How To Make A Digger For A Tiller

What type of potato digger can you make yourself

The most suitable type of potato digger for self-production is considered to be a vibration type device.

This is a universal mechanism, which is used for small and medium areas. Plus, it’s not hard to do. For large fields, it is better to choose a drum-type potato digger.

Useful Tips

Useful tips that will come in handy when making and using a homemade Potato digger:

  • To bend a metal plate or other element of the device, it is first heated with a gas burner. After obtaining the desired shape, the part is tempered.
  • It is advisable to prepare in advance a drawing of the device and all significant nodes.
  • For beginners, it is recommended to first transfer all dimensions from the drawing to cardboard and assemble the model. Only after that, start cutting the metal. This technique helps to visually see all the problem areas.
  • During testing of the finished device, a test run is made. It is enough to travel just a few meters to see how well or poorly the Potato Digger works. If necessary, change the angle of inclination and depth of immersion.
  • Correct device setup maximizes performance.

How to make a Potato digger with your own hands: Step-by-step instructions from A to Z

Fast potato harvesting is important Not only for farmers, but also for owners of private plots. To speed up the energy-consuming process, many gardeners have mastered a universal attachment. a Potato digger, made on their own. Factory counterparts are not cheap, so we recommend making a simple and effective unit with your own hands.

What is Potato Digger

How To Make A Digger For A Tiller

A potato digger for a tiller, a common vehicle on a personal plot, is gaining more and more popularity. To perform various works, attachments are installed on it. One of the most popular types of it is the Potato digger.

This device allows you to separate the potatoes from the soil and throw them to the surface of the ground, and not damage them. It remains only to collect the tubers in a suitable container. The mechanism is used both in large farms and in small areas.

Factory products are expensive: range from 6.5 to 13 thousand rubles. There are also cheaper Chinese-made models on trading floors, but their quality is questionable. Therefore, it makes sense to start making a Potato digger for use in small cultivated areas.

Craftsmen who have tried home-made technology in business say in many of its advantages:

  • Ease of use.
  • Increasing labor productivity.
  • Choice of design dimensions suitable for the farmer’s application.
  • Possibility of sharpening rods for the characteristics of your soil, as well as for a specific tiller model.
  • Good harvesting speed. it is possible to select tubers on an area of ​​0.1-0.2 hectares in 1 hour.
  • Optimization and relief of physical activity.
  • Gentle extraction of tubers from the ground.
  • Significant cost savings.
  • The ability to use for digging second root crops, cultivating soil in the garden and in the garden.

The only drawback is that a homemade digger will only be effective on light to medium-heavy soil.

Required materials and tools

To make a vibration-type device, you will need special tools and equipment.

Required tools:

  • Welding machine;
  • Angle Grinder;
  • Drill and drills;
  • Heavy hammer or sledgehammer;
  • Keys set;
  • Square;
  • Calipers;
  • Level.

After collecting the tool, prepare the following materials:

  • Steel sheet approximately 8 mm thick;
  • Metal profile (channel);
  • Steel rods or reinforcement with a diameter of 10 mm;
  • A pipe for the manufacture of racks;
  • Corner;
  • Bolts, nuts and metal plates for fasteners;
  • Roller chain;
  • Wheels.

Types of potato diggers

There are 2 types of potato diggers on the market:

  • Passive;
  • Active.

Attachments are passive, which have a simple design and low cost. Such devices are called lancet, fan-shaped or simple. The main working element is a shovel, on which the rods are welded.

This is a very reliable piece of equipment, but it has poor performance. In addition, approximately 15% of the crop remains in the soil. Other negative aspects include high fuel consumption and shallow digging depth (15 cm). The capture width is 20 cm. Such a device is fixed on a cultivator or tiller.

Active Potato diggers are divided into the following types:

  • Conveyor;
  • Vibrating (roaring).

Vibrating Potato Diggers work thanks to the shares and the vibrating table. The design is improved by connecting the mesh. The device is equipped with one or two eccentrics.

Conveyor models are divided into belt and conveyor models. Their main difference from other models is the presence of a belt on which the soil with potatoes is sifted. Fuel consumption of such models is minimal, and the harvest percentage reaches 98%.

There are also drum potato diggers. They are used in large areas. The device consists of 3 main parts:

  • Knife;
  • Frames;
  • A rotating drum, which is made from steel rods.

