How To Properly Breed A Hacksaw On Wood
How to sharpen a hacksaw for wood Traditional hacksaw for wood is still relevant today. Therefore, in order to achieve high productivity and quality of the manufactured product, it is important to know how to sharpen a hacksaw on wood.
How to determine when it is time to sharpen a hacksaw
An experienced carpenter can tell when the saw is ready to sharpen by:
- The sound of sawing a tree changes;
- The teeth change their shade.
A number of signs are also available to the less experienced:
- Increased material resistance;
- It is difficult to maintain the perpendicularity of the cut;
- The blade does not adhere well to the mowing line of the cut, the line is deflected or bent;
- The blade gets wedged in the wood.
Before sharpening the saw, it is imperative to separate the teeth, that is, to ensure that they are deflected from the plane of the blade at a certain angle. Correctly set teeth guarantee a kerf wide enough to prevent the blade from getting caught in the material. If the teeth are too set, the kerf will be too wide, this will increase the loss of material, the pulling force, and also reduce the accuracy.
If you sharpen the saw correctly on wood, it regains its working qualities.
During sharpening, the following geometrical characteristics of the teeth are restored:
- Profile angle;
- Bevel angle of cutting edges.
How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood
Despite the widespread use of circular saws, reciprocating saws and electric jigsaws, the traditional wood saw is preserved in the workshop of every household. With a small amount of work or in hard-to-reach places, where you cannot crawl with a power tool, a hand saw still helps out. For the tool to work with sufficient performance, accuracy and quality, it must be sharpened on time.
How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood with a file
For sharpening, the hand saw blade must be clamped between the plates of the rig so that the teeth rise above them by one and a half two centimeters. For different types of canvases, sharpening a hacksaw for wood is carried out in its own way.
Fixing the saw sharpening file
To properly sharpen the cross hacksaw, the blade should be set at 45. The file should be selected with a triangular cross-sectional profile.
To ensure the proper quality of sharpening, the following sequence of actions must be observed:
- Sharpen the left edges of the even (farthest from the master) teeth;
- Turn the canvas over;
- Sharpen the left edges of the even teeth;
- Form sharp cutting edges and sharpened tops of teeth
Sharpening your hacksaw correctly
To sharpen a longitudinal or utility hacksaw, it must be fastened at a 90 ° angle. This requires a diamond cross-section file. The file moves in the plane of the desktop. The order of sharpening the teeth is the same as for the cross-cut saws.
In the course of work, burrs usually appear on non-sharpened edges, which are larger or smaller, depending on the thickness of the hacksaw blade. They should be smoothed with a velvet file or an abrasive bar of minimum grain size. Sharpening quality can be checked in two ways:
- To the touch. It should feel sharp, no burrs should be felt.
- By color. On correctly sharpened edges, no x glare occurs under lighting.
The quality is also checked by a trial cut. The hacksaw should not be pulled to the side, the sawn surface should be smooth, without soaked wood fibers.
General requirements for sharpening
Two rectangular isosceles triangles and a steel plate 20 × 3 mm are attached on a wood base of 2 × 5 cm in size from a bar with a thickness of 2 cm or more. A support plate-support made of plywood or OSB with a thickness of one and a half centimeters with dimensions of 15 × 40 cm is attached to the triangles and the same clamp plate is fixed to it from below on hinges. The plates are tightened with screws or studs with wing nuts. If an installation at an angle of 45 is required, the plates are fixed to the hypotenuses of the support triangles, and if 90, then to the legs.
Hacksaw sharpening rules
To sharpen the saw, you will also need several files that differ in section and pitch of the notch. All of them must be serviceable, without knocked down or clogged with dust notch lines. To sharpen a saw on wood, the file must be moved smoothly, with constant pressure and at a constant angle. The working movement of the file is carried out from itself. It should be easy to pull on itself, practically without touching the metal surface.
With different heights of cutting teeth, the efficiency of woodworking is greatly reduced. The higher ones take on a greater load and are subject to accelerated wear, while the lower ones do not participate in cutting. The broach becomes uneven, jerky. Both the accuracy of the cut and the quality of the cut surface are reduced.
