How to make out a screwdriver Pete. If the screwdriver does not want to turn on checking the charger unit
How to make a screwdriver at home
Screwdriver is considered a universal tool. With it, you can drill wood and metal, work with fasteners. Replaceable nozzles are capable of performing more functional tasks. But, like any mechanism, the screwdriver is not safe from faults. It is not difficult to repair the unit. It is important to remember all the actions from disassembly to assembly. We will tell you how to make out a screwdriver in case of breakdown or repair.
Before disassembling a screwdriver, you need to know the purpose of certain nodes and mechanisms in the design of the tool. The principle of operation of all screwdrivers is the same. The start button supplies the voltage to the engine and regulates the speed.
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The main mechanisms of the screwdriver, Whether it is Interskol (Interskol), Caliber, Bosch (Bosch GSR, PSR), Devolt (DeWALT), Hammer, Makita (Makita), Metabo (Metabo), Dexter (Dexter) similar and work the same way:
- Engine (brush or brilliant).
- Power button.
- Revolutionary function adjustment system.
- Control block.
- Self.Loading or fast.Packed cartridge.
On the body of the screwdriver are located rubberized handle and connectors for connecting batteries. For battery models, nickel-cadmium (nicd) or lithium-ion (Li-Ion) power elements with a power of 10 are used.8, 9.6, 12, 14.4 and 18 volts. For network units, batteries are not intended.
The power button starts the engine that rotates the spindle through the gearbox. Distribution coupling adjusting the torque. There is a separate one reversing. It allows you to twist stuck fasteners.
The basic parameters of the device and the principles of the screwdriver
Equipment in the construction market, where screwdrivers occupy a separate place, is quite large. Many models have individual criteria, are characterized by assembly quality and cost. However, most models are characterized by basic principles of action and internal performance.
The basic elements of any screwdriver include:
- The presence of an electric motor;
- Planetary reductor;
- Adjustable functional button “Start”;
- Reverse switch;
- Effort regulator;
- Power unit.
The electric engine is powered by a direct current network, structurally represented by a cylindrical shape. Inside is an anchor with brushes and magnets. The peculiarity of the engine circuit of the engine suggests that the direction of the voltage supply will be directed to the brushes. When the powerful polarity changes, reverse motor movement occurs.
The planetary gearbox is an important element that can convert high.Frequency fluctuations in the electrical shaft into a low frequency of cartridge shaft. As a rule, these parts are made of wear.Resistant plastic or metal. Many screwdrivers are equipped with gearboxes at 2 speeds. Switching to the first speed mode is necessary for working with self.Tapping screws, and at the second speed you can drill in a wood, plastic base or metal.
The Start key is starting the device. It is able to control the number of revolutions, providing for the ability to choose the optimal speed of rotation for the cartridge shaft. Accordingly, a powerful press will drive the engine at high speeds, and with a decrease in the power of pressing the power criterion, it will weaken.
The reverse switch is necessary for the operation of changing the rotational direction of the screwdriver engine. This functionality is convenient to use not only for twisting, but also to twist screws.
Regarding the regulator of efforts, we can say that it determines the speed of tightening screws. Actual models provide for a 16-speed adjustable gradation, which allows with maximum accuracy and convenience to determine which tightening speed is relevant, working with various material.
The power supply of the screwdriver is the battery batteries, where the power of the supply voltage (depending on the model of the model) can fluctuate from 9 to 18V.
The reasons for disassembling the tool
Malfunctions requiring disassembly can be in the electrical and mechanical part of the screwdriver. Signs of malfunctions of the electric part are the following:
If the tool does not turn on, you need to check the battery. If the multimeter readings are very small, you should try to charge the battery block. Charging does not help. This is a sign of failure of the battery. In this case, a block with battery elements is opened. On each of them, a voltage is checked, which should be within 0.9-1.0 V. All places of rations are checked. If necessary, the elements are replaced. If the battery block works, you need to carefully disassemble the screwdriver itself. For this, the screws located around the perimeter are removed with a screwdriver. There are usually about 9 of them. Half of the case are very neatly.