The knife is attached to the frame with a pivot joint. He cuts the soil layer along with the potatoes. During the rotation of the drum, clods of earth break up and wake up through the grate, and the tubers fall out onto the arable land.

Attaching the Potato Digger to the Unit

Tiller attachment method:

  • They start with preparing a tiller. Remove the protection from the power take-off shaft. Take out the locking pin from the trailed knot.
  • A semi-cardan is put on the input shaft of the potato digger.
  • The device is connected to the trailed unit of the tiller. Fix with your finger.
  • At this stage, the operability of the driven and driving shaft is checked. To adjust the alignment, use the adjusting bolts on the trailer unit.
  • All threaded connections are fixed with locknuts.

One of the most important steps is adjusting the length of the half cardan. It is installed so that the gearbox has a clearance of 5-10 mm.

To connect to a mini-tractor, you will have to purchase a special mechanism designed to connect the Potato digger as an attachment.

Diagrams and drawings

It is important to prepare a drawing of the future device in advance. The easiest way is to use a ready-made one. Below are a few examples of schemes of different types of potato diggers.

How to make a Potato digger with your own hands

It’s easy to make a device yourself. The main thing is to adhere to the algorithm of actions, prepare all materials and drawings.

How to make a Potato digger with your own hands: Step-by-step instructions from A to Z

Fast potato harvesting is important Not only for farmers, but also for owners of private plots. To speed up the energy-consuming process, many gardeners have mastered a universal attachment. a Potato digger, made on their own. Factory counterparts are not cheap, so we recommend making a simple and effective unit with your own hands.

Diagrams and drawings

It is important to prepare a drawing of the future device in advance. The easiest way is to use a ready-made one. Below are a few examples of schemes of different types of potato diggers.

Attaching the Potato Digger to the Unit

Tiller attachment method:

  • They start with preparing a tiller. Remove the protection from the power take-off shaft. Take out the locking pin from the trailed knot.
  • A semi-cardan is put on the input shaft of the potato digger.
  • The device is connected to the trailed unit of the tiller. Fix with your finger.
  • At this stage, the operability of the driven and driving shaft is checked. To adjust the alignment, use the adjusting bolts on the trailer unit.
  • All threaded connections are fixed with locknuts.
READ  Which Tiller Is Better Geared Or Belt

One of the most important steps is adjusting the length of the half cardan. It is installed so that the gearbox has a clearance of 5-10 mm.

To connect to a mini-tractor, you will have to purchase a special mechanism designed to connect the Potato digger as an attachment.

What is Potato Digger

A potato digger for a tiller, a common vehicle on a personal plot, is gaining more and more popularity. To perform various works, attachments are installed on it. One of the most popular types of it is the Potato digger.

This device allows you to separate the potatoes from the soil and throw them to the surface of the ground, and not damage them. It remains only to collect the tubers in a suitable container. The mechanism is used both in large farms and in small areas.

Factory products are expensive: range from 6.5 to 13 thousand rubles. There are also cheaper Chinese-made models on trading floors, but their quality is questionable. Therefore, it makes sense to start making a Potato digger for use in small cultivated areas.

Craftsmen who have tried home-made technology in business say in many of its advantages:

  • Ease of use.
  • Increasing labor productivity.
  • Choice of design dimensions suitable for the farmer’s application.
  • Possibility of sharpening rods for the characteristics of your soil, as well as for a specific tiller model.
  • Good harvesting speed. it is possible to select tubers on an area of ​​0.1-0.2 hectares in 1 hour.
  • Optimization and relief of physical activity.
  • Gentle extraction of tubers from the ground.
  • Significant cost savings.
  • The ability to use for digging second root crops, cultivating soil in the garden and in the garden.

The only drawback is that a homemade digger will only be effective on light to medium-heavy soil.

