How To Sharpen A Saw On Wood

Sharpening and setting the saw
Sharpening and setting the saw The main cutting element of any hand saw. A series of teeth cut into the blade and representing wedge cutters. Wood, in the manufacture of all kinds of

Sharpening and setting the saw

The main cutting element of any hand saw. A series of teeth cut into the blade and representing wedge cutters. Wood, in the manufacture of all kinds of products from it, is sawn along, across and at an angle ее to its fibers, in this regard, transverse, longitudinal sawing and sawing at an angle to its fibers are distinguished, and in each case, use the appropriate type of saw, which differs from others in shape teeth.

When cross-cutting, cross saws are used, the cutting edges of the teeth of which, when moving in the wood, cut its fibers like a knife and form a cut. Longitudinal sawing differs from transverse sawing in that the direction of movement of the saw is parallel to the grain of the wood. The leading edges of the rip saws cut the wood like knives in a plane, and, going deeper, form a cut. When sawing wood at an angle Θ to its fibers, universal (mixed) saws are used with teeth that are an intermediate form of teeth for cross and longitudinal saws.

Saw sharpening

Saw teeth sharpening. A kind of art that requires loyalty of hands, a good eye, attention. It is not difficult to learn this business, you must have the desire and clearly adhere to the following rules:

  • The saw blade must be firmly fixed in a special device made of wood, which is also firmly set on a well-lit work table. Sharpening the saw teeth on stools or on your lap does not give a satisfactory result.
  • You should use a personal file, followed by cleaning the sharpened edges of the teeth with a velvet (with a fine notch) or file. It is desirable that the file is new, sharp and with a fitted handle. If at the right time there was not one, then you can also use a second-hand one, but it must be brushed with a steel brush and rubbed with charcoal so that the file does not get clogged or dull. When sharpening a tooth, the file should grip its metal and remove its layer depending on the pressure. And if it slides over the tooth without removing the metal, then the saw teeth are overheated or the file is worn out. In this case, it is necessary to repeat the sharpening with a new file. If in this case he slips over the tooth, then it remains to take another saw.
  • The file handle is clamped with the right hand, and the end of it is held by the left hand and the file is directed to the saw teeth. Working with a file, depending on the type of saw, is described below.
  • The pressure of the file on the teeth should be smooth and even and only to one side from you. When returning the file to its original position, it must not touch the teeth.
  • It is necessary to try to grind the metal from the edges of the teeth of at least the same thickness, driving the file the same number of times with the same pressure, which allows you to maintain the angles, pitch and height of the teeth after sharpening.
  • Burrs form on the edges of the tooth from the side of the file exit, which reduce the sharpness of the tooth, and if they are not removed, then during the operation of the saw, they crumble, and the teeth become significantly dull. To remove the burrs, the edges of the teeth are sharpened with a file with a velvet notch and deburred from the lateral edges with a wet donkey.
  • After sharpening the teeth, check their sharpness. Look at the point of the needle and the edge of the razor blade: they are sharp and do not shine in the light. And if they are blunt, then rounded surfaces appear at the tip of the needle and on the edge of the blade, which reflect light and shine well. The quality control of saw teeth sharpening is based on this principle. To do this, put the saw in front of your eyes and examine its teeth along the blade. If their cutting edges and tops are not shiny, then the saw teeth are sharpened satisfactorily, and if some of the teeth are shiny (this is often the case), then they must be sharpened with a velvet-cut file, deburred and again check the light reflection from their edges and tops.

Cross Saws. The teeth of the cross saws are sharpened using a triangular file with a fine notch with an apex angle of 60 °.

To sharpen the teeth, the saw is clamped into a special device that allows its blade to be installed at an angle of 45-50 ° to the plane of the desktop. The file is led parallel to the working table at an angle of 60-75 ° to the saw blade and thus the left edge A is sharpened in the first tooth1AND2IN2IN1.

Saw teeth are sharpened in several stages. First, with a file, they pass along the left edges of the odd teeth located in the far row, adjusting the hands to the same movement. Then they pass the file along the right edges of the same odd teeth, completing the sharpening of the main cutting edges with very sharp peaks. After finishing the sharpening of the odd teeth, the saw blade in the sharpening device is turned over and thus the even teeth that are in the far row are sharpened. When sharpening the teeth of cross-cut saws, it is necessary to carefully ensure that sharp main cutting edges with a dihedral angle φ = 60-75 °, a short cutting edge and a sharp point are obtained in each tooth.

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Rip saws. Rip saw teeth in which the angle π

Tool specifications

The saw is rightfully considered the ancestor of a large family of hand tools. Since the creation of the first type of tool from iron, the saw has undergone many changes, having managed to acquire numerous “sisters” capable of performing dozens of jobs.