The device of the gearbox of the planetary mechanism.
After disassembling the case, the start button and the wires suitable for it is checked. Again you will need a multimeter. The device will show the place of malfunction. When removing the start button, do not rush. Otherwise, some small parts located inside the button’s case may fly out and fly throughout the room. This can happen when disassembling the body of the reverse mechanism.
When operating the engine at maximum speeds, the system of adjustment is defective. The reason may be hidden in the button itself. The transistor, which is somewhere near the button, may be to blame. If the button and all circuits are in good way, brushes, engine windings, anchor can be faulty to the electric motor.
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Repair of the electrical part of the screwdriver Interskol da 18Er with your own hands
This part of the screwdriver includes a charger, a battery and a starting button, so you should disassemble their repair in detail.
Repair of the charger
We will analyze the example of the repair of the charger of the Interskol screwdriver Da-18ER. After connecting to the network, indicators do not shine on it, and the charger itself is warming up.
In this case, the following actions are performed:
- To identify the cause of the breakdown, it is necessary to unscrew the screws connecting the two parts of the charging housings. Then the transformer and payment will be available. To protect the transformer in the chain, a thermal attemptor is provided, blocking after heating the coils of more than 130 ° C.
- After removing the cover from the charger, check the resistance on the primary winding of the transformer by the tester. If it is zero, then there is a cliff in the chain.
- Then you need to check whether the fuse is working.
- If the fuse is not burned out, then it is necessary to check the integrity of the network cable. The power cord is often interrupted and torn.
- In the absence of damage on a supplying cable, call both windings of the transformer. If even one of them is faulty, it is necessary to replace the transformer.
- If the resistance on the secondary winding is minimal, then it means it is working.
- The work of the diode bridge is checked. The black probe probe is pressed to the minus, and red to the plus of each diode. If the readings are zero, then the diode needs to replace. If the zero value is exceeded, the diode is working.
Often the screw “Interskol” Da-18ER stops working due to the battery malfunction. It is easy to identify this. Two power sources are placed for charging, if one is charged and the other is not, then the second battery is faulty.
Therefore, it is required to disassemble the hermetic body of the battery and get a battery out of it, consisting of several separate nutritional elements. Check the voltage on each, the indications should vary within 1.2–1.4v.
If on a galvanic element the voltage is below these values, then it is changed. The galvanic elements of the battery are connected sequentially, so the increased resistance of the faulty does not allow the others to charge.
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After installing a new galvanic element, a repaired battery must be inserted again into the housing and tightly closed. From a restored battery, memory effect is removed. To do this, 2 times it is 100% charge and discharged.
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After repairing the battery, its work under load is necessarily checked. You can try to restore the non.Working element with a short.Term high current effect. This will allow him to return the previous density and stop drying. The defective element of the battery for some time can also be reanimated for a defective element of the body.
Raise button repair
The button often stops working due to dust from the dust, burning contacts and breakdowns of the transistor. If the power supply comes from the battery, but the screwdriver does not start, then it is necessary to check the performance of the inclusion button.
To repair the button, you need to disassemble the tool case. On her terminals, the voltage is measured by a multimeter. The battery at this time should be connected to a screwdriver. If there is no voltage, then the button contacts need to be closed with clamps and switched the tester to OM mode, if the level is close to zero, then it is good. In other cases, the start button is repaired or changed.
You can also directly connect the electric motor with the battery. To do this, remove the battery and disconnect the wire from the button that supplies power to the electric motor. Take two pieces of wire. One connect one to the sub.Terminal terminal of the battery, and the second to the plus. Combine the second end of the first wire with the motor body, and the second with a plus wire going from button to engine. If the tool works, then the button is broken.
For repair, the button must be disassembled, then remove dust from it, clean the burnt contacts and change the broken transistor.
If the button changes, then the following actions are performed:
- Plow the broken button. Disconnect it from the wires with a soldering iron and remember the polarity of soldered contacts so as not to confuse the polarity during the installation of the new button.