Step-by-step instruction

Step-by-step algorithm for assembling a Potato digger:

  • The frame is made. It is welded from a corner with dimensions 63 by 40 mm and a channel. The length of the frame is about 120 cm.
  • At a distance of 1/3 from the beginning of the frame, the first channel is welded, and the second. at a distance of 1/6 from the front edge. These channels will serve as the basis for attaching an element designed to adjust the digger.
  • On the sides of the frame, metal racks are welded vertically to the ground at a distance of 10 cm from each other. Their length is different. They start with 50 cm, then 40, 30, etc. The base for the lattice will be welded onto these posts.
  • Channels are welded to the shortest racks so as to get 2 rigid triangles on which the share will be fixed.
  • A plate 30 mm wide is cut out of the metal letter and welded to one of the triangles. After cooling, it is bent and screwed to the second triangle with bolts.
  • For the manufacture of a ploughshare, an old plow, metal plates or a pipe with a section of 200 mm, cut lengthwise, are used. The workpiece is bent like a plow and rounded sharpening. The ploughshare is attached to the elevator casing with bolts.
  • Metal rods are cut. The length is selected so that on the one hand, weld them to the plate, and on the other, they protrude beyond the frame. The rods are welded at a distance of 4 cm from each other.
  • A metal bracket is welded to the free ends of the rods, which is made from a pipe or strip. To ensure the mobility of the bracket, it is attached to the swivel joint.
  • If necessary, the elevator is replaced with a cleaning drum. It is made in the form of a half-cylinder from reinforcement and metal strips.
  • Now a reduction unit is being mounted, with the help of which the inclination of the elevator and the ploughshare will change. The reduction unit is attached to the slider rod on bearings.
  • The sprockets are used to secure the connecting bridge rod. Metal discs are welded onto it from both sides and wheels are attached.

This completes the production of the Potato Digger. It remains to fix it on a tiller or mini-tractor and make a test run.

Types of potato diggers

There are 2 types of potato diggers on the market:

  • Passive;
  • Active.

Attachments are passive, which have a simple design and low cost. Such devices are called lancet, fan-shaped or simple. The main working element is a shovel, on which the rods are welded.

This is a very reliable piece of equipment, but it has poor performance. In addition, approximately 15% of the crop remains in the soil. Other negative aspects include high fuel consumption and shallow digging depth (15 cm). The capture width is 20 cm. Such a device is fixed on a cultivator or tiller.

Active Potato diggers are divided into the following types:

  • Conveyor;
  • Vibrating (roaring).

Vibrating Potato Diggers work thanks to the shares and the vibrating table. The design is improved by connecting the mesh. The device is equipped with one or two eccentrics.

Conveyor models are divided into belt and conveyor models. Their main difference from other models is the presence of a belt on which the soil with potatoes is sifted. Fuel consumption of such models is minimal, and the harvest percentage reaches 98%.

There are also drum potato diggers. They are used in large areas. The device consists of 3 main parts:

  • Knife;
  • Frames;
  • A rotating drum, which is made from steel rods.

The knife is attached to the frame with a pivot joint. He cuts the soil layer along with the potatoes. During the rotation of the drum, clods of earth break up and wake up through the grate, and the tubers fall out onto the arable land.

Useful Tips

Useful tips that will come in handy when making and using a homemade Potato digger:

  • To bend a metal plate or other element of the device, it is first heated with a gas burner. After obtaining the desired shape, the part is tempered.
  • It is advisable to prepare in advance a drawing of the device and all significant nodes.
  • For beginners, it is recommended to first transfer all dimensions from the drawing to cardboard and assemble the model. Only after that, start cutting the metal. This technique helps to visually see all the problem areas.
  • During testing of the finished device, a test run is made. It is enough to travel just a few meters to see how well or poorly the Potato Digger works. If necessary, change the angle of inclination and depth of immersion.
  • Correct device setup maximizes performance.

Which is better

There are many popular models. Before making a final decision, it is important to decide on the following parameters:

  • The area of ​​the cultivated area. The power of the technique depends on it.
  • Soil quality. The simplest equipment will NOT cope with hard ground.
  • Humidity. Cheap and low-powered Potato diggers do not work well with wet soil.
  • Dimensions of the device. The wide ones are used on large plantations, and the narrow ones are used in vegetable gardens for single beds.
  • Type of cleaning potatoes from the ground. Different models of potato diggers in different ways Cleans clay, loam, black soil, sandstone.
  • The presence of additional elements, such as wheels.
  • Fastener Type.
  • Cost of the device.
  • Condition of the main equipment, i.e. tiller or mini-tractor. Modern attachments are often not suitable for outdated models.

What type of potato digger can you make yourself

The most suitable type of potato digger for self-production is considered to be a vibration type device.

