saw with my own hands from an electric motor
DIY cordless chain saw
Good day, dear friends of homemade products. In today’s article, we will take a closer look at how to make a useful summer cottage tool. Namely, consider how to make a chain saw. This homemade product will be a good home assistant for filing and cutting garden trees, it will also help you in preparing firewood. This homemade saw will be assembled from ready-made and available factory components, and the cost of our homemade saw will be lower than factory counterparts. The assembly itself will not be difficult, and therefore everyone can probably repeat it. It should be noted that this tool is intended for home use, and using it for professional purposes will not be entirely convenient.
You can find links to some components of the structure at the end of the article.
For this chain saw, you will need the following, namely:
– Collector motor (class 775) with gear
– A small plank (or a piece of thick plywood)
– Adapter for the motor gearbox shaft
– Screws, bolts, nuts and washers
– KIT set for converting an angle grinder into a saw
– Collector motor speed controller
– Battery 12v-22v
– Various PVC fittings
– Self-tapping screws
– Spray paint (optional)
Having made a blank for the base of the required size, we continue to work on it. Namely, it is necessary to drill a through hole in the center in the lower part for the motor shaft. This hole should fit the adapter from the KIT kit.
After that, the electric motor itself is needed. The author of the homemade product used the simplest collector electric motor with a gearbox installed. It is recommended to use a class 775 electric motor, such a motor will be more than sufficient, and even more so this is the format used in most power tools. Immediately on the shaft of the electric motor gearbox, it is necessary to install an adapter for mounting a star to implement a chain drive.
The selected electric motor must be installed on a wooden base, in this case, this very base will serve as the engine motor. We make holes for the engine mounting, then we install the engine itself and fix it with screws suitable for the length.
Having installed and secured the electric motor in its place, it is necessary on its shaft, or rather already on the adapter, a chain drive star (from the kit), in this star there is a special groove so that it does not rotate on the shaft, and accordingly it must be installed in the groove with adapter. Further, so that the star does not jump out, we tighten the special nut on the adapter, tightening it securely.
We proceed to installing the canvas on the base, as we see, the star is located at a distance from the base plane. Then it turns out that if we tightly screw the canvas to the base, it will not be possible to transfer the drive to the chain from the engine. Therefore, it is necessary to choose a spacer such that by screwing the canvas to it, it is parallel to the drive star installed on the engine. For this, the author picked up a bar (see photo).
In the bar, which will work for us as a spacer, it is necessary to make a couple of holes for attaching the canvas to it. To do this, we apply the blade to the bar with the part where the groove for the bolted connection is located at the blade. We outline this very groove with a marker. And we get a mark, inside which it is necessary to make a pair of through holes, so that we have the opportunity to adjust the chain tension after installing the blade.
After that, you need to make a couple of the same holes that you made in the bar. To do this, we apply our block to the place indicated in the photo, and draw up marks for making holes, so you can easily and accurately transfer the holes. We drill holes according to the marks left
The next step is to set the canvas in its place, collecting the sandwich. Namely, we take bolts that are suitable in length and diameter, put on metal washers on them, then push these bolts into the hole made in the base, then we put on a bar on the bolts, then the cloth and washers and then, after which we tighten the nuts. Do not tighten the blade too much yet, as further it will be necessary to adjust the chain tension.
Making an Electric Chainsaw Mill. Part 1. Making The Chainsaw
Now it is already necessary to install the cutting chain in its place. We install the chain on the canvas, putting it on the driven star (on the canvas) and on the leading one (on the electric motor shaft). We loosen the blade fastening nuts and tighten the chain so that it is not stretched like a string and at the same time does not sag, after which we finally tighten the fastening nuts.
Let’s move on to the electronic component of our homemade product. Namely, it is necessary to install a speed controller for our collector electric motor. The author used the simplest and most inexpensive regulator with a soldered potentiometer. First, we solder the wires from the regulator to the engine (so that in the end the engine crashes in the direction we need). Then we screw the regulator to the base using self-tapping screws.
Next, you should think about the nutrition of our homemade product. Of course, you can use a power supply, but in the wired version it will be very inconvenient to work in the garden and in the vegetable garden. Therefore, it is better to use a battery. There are a huge number of types of rechargeable batteries, and each type of battery has its own operating rule. Therefore, before buying a battery, I strongly recommend that you study the rules of operation. In our homemade product, I recommend using li-on 18650 batteries, if used correctly, they are very safe and, moreover, they are relatively inexpensive. The author used a Li-po battery (see photo)
We glue the battery itself to the base using double-sided tape, in such a place that the length of the wires of the connectors is sufficient for their contact. We connect the battery to the regulator and check the performance of the structure.