In the household, it is impossible to do without “toothy helpers”: they are irreplaceable when pruning a garden, small carpentry and joinery

Hand saws for wood differ in many ways: blade size, steel grade, tooth shape, handle design. Let’s dwell on each parameter in more detail.

Option # 4. Bow

Bow-type saws are more bulky devices that act as an analogue of a jigsaw.

The main purpose of this type of saw is to create an accurate cut when working with surfaces located at any angle.

Due to the solidity of the design and the threaded connections of the handles, the bow-type saws are able to easily overcome knots, cutting along radii and curvilinear patterns.

Depending on the purpose and design of the saw, there may be:

  • Swinging. For longitudinal cutting;
  • Transverse. For sawing blanks across the wood fiber;
  • Circular. For cutting holes, making rounds and curly sawing;
  • Spike. For cutting connecting spikes, as well as cutting out simple geometric shapes on the workpiece.

Only with an onion-type hacksaw can you cut the material along and across, sawing blanks with complex fishing lines and performing the work alone without involving an assistant.

Option # 2. Regular

A standard hand saw can be equipped with any type of teeth and is often equipped with replaceable blades of various types and designs.

To be able to saw off workpieces at a certain angle using a standard hand saw, you have to purchase special miter boxes

But despite the declared versatility of their use, it is not advisable to use saws of this type in the manufacture of furniture.

Option # 1. Narrow

The small, narrow saw is a structure that consists of a straight flat blade and a handle. She performs delicate work: through cuts, cut out curved parts.

This type of tool is designed for sawing wood blanks, the thickness of which does not exceed 8-10 cm, sawing small branches and small gardening

In the manufacture of narrow models, manufacturers install blades with triangular double-sided teeth, or with parallel sharpening. The disadvantage of the tool is that when pressed during operation, the blade is able to deviate from a given direction.

How should a hacksaw blade be?

The main part of the tool is a hacksaw blade. The first thing you should pay attention to when choosing a product is the length of the canvas. The possibilities of its application largely depend on this parameter. At the same time, the longer the blade, the more spring it is, which also complicates the process, especially when working with hard types of wood, such as ash, maple or oak.

Long stroke allows less effort when sawing, since more teeth are cut in one stroke

For sawing small elements such as plinths, bars or narrow slats, you can do with a hacksaw with a blade length of 25-30 cm.When planning to use the tool for more serious construction work, choose a product with a blade of 45-50 cm.

When determining the length of the hacksaw blade, be guided by the rule that the length of the saw is 2 times the diameter of the processed elements. If you do not follow this recommendation, you will only complicate your work. The teeth of a short hacksaw will jam inside the wood, and each will have to make a lot of effort to advance the tool to free the sawdust. Uncomfortable work will cause premature fatigue.

Traditionally, the width of the fabric of the product varies in the range of 10-20 cm. Models with a narrower fabric are not allowed for technical reasons, since they fail at the slightest bend. But it should be borne in mind that too wide canvases are inconvenient for manual work.

Of no less importance is the material for making the cloth, which is most often the role of alloy steel, as well as its degree of hardening

Tool alloy steel with a high silicon and carbon content is used for hacksaws:

  • 65G, 60 C2A;
  • 8 HF, 9 HF, 9 XC;
  • U7, U7A, U8, U8A, U8G, U8GA, U9A, U10

Metal hardening is carried out due to the action of an alternating magnetic field on it, in which an electric current of high frequency appears. Spreading over the surface, it heats up the surface layer of the metal, which is quenched after cooling.

The standard parameter is considered to be a metal hardness of 45 HRC, but it is still preferable to choose products, the hardness of which is 55-60 HRC. A hacksaw with a blade of high hardness will have sufficient flexibility, but at the same time high tooth resistance. On visual inspection, such a tool can be identified by the darkish shade of sharpened teeth.

How to choose the right hacksaw: looking for the best hand saw for wood

How To Sharpen A Saw On Wood

In the arsenal of the home craftsman there is always a functional and easy-to-use circular electric saw. But there are situations when you need to saw off a part and perform a small amount of woodwork, and there is no time or desire to unfold and connect the unit. In these cases, a hacksaw is excellent. But we will consider in more detail how to choose a hand saw for wood, so that it is convenient to use and easily “gnaws” any wood species.

Option # 2. Regular

A standard hand saw can be equipped with any type of teeth and is often equipped with replaceable blades of various types and designs.