- Solde the soldier new button. You need to purchase a similar button so that it normally sits in the grooves of the tool case. If there are minor deviations, then you need to straighten them with a file and small sandpaper. Then, in compliance with the polarity, solder the button to the wires, check its work, then you can close the case.
Signs of a cartridge malfunction
Deviations in the normal operating mode of the head of the power tool is not difficult to notice:
- The cylinder holds unreliably on the shaft.
- The drill began to give serious backlash.
- Fists jam or do not come out completely.
- The cartridge scrolls.
- The drill cannot be clamped or pulled out.
As soon as such signs are manifested, it becomes difficult to work with a screwdriver, and it is dangerous for health.
Repair is carried out strictly according to the instructions, any deviations lead to a new breakdown:
- The cartridge should be disassembled.
- A conical nut is dismantled (it is bippted).
- Cloth fists should be removed, having twisted them.
- View thread on fasteners. During breakdown, the details are changed.
- The cartridge is going. It is necessary to remember the unleasure sequence in order not to be mistaken when restoring.
When the thread on the fist or nut is destroyed, it is difficult to purchase a part. The only way out is to remove from another tool. Often when the cartridge breaks, it is completely changed. At the screw “whirlwind” the analysis procedure is identical. Choosing a new detail, the old should be available for example.
How it is arranged
The screwdrivers are batteries in a large move, so we will consider them. A screwdriver with its appearance resembles a gun. In the case made of plastic, there are holes through which the engine is cooled. If you look at the screwdriver in the section, we will see:
- Revolutionary control regulator;
- The transistor of the revolution regulator attached to the radiator;
- Electric motor;
Features of removal of cartridges
The cartridge can completely crumble, becoming unsuitable. The fists in it are not able to fulfill their task, it is impossible to hold the drill. Or start to play back. The inconsistency of the element does not allow to hold the bat tightly. Drills constantly fly out when working.
A thread is cut out inside the cartridge or there is a special cone for mounting on the shaft. Structurally, the element is divided into three types:
Quickly packed cartridges are considered the most popular: the tail is clamped with manual rotation of the screwdriver sleeve. The main differences in the types are that in one case the nozzles are fixed with a hand, in the other you can not do without a key. Manual clamps can save time, since the user does not have to choose the key. The main purpose of the cartridge is to ensure dense contact of the working bat and the rest of the mechanical parts of the tool. The key view copes better, therefore it is considered more reliable.
The design does not imply the presence of the equipment of the equipment of the equipment when tightening the cartridge. The bit in it is not fixed so reliably, unlike the self.Loading type. The fast.Packed cartridge consists of:
A quick.Sounding look is divided into two more types:
If the user buys the first type, then there should be a special lock in the box with a fart.Do with a fart.Dock. It allows you to change the equipment without scrolling the cartridge. Two.Shift species allow you to install a bit without additional devices, which is more convenient in conditions of frequent need to change the drill. The equipment is removed when the hand is fixed with one ring of the cartridge and scrolling another.
This species differs noticeably from the rapidly packed. It’s all about an interesting function that allows you to additionally clamp the bat in the process of scrolling a screwdriver. You can distinguish self-and-fast types by a characteristic crack when relaxing or tightening the cams.
Damage and crackling of a screwdriver: what to do
If during operation you noticed a crack in the work of a screwdriver, then you can try to change the speed regulator in order to exclude the likelihood of incomplete inclusion of the device. If the effect of the actions made turned out to be zero, then you can try to disassemble the device:
- When scrolling the engine, you need to disconnect the cartridge. As well as perform a check of the shaft rotation on the gearbox and checking the condition of the gear on the engine. Check the rotation of the gear shaft and engine gear condition.
- If the rotation of the shaft is not observed, and the gear is working, then you can disassemble the gearbox. Perform a check of teeth on satellites and gears.
- If the engine is absent, then you need to check the brushes, windings and anchors.
Subject to all of the above aspects, you can fully disassemble, collect and repair a screwdriver with your own hands.