In principle, the homemade product is ready, but it will not be very easy to operate it in this form. Therefore, a handle should be made. The handle will be made of PVC fittings. We need a couple of corners of half a meter of pipe and a couple of plugs. There is nothing to comment on, the design of the handle is primitive, so just look at the step-by-step instructions below.
All is ready! It only remains to tint the instrument at will for aesthetics and start testing it. Thanks to the powerful engine, battery and gearbox, this homemade product is in no way inferior to similar factory counterparts. You can watch her tests below.
Here is a video of the author of the homemade product:
Well, thank you all for your attention and good luck in future projects, self-made!
Varieties of homemade chainsaw sawmills
A standard woodworking sawmill is a stationary type or mobile unit that can be moved from place to place. The use of an electric drive is advisable only when operating the equipment near premises equipped with electrical wiring. Electric motors are used for industrial installations connected to a 3-phase network. Reduced power of small equipment with motors rated for 220 V does not allow sawing large logs.
A home-made sawmill from a stationary-type chainsaw is with forced movement of the workpiece and machines with a movable working tool. When moving the workpiece, an increased cut quality is achieved due to the rigid fixation of the tool. But due to the complexity of the guide mechanism, the scheme is rarely used in home-made home-made sawmills.
The mobile unit is characterized by reduced frame dimensions and the use of removable elements. It is allowed to use the workpiece as a guiding element for installing a gasoline saw. The equipment is used when carrying out work in the logging area, as well as when sawing wood in parks or in personal plots. A portable circular sawmill allows you to dissolve boards into elements with a reduced width or thickness, cut the material into pieces of the required length.
Any mechanical installation for sawing or processing wood is a rather dangerous unit that requires compliance with safety regulations.
The working area of the sawmill is equipped with additional lamps; next to the installation, an area is provided for storing the obtained material. Do not pull cables or crossbars in the sawmill operator’s movement area. When using an electric motor to drive the units, it is necessary to install circuit breakers that interrupt the power supply in the event of a short circuit.
How to make a sawmill from a chainsaw with your own hands
Homemade chainsaw is an interesting topic for craftsmen and craftsmen. Using this gasoline-powered device, you can create a variety of units that are useful for home use and not only. The main thing is to have some skills and let your imagination fly.
Similarity, as they say, grandmother: what kind of sawmill do it yourself and in what cases it makes sense.
If you see a circle of clientele for sawing and / or see a stable income from the sale of sawn timber. belt on car wheels. It will last at least until there is enough money to buy a “new, good” factory. Then it will be possible to open the sawmill in all shape and work calmly legally. If sawing wood is an auxiliary activity for you, the Logosol sawmill will show itself better. it is less productive, but structurally simpler and cheaper, and a chainsaw will come in handy on the farm anyway.
The second case is a one-time sawing for unauthorized construction. The carriage described above will not significantly increase the cost and will not lengthen the construction, and instead of a sawmill, you can make a carriage for a chainsaw for sawing logs, see the video:
- log carriage
- chainsaw-based portable sawmill
- Purpose and principle of operation
- Sawmill from a chainsaw with your own hands
- The main chainsaw attachments that have gained popularity
- Making a circular saw from a hand-held circular saw
- The technique of dissolving logs onto boards with a homemade sawmill
- Chainsaw cards with your own hand
- How to make a sawmill from a chainsaw
- Requirements for sawmill installation and woodworking
- Do-it-yourself sawmill operation
- Varieties of homemade chainsaw sawmills
- Band sawmill
How to make a sawmill from a chainsaw
Another type of sawmill that you can assemble with your own hands is a sawmill from a chainsaw or a tire sawmill.
To make a mini sawmill from a chainsaw, you need two eight-meter channels, the height of which can vary from 140 mm to 180 mm. They will be the basis of the design.
In addition, you will need:
- corners, measuring 50 by 100 mm;
- 2 rails;
- screeds (the number depends on the holes);
- bolts and studs.
The rails must be turned up with the sole.
Along the entire length of the base, at a distance of about 1. 1.5 meters from each other, it is necessary to drill holes, their diameter should be at least 14 mm, but not more than 16 mm.
Ties are inserted into them, the length of which is 25 centimeters. They can be cut from the remnants of a 3 by 4 pipe intended for a water supply.