To be able to saw off workpieces at a certain angle using a standard hand saw, you have to purchase special miter boxes

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But despite the declared versatility of their use, it is not advisable to use saws of this type in the manufacture of furniture.

Option # 1. Narrow

The small, narrow saw is a structure that consists of a straight flat blade and a handle. She performs delicate work: through cuts, cut out curved parts.

This type of tool is designed for sawing wood blanks, the thickness of which does not exceed 8-10 cm, sawing small branches and small gardening

In the manufacture of narrow models, manufacturers install blades with triangular double-sided teeth, or with parallel sharpening. The disadvantage of the tool is that when pressed during operation, the blade is able to deviate from a given direction.

Types of hand saws for wood

Both narrow and conventional saw blades tend to bend as the material is hardened. In these cases, it is effective to use canvases equipped with a backing, which acts as a kind of stiffening rib.

Hand saws equipped with a backing are designed to create shallow cuts in a wooden surface of any thickness

The backing prevents the saw from making a cut deeper than the width of the blade, since it prevents the blade from going further into the tree.

Parameters of teeth on the blade

The determining indicator of the productivity of the tool and the accuracy of cutting wood is the size of the teeth.

The teeth of a hacksaw for woodworking have a double function: they cut the wood and at the same time remove the sawdust

Cutting accuracy is determined by the TPI, the number of teeth per inch.

There is an inverse relationship between these technical parameters:

  • Blades with large teeth set a high speed of work, but the saw cut is rough and sloppy;
  • Fine-toothed hacksaws guarantee a clean and precise cut, but at a relatively low speed.

When determining the required size of the teeth, one should be guided by the type of material being processed. For example, for work with chipboards, where high cutting accuracy is required, choose a tool with a high TPI 7-9, and for sawing logs and work in the garden, where the cleanliness of the cut is not so important. TPI 3-6.

When choosing the optimal hacksaw option, be guided by the rule that the minimum log thickness should in any case be greater than the pitch of three teeth

If we compare a hardened and an ordinary tooth, then the difference is that in the first version, subject to domestic use, the product does not dull for a long time. But a hacksaw with a hardened tooth cannot be re-sharpened. When it starts to cut badly, you just have to throw it away.

A regular tooth lends itself to sharpening. It can be periodically performed using a special file marked with an accident (for sharpening saws). To sharpen the blade, it is enough to perform several movements on each tooth.

Depending on the type of teeth used, there are three types of hacksaws:

  1. For rip sawing. The products are equipped with teeth in the form of an oblique triangle and look like hooks. The tool allows you to cut wood along the grain. Such saws are sharpened on both sides of the tooth, due to which they are able to cut both when going forward and in the opposite direction.
  2. For cross cutting. The tool teeth are made in the form of isosceles triangles. This design makes it easy to cut the material both when the cutting edge is carried forward and backward. But this type of tooth is only suitable for working with dry pieces, not fresh wood.
  3. For mixed sawing. The products have a combined composition, in which triangular edges are combined with slightly elongated semicircular notches. This solution allows, when the hand moves forward, the semicircular teeth make a guiding cut, and when returning, it expands the channel in triangular shape, removing chips and sawdust from it.

Some types of modern tools are equipped with teeth that are trapezoidal. This solution allows you to make the blade more durable and wear-resistant.

But it should be borne in mind that sharpening such a blade is very problematic, since it is difficult for trapezoidal teeth to give the desired shape. This significantly reduces the service life of the product, after which it is necessary to change the blade or purchase a new tool.

For cutting fresh branches, it is more convenient to use blades equipped with triangular teeth, processed with parallel sharpening, in which each element is sharpened only on one side and in a staggered manner

Often on the market you can find a modernized type of hacksaws.

Upgraded hacksaws can be easily distinguished by groups of teeth located on the blade, between which the gaps are clearly visible

Upgraded hand saws are effective for cutting raw wood. Wet chips through the gaps between the teeth in the process of cutting easily come out of the cut without hindering the movement of the tool.

How to choose the right hacksaw: looking for the best hand saw for wood

In the arsenal of the home craftsman there is always a functional and easy-to-use circular electric saw. But there are situations when you need to saw off a part and perform a small amount of woodwork, and there is no time or desire to unfold and connect the unit. In these cases, a hacksaw is excellent. But we will consider in more detail how to choose a hand saw for wood, so that it is convenient to use and easily “gnaws” any wood species.

Purpose and device of the saw

The hand saw is used for sawing various wood materials. It is a blade with teeth at the bottom. On one side, the tool is equipped with a handle with which the master holds it during sawing work. The convenience and comfort of working with the saw depends on the quality of the handle.