Alignment of the height of the teeth should be carried out before sharpening the blade. The height is checked as follows: the canvas is pressed against a sheet of paper lying on the table. The profile is printed on the sheet, and the height of one or another tooth can be determined from the print. To align teeth of different heights, the blade must be clamped in a locksmith vice. The teeth protruding above others must be filed down.
Tool for equalizing the height of the teeth
Requirements for wiring a hacksaw
The spreading width of the tops of the teeth corresponds to the kerf. Experimentally, it was found that the best width of the setting exceeds the thickness of the blade by one and a half times for hard varieties of wood and two or three for softer ones. Considering the most popular thickness of a saw blade for wood, one millimeter, we get a divorce value of up to half a millimeter for hard varieties and up to a millimeter for soft ones.
Saw teeth in various shapes
When setting, it is also very important that all teeth bend back at equal angles. Teeth set wider than the rest will increase pulling resistance and wear out quickly. The teeth that are already set apart will not participate in the sawing process, and their tops will slow down the broach and reduce its uniformity, making it difficult to work.
Option # 1 narrow
The small, narrow saw is a structure that consists of a straight flat blade and a handle. She performs delicate work: through cuts, cut out curved parts.
This type of tool is designed for sawing wood blanks, the thickness of which does not exceed 8-10 cm, sawing small branches and small gardening
In the manufacture of narrow models, manufacturers install blades with triangular double-sided teeth, or with parallel sharpening. The disadvantage of the tool is that when pressed during operation, the blade is able to deviate from a given direction.
How should a hacksaw blade be?
The main part of the tool is a hacksaw blade. The first thing you should pay attention to when choosing a product is the length of the canvas. The possibilities of its application largely depend on this parameter. At the same time, the longer the blade, the more spring it is, which also complicates the process, especially when working with hard types of wood, such as ash, maple or oak.
Long stroke allows less effort when sawing, since more teeth are cut in one stroke
For sawing small elements such as plinths, bars or narrow slats, you can do with a hacksaw with a blade length of 25-30 cm.When planning to use the tool for more serious construction work, choose a product with a blade of 45-50 cm.
When determining the length of the hacksaw blade, be guided by the rule that the length of the saw is 2 times the diameter of the processed elements. If you do not follow this recommendation, you will only complicate your work. The teeth of a short hacksaw will jam inside the wood, and each will have to make a lot of effort to advance the tool to free the sawdust. Uncomfortable work will cause premature fatigue.
Traditionally, the width of the fabric of the product varies in the range of 10-20 cm. Models with a narrower fabric are not allowed for technical reasons, since they fail at the slightest bend. But it should be borne in mind that too wide canvases are inconvenient for manual work.
Of no less importance is the material for making the cloth, which is most often the role of alloy steel, as well as its degree of hardening
Tool alloy steel with a high silicon and carbon content is used for hacksaws:
- 65G, 60 C2A;
- 8 HF, 9 HF, 9 XC;
- U7, U7A, U8, U8A, U8G, U8GA, U9A, U10
Metal hardening is carried out due to the action of an alternating magnetic field on it, in which an electric current of high frequency appears. Spreading over the surface, it heats up the surface layer of the metal, which is quenched after cooling.
The standard parameter is considered to be a metal hardness of 45 HRC, but it is still preferable to choose products, the hardness of which is 55-60 HRC. A hacksaw with a blade of high hardness will have sufficient flexibility, but at the same time high tooth resistance. On visual inspection, such a tool can be identified by the darkish shade of sharpened teeth.
Parameters of teeth on the blade
The determining indicator of the productivity of the tool and the accuracy of cutting wood is the size of the teeth.
The teeth of a hacksaw for woodworking have a double function: they cut the wood and at the same time remove the sawdust
Cutting accuracy is determined by TPI. Teeth per inch.
There is an inverse relationship between these technical parameters:
- Blades with large teeth set a high speed of work, but the saw cut is rough and sloppy;
- Fine-toothed hacksaws guarantee a clean and precise cut, but at a relatively low speed.
When determining the required size of the teeth, one should be guided by the type of material being processed. For example, choose a tool with a high TPI 7-9 for work with chipboard, where high cutting accuracy is required, and for sawing logs and work in the garden, where the cleanliness of the cut is not so important TPI 3-6.