From pre-prepared squares of metal, racks are cooked onto which the prepared base is attached.
Without them, not a single tire chain sawmill from a chainsaw simply exists. It should be noted that all elements of the basis of the future sawmill must be strictly straight.
No corner construction is provided. Welded braces will give it additional rigidity, it will stand confidently and firmly.
A movable trolley is installed on the created structure. It will be based on a steel plate, the length of which is 600 mm, and the thickness is 4-6 cm.
A corner, 40×40 mm in size, must be welded to it from below, after which all this must be installed on bearings or rollers.
At the top, two of the same corners are attached, and now the chainsaw itself is attached to them, for example, “Ural”, which will work like a mini chain tire sawmill.
So that the logs do not move freely during operation, it is necessary to make a clamp for them, which will fix the material to be processed in one position.
This structure can be made from pipes and movable hoses. If it is supposed to work with very heavy logs, then they put slopes and thus facilitate the work.
It is best to use the simple method of vertically installing any type of jacks around the edges of the frame, which can provide extremely rigid fixation.
Sawmill from a chainsaw with your own hands
The modern market is filled with advanced tools from hand to stationary, which allow you to process wood, cutting out the desired elements with millimeter precision. An example of such a tool is a sawmill, which allows you to smoothly saw a log into workpieces. The disadvantage of a sawmill is its high cost, so a small business owner and a private trader simply cannot buy such a tool.
The ideal solution to the problem is to use a home-made version based on a chainsaw, which is much cheaper in terms of cost, and is not inferior in functionality to the factory design. This homemade product cannot be used on an industrial scale in sawmills, but it is perfect for domestic use.
The main chainsaw attachments that have gained popularity
If you purchase special attachments for the instrument, then it will be extremely easy to install them, for this you do not need to alter or disassemble the instrument body. All ready-made devices are designed specifically for installation on a chainsaw. Another important advantage of purchasing a chainsaw is its autonomy. This is due to the fact that all electrical devices require a 220 V outlet. Using a chainsaw, it will be possible to use homemade products in the field, be it a drill, ice screw or cororder.
The do-it-yourself angle grinder attachment to the chainsaw allows you to operate the equipment not only as a gas cutter, but also as an angle grinder. The nozzle is connected to the device by means of a special pin, and starts to rotate with the help of a belt from a pulley attached to the shaft of the drive sprocket. Thus, the fixture is installed in place of the guide bar. It is important to choose the right diameter of the nozzle circle, for this you need to first study the instructions for the “Friendship” chainsaw or other technique used to make a useful device.
Important! Experts warn that not in all models it is possible to install an adapter to fit the plinths.
Coroder is one of the most popular chainsaw attachments
Another common attachment among users is the cororder, which is used to cut bark from trees. Also, the nozzle is popular with carpenters, because with its help it is easy to clean untreated wood from bark, knots and growths. Some people use a nozzle to create longitudinal or transverse grooves in the timber. Basically, there are two types of cororders:
- Drum. The main area of application is the removal of the bark, the second name is the barker.
- Disk. Used to create all kinds of grooves.
There are several nozzles on sale that differ in grip width, more often they are 80 and 100 mm. In case of dullness of knives, there is a possibility of secondary sharpening. If the knives are completely out of order, it is better to purchase a new set from the manufacturer. The nozzle itself is a cutter or drum mounted in a bearing assembly. The actuation is carried out by a belt drive, and the rotation speed is regulated by the force of pressing the accelerator handle. The diameter of the pulley also affects the speed: the larger it is, the higher the speed. Studs for installing the nozzle are included.
Do-it-yourself sawmill operation
When you have finished your work on making a sawmill from a chainsaw, you should definitely check it in terms of stability.
Then you should work with the tree in test mode. We fix the log to the base and squeeze it with a vice. Additionally, markings can be placed in runners and on the sawmill. For marking, you can use tape measure or thin metal strips.
Gently wind the sawmill and very slowly move it towards the log to make a test cut. When working, do not forget to put on personal protective equipment so that your face and hands are reliably protected:
- mittens for hand protection;
Before a test run of the mechanism, be sure to check how well the log is attached, also check the structure for serviceability and the presence of fuel in it.
At the same time, the chainsaw itself must be tightly fastened, and its tire must have a central position in relation to the saw cut.
We fix the saw and slowly lead the frame to the tree, and then we start the chainsaw itself and slowly push the frame. Do not make sudden movements to prevent the tires from stopping in the kerf and remember to use the movable frame protector. Such protection can be acrylic or transparent plastic.