This is a universal mechanism, which is used for small and medium areas. Plus, it’s not hard to do. For large fields, it is better to choose a drum-type potato digger.

READ  DIY potato planter for tiller sizes

Homemade Tiller Potato Diggers

First of all, we assemble a welded frame from metal plates (8 mm), an iron channel and a special corner (63×40). Using the plates we make a share. The manufactured plowshares are installed on the Elevator casing using four bolts and tightened with nuts.

Making an editorial unit Using two cylindrical metal cases.

They are made in the form of a glass and a sleeve connecting the driven and driving steel shafts. They must be easy to rotate. Special sprockets with welded hubs are mounted on prismatic keys. They are made from a pipe with a size of 25 mm.

To avoid cutting the potatoes, the sharpening of the part must be round. If you change the attachment of the casing to the frame, the elevator tilt and the hole digging angle will change. To make a homemade Potato digger, certain skills are required. No Potato Digger is complete without a cleaner drum.

It is quite simple to create, but if you use the right approach, it will take very little time. The main structure contains two roller chains with 94 links and is worn on rods. Because of its shape, this design is called a squirrel wheel. This wheel, for greater strength, is fixed on two bent discs. Instead of discs, you can use a bicycle wheel rim.

After the “squirrel wheel” has been welded to the disks, for its rotation it is fixed on two welded fixed axles. The rotation of the shaft occurs on bearings, together with which the driven sprockets rotate, driving the drum.
For the manufacture of a slider, it is best to use a fluoroplastic. In this case, the chain-bar tape will slide easily. In appearance, the tape looks like a “squirrel wheel”, but there are fewer rods and they are much shorter. Sliders serve as a support, which protect the chain from damage.

The easiest potato digger to manufacture is a support-transport unit. Based on the method of processing and planting potatoes, anyone can make it. During the creation of such nodes, special difficulties should not arise. Similar mechanisms are used in potato harvesters.

Potato digger for tiller, homemade. photo. Tiller potato digger, homemade

Nowadays, almost no one manually digs up garden plots, because modern equipment for caring for a summer cottage and a personal plot has become available. Now a new technique is widely used and often a Potato digger for a tiller is made for them, homemade, below we describe several manufacturing options.

Many people who work in the field know firsthand how difficult it is to grow and harvest their own potatoes. To facilitate the harvesting of potatoes, man invented a special invention. the Potato digger. Our ancestors used a shovel for this, but a mechanical device for automatic collection of potatoes was specially created for us. The purpose of the potato digger is to separate tubers from the ground and lay them on the surface of the ground.

There is now a large selection of factory options for this device. But if the gardener is more or less experienced, it will not be difficult for him to assemble the Potato digger on his own, and not inferior to factory samples.

Assembling the Potato Digger

The digger outlet is inserted into the left side opening of the casing. It looks like a threaded bolt. After installing the axle, we begin to install the sprocket with a bearing, a spacer ring and an intermediate spacer sleeve. Then we insert the input case into the hole of the casing.

The most popular potato growing method is Dutch. It has a high yield and extreme versatility. You will get a good harvest of potatoes, even if the weather conditions were unfavorable. Methods in use today significantly reduce time, effort and cost by using an automated tiller potato digger.

4 wheels

4 wheels can be installed in different ways on the device. The first option is to turn the equipment into a mini-tractor and equip it with a seat. The second option is more common with homemade equipment. In this case and the use of unsuitable machine or motorcycle parts, two identical pairs are mated with each other.

Standard conversion of equipment into a mini-tractor is a common procedure if the power of the machine is sufficient. For such a process, a free beast is created, which is installed on an elongated body. Paired equipment is put on this one.

When using the paired version, two native pairs are split and paired with the second wheel. It is also possible to install weighting materials between adjacent discs, but when self-made work, most often the discs are paired with a small gap using a small rectangular window, which is further weighting.

With a full-fledged creation, each part will be a double element, which is created from equal parts. It turns out that the elements should be the same in shape and size.

Among the advantages of this design:

  • Higher level of productivity;
  • Quick removal of the outer parts;
  • Ease of creation;
  • High level of surface contact.

The main advantages are increased cross-country ability and increased travel speed.

Tiller on 4 wheels is considered the most practical for creating at home.