The number of manufacturers of hacksaws for wood is quite large, but they all differ not only in names, but also in quality. All of them are intended for sawing wood, chipboard, logs, laminate and tree trunks. Hacksaws are subdivided into such types as: classic, circular, bow, as well as with a back and a reward. The thickness of the blade plays an important role when choosing a tool. After all, a thin blade can break during sawing wood, and it is quite difficult for a thick one to work.

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Saw set

Sharpening a hacksaw for wood begins with a procedure such as setting teeth. The setting of the hacksaw teeth is performed for such purposes as ensuring the free movement of the blade without jamming. The setting is the bending of the teeth in different directions, alternately, by one amount. This leads to the fact that the kerf width increases, which means that during the sawing process the chip removal process is accelerated.

The amount of tooth spread depends on the thickness of the blade, and is usually 1.5-2 mm. To bend the teeth by the same amount, you will need to use a special device. This device is a metal plate with a special slot. The blade is clamped in a vise so that the links protrude slightly. After that, the process of bending the teeth is carried out. Sharpened teeth must also be bent to the same distance.

Why and when to sharpen

The tool under consideration is subjected to various loads during operation, which leads to dulling of the teeth. If you cut with a saw that has dull teeth, the result will be much less effective than a sharp one. In addition, using a saw with blunted teeth is not recommended for the following reasons:

  • Decreased tool performance. Not only the powers of the master will be spent, but also his time.
  • Decreased accuracy of work. It is impossible to cut wood materials evenly with a blunt-toothed hacksaw, much less to do it neatly.
  • Danger of using the tool. In the course of work, the saw will get stuck, jammed, and come off the mowing line, so such work can be dangerous for the master.

A sharp hacksaw is not only easier to work with but also much safer. To determine that the time has come for sharpening the saw blade for wood, you should pay attention to the following factors:

  1. The canvas emits a characteristic dull sound. If the master often uses a hacksaw, then it will not be difficult for him to identify such a sound.
  2. The tips of the teeth are rounded.
  3. The saw refuses to perform its task when trying to cut wood.

These factors indicate that it is time to sharpen the hacksaw on wood with your own hands. But before you take up the file, you should determine whether these links are subject to sharpening.

How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood

To sharpen a hacksaw on wood, the blade should be fixed in a vice in the same way. Needle files or triangular files with a fine cut are used to sharpen the saw links. Not many people know how to properly sharpen a file on wood, so you should pay as much attention as possible to this process.

  1. Initially, you need to pick up a file. A file with a fine cut should be used, which should be held with one hand by the handle and the other by the tip of the tool.
  2. The sharpening angle is determined, which usually ranges from 15 to 30 degrees. The angle is usually determined by eye, but if it is difficult to do this, then you can use special home-made devices, for example, a wooden block. To do this, the bar is turned until it has the shape of a right-angled triangle with angles of 30 and 60 degrees.
  3. The most important thing when working with a file is pressure on it. To ensure uniform sharpening, the same number of file passes must be made over each tooth. With experience, you will learn to ensure that the top layer of metal is removed evenly.
  4. With the help of the prepared device, the sharpening angles are controlled. The process is carried out in a similar way on the reverse side of the web.

Now you know how to properly sharpen the teeth of a hacksaw blade for wood. But the process does not end there, as it will be necessary to align the teeth in height. If they have different heights, the uniformity of the cut will be disturbed. If there are links that are higher than the rest, then their shortening is performed using the same file. The check is carried out using a sheet of paper, to which the blade should be applied with the teeth down. After that, the sizes are compared, and the shortening procedure is repeated.

How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood yourself

For sawing building materials from wood, as well as trees, a tool such as a hand saw is used. Despite the fact that electric and even gasoline saws, jigsaws and circular saws have long been developed, a hand saw for wood remains an indispensable assistant in the arsenal of every master. With the active use of this tool, it becomes necessary to sharpen the teeth. How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood yourself at home, we will consider in the material.

How to sharpen a saw: practical guidelines

When carrying out work on sharpening a hacksaw, you should adhere to the following recommendations:

  1. The device is firmly fixed on the working surface in a vice.
  2. Providing good lighting for the workplace.
  3. To sharpen the links, files and needle files with various notches are used. The smaller the notch, the better. It all depends on the degree of dullness of the teeth.
  4. Metal removal is carried out only when the file moves away from itself in one direction.
  5. After the work is done, the quality must be checked. To do this, you need to look at each link in the light. If the tooth is shiny, then it is sharpened correctly, as shown below.

In conclusion, it should be noted that many craftsmen do not consider it necessary to sharpen a hacksaw. This is wrong, since the efficiency of the work depends on the quality of sharpening.