The third option is that you have the opportunity to cut scaffolding on the road. Then, in addition to a portable carriage with accessories, you will need a more reliable and durable portable tire mini-sawmill from a chainsaw, see the video at last:
Chainsaw cards with your own hand
The kart is a small car that has no suspension and is able to quickly develop a decent speed. Such a car without a body consists of the following main components:
- Steering system.
- Brake system.
Homemade maps often use a chainsaw engine. Before assembling the map, the engine must be prepared (remove all unnecessary parts: tanks, chains, etc.). Chainsaw sprocket teeth grind down, giving the sprocket the desired size. This is followed by the installation of the engine mount.
Do-it-yourself karting with a chainsaw and other materials is relatively cheap and fun. Although the process of assembling the map is quite complicated and requires certain skills.
You can also build a buggy from a chainsaw.
the saw does not turn on
If, when the start button is pressed, the unit does not turn on, then the diagnostics are carried out in the following order.
- Check the voltage at the outlet. It may not be due to a general disconnection or a malfunction of the outlet. Try switching the unit to a different location.
- If there is voltage in the outlet, then it is worth checking the network cable. Remove the motor housing cover and ring each wire with a tester, touching one probe to the contact inside the unit, and the other to one of the rods of the electrical plug.
- If the wire is okay, then keep checking further. Use the tester to ring the wires leading to the start button for a break.
- Next, you should ring the contacts of the button at the input and at its output when the key is pressed.
- Then check the wires going to the engine of the unit. If there is a soft starter in their way, then check the circuit in and out of it.
If the previous steps did not allow you to identify the cause of the engine failure, then you should remove the brushes and check them. There are times when the engine does not start due to complete wear of one or both brushes, as well as due to the breakage of the conductors in them. If the brushes are in good working order, then most likely the engine has failed, namely, the stator or rotor windings have burned out. In this case, in order to ring the coils, you need to have some skills and knowledge in this area. It is better to take the saw motor to a specialist who will find the malfunction and rewind the coils.
Engine does not develop full power
First of all, you need to check the voltage in the network. It can sometimes decrease and lead to a drop in the power of the unit. Also, a drop in power is caused by a jammed gearbox or worn brushes. How to fix these problems, discussed above.
Causes similar symptoms and a faulty start button. If, when checking this part with a tester, a malfunction is found, then it will not be possible to repair it. The button must be replaced with a new one. But if the check of the above reasons did not give results, then it remains to suspect that the armature windings have burned out or an interturn short circuit has occurred in them.
The brushes and the collector are on
The appearance of strong sparking under the brushes can be caused by poor contact between the armature lamellas and the electrodes due to wear of the latter. To check this, you need to remove the parts from the brush holders.
It is considered that normal wear of brushes should be no more than 2/3 of their original length.
If the brushes are worn out, they must be replaced. Also, the brushes can spark due to the clogging of the gap between the armature lamellas with graphite dust. Since graphite is a conductor, it causes short circuits and sparks.
To remove dirt, it is necessary to clean the lamellas well with alcohol, cotton wool and a toothbrush. It is also recommended to polish them with the finest sandpaper (zero).
Dismantling the saw to fix breakages
To start troubleshooting yourself, it is recommended that you first learn how to disassemble the saw. Complete disassembly of the unit on the example of a Makita saw is as follows.
- Unfold the flag of the screw that secures the tire, and slightly loosen the fastening. Next, use the chain tension adjuster to loosen the saw chain.
- Completely unscrew the bus bar fixing screw and remove the cover.
- Remove the chain from the sprocket and disconnect the bar from the machine (including the chain).
- Now you need to unscrew the 2 screws that secure the engine from the sprocket side.
- Also remove a couple of screws from the other side of the unit. For convenience, you can remove the cover of the oil tank.
- When all the fasteners have been removed, you can disconnect the gearbox from the engine.
- The next step is to remove the drive sprocket. Since it is secured with a lock washer, it must be removed using a flathead screwdriver.
Under the plastic cover, as well as on the gears, you can see the accumulation of dust, sawdust and grease.
All parts of the gearbox must be cleaned of dirt.
Next, remove the oil pump plunger.
This completes the complete disassembly of the unit. The saw is assembled in reverse order.