How to put Zhiguli wheels

If there are old spare parts for Zhiguli, then there are two options for their use. The first is the creation of disc-based lug elements. This procedure requires the following procedure:

  • Get out and clean the disks;
  • In a certain order, Weld plates, which will play the role of lugs;
  • Install lugs using weights and extensions to the base.

If pneumatic tires from Zhiguli are used, then it is advisable to put winter tires on the tiller, which are more aggressive and have greater cross-country ability. If the tiller is used for large-area work, then you need to use a paired version or lengthen it when installing parts from Zhiguli.

DIY wheels for a tiller

Auto mechanic specializing in agricultural machinery

Tiller wheels have various options. For self-creation, before making the wheels for the tiller, you will need to calculate all the required dimensions, since the technique of different classes has its own technical features. Self-made wheels for a tiller with your own hands can be either solid metal or iron, or pneumatic, including those removed from a Zhiguli. It all depends on the purpose of the technique and its use.

DIY wheels for a tiller

In order to make the wheels for the tiller correctly, you will need to calculate all the dimensions, as well as establish the type of required elements. Several options differ in functionality:

  • Traction;
  • Solid rubber;
  • Metal with lugs;
  • Supporting;
  • Paired.

In this, we will consider how to make wheels for a tiller with your own hands:

For full-fledged agricultural work, weights can be additionally installed on the wheels of the tiller. Weighting is necessary for a more complete immersion in the ground, as well as to increase the stability of the equipment.

The process of creating equipment for the unit depends on the type chosen and all the features of the equipment. Preliminary plan:

  • Preparation of tools and materials;
  • Creation of the basis on which the finished element is already reproduced;
  • If the base is made up of motorcycle or car equipment, then you will need to make extension cords to widen the track;
  • Tires are selected according to the characteristics of the soil, the worse the soil characteristics, the more aggressive or studded the tread.

It is worth considering that for normal cross-country ability, homemade products must have a minimum disc diameter of 19 inches or 47 centimeters. If parts are purchased, then all technical characteristics of the unit must be reviewed individually.

An example of homemade creation of passable options:

  • 4 discs are taken from the car;
  • All burrs are cleaned;
  • Both twos are soldered by welding with convex sides to each other;
  • Tires are put on ready-made double devices;
  • After pumping, everything is installed on the structure.

Thanks to this procedure, wide wheels with a large coverage area are obtained. This significantly increases the cross-country ability of the vehicle.

READ  How to make a front linkage on a tiller

There are many independent solutions in the form of wheels for devices, but it is required to take into account the method of application of the technique, as well as all its technical conditions.

Unicycle

A one-wheeled motor cultivator is considered one of the simplest options for independent execution. One device can be both pneumatic traction and lugs. This technique is used for simple agricultural work, for example, for hilling or digging potatoes. Equal device is installed on the tiller, which is also a reference.

During operation, significant pressure is applied to the support zone, which requires a large size. If the element on a unicycle tiller has a small diameter, then there may be problems with passability, even in good soil conditions.

Pneumatic wheels for tiller

Pneumatic wheels are used in various models of equipment. This is possible due to the presence of high permeability on any type of soil. Among the features of pneumatic tires are:

  • Christmas tree protector;
  • Sufficient width;
  • Standard dimensions are 20 cm in width and 40 cm in diameter;
  • Large size facilitates use over large areas.

When choosing dimensions, it is also necessary to pay attention to the technical characteristics of the tiller itself. Each type of model has its own characteristics, which must be taken into account.

The independent creation of equipment for equipment depends on numerous factors, including the availability of parts and the required tools. If necessary, you can use old discs from cars or motorcycles. The main prerequisite is a suitable size for the tiller class. The whole process is carried out in accordance with a sequential procedure, that is, first there is the preparation of materials, then. drawing up a drawing, if necessary, and Measurement. Only after that it is necessary to start independent work.

Unicycle

A one-wheeled motor cultivator is considered one of the simplest options for independent execution. One device can be both pneumatic traction and lugs. This technique is used for simple agricultural work, for example, for hilling or digging potatoes. Equal device is installed on the tiller, which is also a reference.

During operation, significant pressure is applied to the support zone, which requires a large size. If the element on a unicycle tiller has a small diameter, then there may be problems with passability, even in good soil conditions.

