapt to the temperature and humidity in the room. Laying laminate flooring on a backed concrete floor requires the following tools and aids:
- spacers (wedges 1 cm thick);
- mallet (or hammer);
- padding block.
According to the method of connecting parts, a laminate is distinguished with adhesive and lock fastening (Lock or Click). For the first installation method, you will need special glue. Choosing it, you need to understand that a laminated floor, laid with an adhesive method, cannot be dismantled. If one of the panels is damaged, then the entire glued floor will have to be re-finished. But the adhesive enhances the moisture protection of the flooring.
Before placing the laminate on the concrete floor, you need to choose a way to arrange its parts. There are several of them:
- parallel to the windows;
- perpendicular to the windows. in this case, the seams between the panels are less noticeable;
- diagonally (at an angle of 45 degrees). when using this method, the area of the room visually expands, but the material consumption with such an installation is the greatest.
Methods for laying out the laminate
The procedure for laying a laminate with a Lock type fastening (thorn-groove) with your own hands on a concrete floor:
- Start from the far corner. Place first strip of underlay.
- Install the first board so that there are approximately 1 cm distances between it and the walls.To create gaps, you can install spacers. wedges.
- Cut one of the panels into two parts and install it at the beginning of the second row (according to the brickwork principle). The lock should remain on the side to which the next part of the row will adjoin. To securely fasten the boards together, each is knocked out with a mallet, using a tamping block.
- Lay out the first row to the end. If floor space is required, cut the last panel.
- Lay out all the other rows in sequence, alternating the beginning of the row with a whole piece, then cut in half, and gradually laying the substrate. If necessary, the last row of the laminate is completely cut to the desired size.
- Install a skirting board to close the gap between the wall and the installed laminate.
If the glue method of connection is chosen, then the joints are pre-coated with glue.
Rules for laying a Click-type laminate on a concrete floor:
- First, the first row is laid to the end. Insert one panel into another at an angle of 45 degrees, and then bring it to a horizontal position: a click should sound.
- Collect all the details of the next row in a fishing line and attach to the laminate already laid on concrete.
- It is impossible to lay out the last row without additional devices due to the small distance, to fasten its parts use a bracket. One end of it is inserted into the seam, and on the other, it is lightly hit with a hammer several times.
Before laying the laminate on the concrete floor with your own hands, carefully study the technology for performing this work. Each master has his own way, but they are all based on the same general rules. It is advisable to get acquainted with several and choose the appropriate one for a particular case.