When choosing the optimal hacksaw option, be guided by the rule that the minimum log thickness should in any case be greater than the pitch of three teeth
If we compare a hardened and an ordinary tooth, then the difference is that in the first version, subject to domestic use, the product does not dull for a long time. But a hacksaw with a hardened tooth cannot be re-sharpened. When it starts to cut badly, you just have to throw it away.
A regular tooth lends itself to sharpening. It can be periodically performed using a special file marked with an accident (for sharpening saws). To sharpen the blade, it is enough to perform several movements on each tooth.
Depending on the type of teeth used, there are three types of hacksaws:
- For rip sawing. The products are equipped with teeth in the form of an oblique triangle and look like hooks. The tool allows you to cut wood along the grain. Such saws are sharpened on both sides of the tooth, due to which they are able to cut both when going forward and in the opposite direction.
- For cross cutting. The tool teeth are made in the form of isosceles triangles. This design makes it easy to cut the material both when the cutting edge is carried forward and backward. But this type of tooth is only suitable for working with dry pieces, not fresh wood.
- For mixed sawing. The products have a combined composition, in which triangular edges are combined with slightly elongated semicircular notches. This solution allows, when the hand moves forward, the semicircular teeth perform a guiding cut, and when returning triangular, expand the channel, removing chips and sawdust from it.
Some types of modern tools are equipped with teeth that are trapezoidal. This solution allows you to make the blade more durable and wear-resistant.
But it should be borne in mind that sharpening such a blade is very problematic, since it is difficult for trapezoidal teeth to give the desired shape. This significantly reduces the service life of the product, after which it is necessary to change the blade or purchase a new tool.
For cutting fresh branches, it is more convenient to use blades equipped with triangular teeth, processed with parallel sharpening, in which each element is sharpened only on one side and in a staggered manner
Often on the market you can find a modernized type of hacksaws.
Upgraded hacksaws can be easily distinguished by groups of teeth located on the blade, between which the gaps are clearly visible
Upgraded hand saws are effective for cutting raw wood. Wet chips through the gaps between the teeth in the process of cutting easily come out of the cut without hindering the movement of the tool.
How to choose the right hacksaw: looking for the best hand saw for wood
In the arsenal of the home craftsman there is always a functional and easy-to-use circular electric saw. But there are situations when you need to saw off a part and perform a small amount of woodwork, and there is no time or desire to unfold and connect the unit. In these cases, a hacksaw is excellent. But how to choose a hand saw for wood, so that it is convenient to use and easily gnaws through any type of wood, we will consider in more detail.
Option # 3 with backing
Both narrow and conventional saw blades tend to bend as the material is hardened. In these cases, it is effective to use canvases equipped with a backing, which acts as a kind of stiffening rib.
Hand saws equipped with a backing are designed to create shallow cuts in a wooden surface of any thickness
The backing prevents the saw from making a cut deeper than the width of the blade, since it prevents the blade from going further into the tree.
The saw is rightfully considered the ancestor of a large family of hand tools. Since the creation of the first type of tool from iron, the saw has undergone many changes, having managed to acquire numerous sisters capable of performing dozens of jobs.
In the household, it is impossible to do without toothy helpers: they are irreplaceable when pruning a garden, small carpentry and joinery
Hand saws for wood differ in many ways: blade size, steel grade, tooth shape, handle design. Let’s dwell on each parameter in more detail.
How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood yourself
For sawing building materials from wood, as well as trees, a tool such as a hand saw is used. Despite the fact that electric and even gasoline saws, jigsaws and circular saws have long been developed, a hand saw for wood remains an indispensable assistant in the arsenal of every master. With the active use of this tool, it becomes necessary to sharpen the teeth. How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood yourself at home, we will consider in the material.
Purpose and device of the saw
The hand saw is used for sawing various wood materials. It is a blade with teeth at the bottom. On one side, the tool is equipped with a handle with which the master holds it during sawing work. The convenience and comfort of working with the saw depends on the quality of the handle.