DIY wheels for a tiller

Auto mechanic specializing in agricultural machinery

Tiller wheels have various options. For self-creation, before making the wheels for the tiller, you will need to calculate all the required dimensions, since the technique of different classes has its own technical features. Self-made wheels for a tiller with your own hands can be either solid metal or iron, or pneumatic, including those removed from a Zhiguli. It all depends on the purpose of the technique and its use.

How to put Zhiguli wheels

If there are old spare parts for Zhiguli, then there are two options for their use. The first is the creation of disc-based lug elements. This procedure requires the following procedure:

  • Get out and clean the disks;
  • In a certain order, Weld plates, which will play the role of lugs;
  • Install lugs using weights and extensions to the base.

If pneumatic tires from Zhiguli are used, then it is advisable to put winter tires on the tiller, which are more aggressive and have greater cross-country ability. If the tiller is used for large-area work, then you need to use a paired version or lengthen it when installing parts from Zhiguli.

4 wheels

4 wheels can be installed in different ways on the device. The first option is to turn the equipment into a mini-tractor and equip it with a seat. The second option is more common with homemade equipment. In this case and the use of unsuitable machine or motorcycle parts, two identical pairs are mated with each other.

Standard conversion of equipment into a mini-tractor is a common procedure if the power of the machine is sufficient. For such a process, a free beast is created, which is installed on an elongated body. Paired equipment is put on this one.

When using the paired version, two native pairs are split and paired with the second wheel. It is also possible to install weighting materials between adjacent discs, but when self-made work, most often the discs are paired with a small gap using a small rectangular window, which is further weighting.

With a full-fledged creation, each part will be a double element, which is created from equal parts. It turns out that the elements should be the same in shape and size.

Among the advantages of this design:

  • Higher level of productivity;
  • Quick removal of the outer parts;
  • Ease of creation;
  • High level of surface contact.

The main advantages are increased cross-country ability and increased travel speed.

Tiller on 4 wheels is considered the most practical for creating at home.

DIY wheels for a tiller

In order to make the wheels for the tiller correctly, you will need to calculate all the dimensions, as well as establish the type of required elements. Several options differ in functionality:

  • Traction;
  • Solid rubber;
  • Metal with lugs;
  • Supporting;
  • Paired.

In this, we will consider how to make wheels for a tiller with your own hands:

For full-fledged agricultural work, weights can be additionally installed on the wheels of the tiller. Weighting is necessary for a more complete immersion in the ground, as well as to increase the stability of the equipment.

The process of creating equipment for the unit depends on the type chosen and all the features of the equipment. Preliminary plan:

  • Preparation of tools and materials;
  • Creation of the basis on which the finished element is already reproduced;
  • If the base is made up of motorcycle or car equipment, then you will need to make extension cords to widen the track;
  • Tires are selected according to the characteristics of the soil, the worse the soil characteristics, the more aggressive or studded the tread.

It is worth considering that for normal cross-country ability, homemade products must have a minimum disc diameter of 19 inches or 47 centimeters. If parts are purchased, then all technical characteristics of the unit must be reviewed individually.

An example of homemade creation of passable options:

  • 4 discs are taken from the car;
  • All burrs are cleaned;
  • Both twos are soldered by welding with convex sides to each other;
  • Tires are put on ready-made double devices;
  • After pumping, everything is installed on the structure.

Thanks to this procedure, wide wheels with a large coverage area are obtained. This significantly increases the cross-country ability of the vehicle.

There are many independent solutions in the form of wheels for devices, but it is required to take into account the method of application of the technique, as well as all its technical conditions.

Pneumatic wheels for tiller

Pneumatic wheels are used in various models of equipment. This is possible due to the presence of high permeability on any type of soil. Among the features of pneumatic tires are:

  • Christmas tree protector;
  • Sufficient width;
  • Standard dimensions are 20 cm in width and 40 cm in diameter;
  • Large size facilitates use over large areas.

When choosing dimensions, it is also necessary to pay attention to the technical characteristics of the tiller itself. Each type of model has its own characteristics, which must be taken into account.

The independent creation of equipment for equipment depends on numerous factors, including the availability of parts and the required tools. If necessary, you can use old discs from cars or motorcycles. The main prerequisite is a suitable size for the tiller class. The whole process is carried out in accordance with a sequential procedure, that is, first there is the preparation of materials, then. drawing up a drawing, if necessary, and Measurement. Only after that it is necessary to start independent work.