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DISHASE DISCOUNTING DIY
There are unpleasant situations when an electric tool breaks down in the midst of work, for example, a screwdriver. Time to go to a workshop or a supermarket in order to buy a new one, it means that it remains to repair it yourself. How to disassemble a screwdriver for repair will consider below.
- How it is arranged
- How to make out a screwdriver in general
- We disassemble the screwdriver battery
- How to disassemble a screwdriver cartridge
- How the cartridge is attached
- We define how the manufacturer fixed the cartridge
- We dismantle the cartridge
Screwdriver and its design features
You should start repairing a screwdriver with your own hands with familiarization with its design. The main element of the screwdriver is an electric motor. Screwdrivers are both network and battery type. The use of a network screwdriver resorts less often, due to such a drawback as the need to connect the tool to the 220V network. The battery.Type tools are more popular, as they allow not only the repair work of the house, but also beyond its borders.
The main nodes of the battery screwdriver are:
- Frame. Usually all screwdrivers are made of durable plastic.
- Start button. It is arranged so that the number of revolutions of the cartridge depends on it.
- Electric motor. In the battery tools, single.Phase collector.Type and direct current engines are used. The engine is a rotor, a stator in the form of magnets, as well as a brush unit.
- Effort regulator.
- Reversion switch.
- Battery. It is usually removable and often equipped with a product in a double copy.
- Cartridge. As a rule, fast.And.Packed cartridges are used.
Some models are additionally equipped with LED lighting lights, as well as battery charging indicators. Returning to problems with a screwdriver, it should be noted that any of the above elements can cause a tool malfunction. What is needed for repair? First of all, it is required to find the cause of the breakdown, and then make the appropriate decision to eliminate it. The tool can be divided into two parts: electrical and mechanical. Initially, it is required to find out what is the problem of the inoperability of the screwdriver: in mechanics or electrician. This will not be difficult to do, so we consider the breakdown in more detail.
Malfunctions of the mechanical part
It is possible to identify mechanical malfunctions of screwdrivers by such a feature as the audibility of the functioning of the electric motor. When you press the start button, signs of the electric motor are heard, but at the same time the tool cartridge does not rotate or the characteristic sounds of a malfunction are heard during rotation.
The device of the screwdriver is quite simple, but a significant drawback is that all elements are almost 2-3 times smaller than electric drill. The mechanical possible breakdowns of the screwdriver include the following malfunctions:
- Bench of the cartridge. Despite the fact that fast.Sounding cartridges are more universal and simple in work, their significant drawback can be called a low service life. It is impossible to fix a fast.Packed cartridge, so if the tool refuses to hold a drill or bit, then the cartridge should be removed and replaced with a new. This is one of the most frequent malfunctions of the tool, but at the same time it will not be necessary to disassemble the screwdriver.
- The failure of the gearbox. A planetary type gearbox is installed at the screwdrivers. Typically, manufacturers in order to save money make gears of gearbox from plastic or low.Quality metal. This affects not only the power of the tool, but also on its service life. If the engine is pressing the “Start” button, and the cartridge does not rotate, then the problem is precisely in the planetary gearbox. To find out the cause of its malfunction, you need to disassemble the tool, and then determine the breakdown. A gearbox in case of failure of one six should be replaced.
- Bearing wear. The bearing is in the planetary gearbox, so it is replaced with the gears.
- Damage to the regulator effort. This device in screwdrivers is used not only to increase or decrease the traction force of the tool, but also to increase safety. If during the work of the work there is a jamming of the working nozzle, then instead of turning the tool, the regulator will turn. Thus, the master will not receive a dislocation of the hand, and the electric motor will be protected from the high load, from which it can burn out.
It should be noted that the small dimensions of the mechanical part of the tool are somewhat complicated by the process of repairing the tool, so be sure to be careful when carrying out repair work.
How to check the engine and button with a multimeter
To determine the performance of the button and engine, the multimeter is used.
To perform the diagnosis of the motor, gearbox and wiring connecting the part with the trigger button, disconnect, and then measure the resistance of the anchor winding. If there are no indications, this reports the break in the winding. If the numbers on the screen are very low, a short circuit has occurred.