The number of manufacturers of hacksaws for wood is quite large, but they all differ not only in names, but also in quality. All of them are intended for sawing wood, chipboard, logs, laminate and tree trunks. Hacksaws are subdivided into such types as: classic, circular, bow, as well as with a back and a reward. The thickness of the blade plays an important role when choosing a tool. After all, a thin blade can break during sawing wood, and it is quite difficult for a thick one to work.
Why and when to sharpen
The tool under consideration is subjected to various loads during operation, which leads to dulling of the teeth. If you cut with a saw that has dull teeth, the result will be much less effective than a sharp one. In addition, using a saw with blunted teeth is not recommended for the following reasons:
- Decreased tool performance. Not only the powers of the master will be spent, but also his time.
- Decreased accuracy of work. It is impossible to cut wood materials evenly with a blunt-toothed hacksaw, much less to do it neatly.
- Danger of using the tool. In the course of work, the saw will get stuck, jammed, and come off the mowing line, so such work can be dangerous for the master.
A sharp hacksaw is not only easier to work with but also much safer. To determine that the time has come for sharpening the saw blade for wood, you should pay attention to the following factors:
- The canvas emits a characteristic dull sound. If the master often uses a hacksaw, then it will not be difficult for him to identify such a sound.
- The tips of the teeth are rounded.
- The saw refuses to perform its task when trying to cut wood.
These factors indicate that it is time to sharpen the hacksaw on wood with your own hands. But before you take up the file, you should determine whether these links are subject to sharpening.
Sharpening a hacksaw for wood begins with a procedure such as setting teeth. The setting of the hacksaw teeth is performed for such purposes as ensuring the free movement of the blade without jamming. The setting is the bending of the teeth in different directions, alternately, by one amount. This leads to the fact that the kerf width increases, which means that during the sawing process the chip removal process is accelerated.
The amount of tooth spread depends on the thickness of the blade, and is usually 1.5-2 mm. To bend the teeth by the same amount, you will need to use a special device. This device is a metal plate with a special slot. The blade is clamped in a vise so that the links protrude slightly. After that, the process of bending the teeth is carried out. Sharpened teeth must also be bent to the same distance.
How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood
To sharpen a hacksaw on wood, the blade should be fixed in a vice in the same way. Needle files or triangular files with a fine cut are used to sharpen the saw links. Not many people know how to properly sharpen a file on wood, so you should pay as much attention as possible to this process.
- Initially, you need to pick up a file. A file with a fine cut should be used, which should be held with one hand by the handle and the other by the tip of the tool.
- The sharpening angle is determined, which usually ranges from 15 to 30 degrees. The angle is usually determined by eye, but if it is difficult to do this, then you can use special home-made devices, for example, a wooden block. To do this, the bar is turned until it has the shape of a right-angled triangle with angles of 30 and 60 degrees.
- The most important thing when working with a file is the pressure on it. To ensure uniform sharpening, the same number of file passes must be made over each tooth. With experience, you will learn to ensure that the top layer of metal is removed evenly.
- With the help of the prepared device, the sharpening angles are controlled. The process is carried out in a similar way on the reverse side of the web.
Now you know how to properly sharpen the teeth of a hacksaw blade for wood. But the process does not end there, as it will be necessary to align the teeth in height. If they have different heights, the uniformity of the cut will be disturbed. If there are links that are higher than the rest, then their shortening is performed using the same file. The check is carried out using a sheet of paper, to which the blade should be applied with the teeth down. After that, the sizes are compared, and the shortening procedure is repeated.
How to sharpen a saw: practical guidelines
When carrying out work on sharpening a hacksaw, you should adhere to the following recommendations:
- The device is firmly fixed on the working surface in a vice.
- Providing good lighting for the workplace.
- To sharpen the links, files and needle files with various notches are used. The smaller the notch, the better. It all depends on the degree of dullness of the teeth.
- Metal removal is carried out only when the file moves away from itself in one direction.
- After the work is done, the quality must be checked. To do this, you need to look at each link in the light. If the tooth is shiny, then it is sharpened correctly, as shown below.
In conclusion, it should be noted that many craftsmen do not consider it necessary to sharpen a hacksaw. This is wrong, since the efficiency of the work depends on the quality of sharpening.