To check the button, the wiring connecting its input terminals with the battery with a multimeter, twisted, and tester probes are connected to the outputs. The device is transferred to the resistance measurement mode and included. If the values on the display are close to zero, the part is in good. With a breakdown, the screen shows infinity.
If the screwdriver vibrates stronger than usual, other strange noises are also heard, a gearbox can be damaged.
Damaged nodes change to new parts, if the shaft is damaged, it is necessary to replace the gearbox itself.
DIY repair of a screwdriver of a screwdriver is most often found in a motor repair. It is not surprising, because it is this part of the device that suffers the most from increased loads.
In the second case, you will have to buy a new engine of similar power. The gear, which is installed on the motor shaft, is necessarily extracted and pressed on a new engine.
How to fix the screwdriver button if it does not work. Detailed instructions
You will need the following tools for the diagnosis and repair of the screwdriver:
As a result of the active use of any power tool, dirt inevitably accumulates inside his body.
- Disassemble the tool case. To do this, disconnect the battery, unscrew all the screws (they can be hidden behind the decorative plates that need to be removed).
- Check the operability of the motor. To do this, disconnect the two power wires from the control unit and connect them to the battery contacts (the engine should work).
- Disassemble the screwdriver button. To do this, squeeze the plastic latches and disconnect the two parts of the button case.
- We perform a visual inspection of the button for pollution and damage.
- Next, you need to carefully assemble the screwdriver button, reinstall and test.
If cleaning the control unit does not work, you must replace the entire buttons block.
- Disassemble the screwdriver (the process is described above);
- Install a new button on the old one;
- Connect the engine to the terminals of the button (in this case, polarity is not required);
- Gather a screwdriver, gently placing the wire into the case.
It is very important to choose a button for a specific screwdriver model, because with all external similarities and visual accordance, the part may not be placed in the grooves. As a rule, new buttons are sold complete with battery terminals and transistor.
The causes of breakdowns of different brands of screwdrivers. How to extend the life of the tool
Not only tools are broken that have a low price. It tends to break all the tools, so you won’t get away from this. To extend the service life of a screwdriver, you need to figure out what reasons contribute to the Rapid failure of the device.
- Incorrect operation. The tool should be used only as intended. If a portable device is used daily for drilling concrete, then it will not last for several days
- Appointment. Like other types of tools, screwdrivers are divided into household or amateur and professional. If the professional are designed for a long time of operation, then household appliances can be used no more than 2 hours a day
- Compliance with storage conditions. Tools cannot be stored in the room where there is high humidity. If the internal parts (mechanical and electric) are damp, then the device will quickly fail. Portable screwdrivers should be stored not only under the appropriate humidity, but also at the right temperature. This is not necessary for the tool itself, but for batteries, which are destroyed at low temperatures. For the winter it is recommended to store the device in heated garages and workshops
- To exclude the negative impact of weather conditions is not only rain or snow, but also sunlight. If the device is overheated in the sun, then with its next turning on, it can burn, so do not allow the long.Term finding of the tool on the scorching sun
To extend the service life of batteries that break faster than screwdrivers, you need to not only store them correctly, but also charge them. It is impossible to allow the battery to be stored for a long time in a discharged state, and also stood on charging for a long time. It is regularly required to turn on the tool, and let it work (1-2 times a week). If this is not done, then soon you will need to buy a new battery or the tool itself. How much the instrument of Chinese, European or German quality will last on the quality of care and operation.
To repair the device in question, you will need a minimum set of tools. Repair work must be carried out on the table with good lighting, since the screwdriver has many small details that may be confused. Take a sufficient amount of time to repair the device, and not to disassemble it and throw it away. If you repair the electric part, then before assembly it is recommended to process the rubbing parts with lubricants. After the repair, the screwdriver will be able to last the same or even more. Detailed video instruction. How to fix a screwdriver from “and to me”.
Summing up, it should be noted that a screwdriver is the most reliable and necessary tool that should always be good. You do not need to make a lot of effort to repair it, and if the device has broken, then only time and spare parts are needed for its repair, which is not difficult to buy.
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