No lubrication on the chain and bar
Lack of lubrication on the tire or its complete absence can be caused by a clogged hole or tube through which oil is supplied to the tire. Often the chain is not lubricated if the supply of lubricant from the reservoir is interrupted. This can happen if the filter at the end of the hose is clogged. The latter is always inside the container. To eliminate the malfunction, it is necessary to remove the hose from the oil tank and rinse the filter with gasoline.
A broken oil pump can also prevent oil from flowing to the saw chain. After cleaning the filter, hose and grease hole, turn on the saw and observe if grease is flowing to the tire, assuming there is sufficient oil in the reservoir. If the lubricant does not flow, it is necessary to remove and disassemble the oil pump, check the serviceability of the spring or its other parts (depending on the model of the unit) and, if necessary, replace it with a new one.
Chainsaw major malfunctions repair
The chain saw is an indispensable tool for owners of private houses and summer cottages. It can cut branches in the garden, cut trees, cut boards and other wood-based materials. But no matter how expensive and reliable this unit is, the moment will come when minor or major malfunctions appear in it. Of course, serious breakdowns should only be repaired at a service center. But minor chain saw repairs can most often be done with your own hands.
The device and principle of operation of the chain saw
The chain saw device differs from the chainsaw device only in the type of drive, namely in the presence of an electric motor instead of a gasoline engine. The unit consists of an electric motor housed in a plastic case, a grease tank, an oil pump, as well as a bar and a chain with cutting elements (teeth). How a chain saw works can be seen in the picture below.
saws can be both with a transverse engine (shown in the picture above) and longitudinal (see photo below).
In a saw with a transverse motor, the rotary motion from it to the drive sprocket is transmitted directly. In a device with a longitudinally located electric motor, this process is carried out through a gearbox.
The sprocket, installed in the same plane with the tire of the unit, rotates and pulls the chain. The latter, mounted on the tire of the unit, slides along it at high speed. Due to the presence of cutting elements on the chain, the wood is cut. Since the saw blade is wider than the bar, the tool does not jam in the material, and the sawing process is fast.
To reduce wear on the saw chain and bar, the saws have a lubrication system that supplies oil to the saw headset.
The lubrication system includes an oil tank with a volume of about 500 ml and an oil pump. The latter, during the operation of the saw, continuously supplies lubricant to the bar. Further, the lubricant is carried by the chain along the entire surface of the tire and falls on both the drive and guide sprockets.
Diagnostic and repair algorithm
When starting to repair a chain saw, it is necessary to carry out sequential diagnostics of all units of the unit to find out the cause of the breakdown. Repair of the unit is carried out based on the signs of malfunctions that were listed above. Below is a diagram of the saw, which shows in detail the internal structure of the unit.
How to make a sawmill with your own hands
The most common types of sawmills are angle, belt and chain saws, as well as devices assembled using a chainsaw.
The principle of the sawmill
You can explain how the sawmill works using the example of spools of thread. Such a device resembles the rotation of two coils with a thread stretched between them. It is she who acts as a saw, and the distance between the coils will be the optimal size of the log.
The do-it-yourself sawmill allows you to:
- adjust logs to the same shape and size;
- sawing logs according to a specific scheme after the equipment is configured;
- after sawing, small defects often form, which cannot be eliminated, so the tree has to be processed manually.
The work of the sawmill is carried out as follows: a log is fixed on the platform, which remains motionless, and at this time the mobile cart starts to move and cuts the tree. The saw must be in a horizontal position.
In order to get the boards of the required size as a result, the operator initially sets the required parameters. The saw band acts as a saw and must be well tensioned.
DIY crafts!!! Pendulum saw with your own hands!
Making a sawmill at home with your own hands
When it is necessary to process a large number of boards and wood, it is best to use a DIY sawmill. Many people believe that it is best to purchase a ready-made unit, but it will not be difficult to make it yourself. The main thing is to decide on what the volume of the upcoming work will be, as well as on the wood, after which it is necessary to choose the type of sawmill to successfully complete the task.
How to take apart Ryobi Table Saw
When assembling the unit with your own hands, special attention should be paid to safety issues, because such a device is considered an object of increased risk. The manufacture of various types of sawmills is presented below in the video.
Angle or circular sawmill
If there is a need for a radical sawing of boards, then it is best to use an angular or disc structure for this.
The angle sawmill has many functions and is used for large volumes of work. It is best to make such a structure with your own hands, because the finished equipment is very expensive. To assemble it, you should use the appropriate drawings, and before starting work, you need to purchase all the necessary components and components.
First, the frame is assembled from metal pipes and high strength guides. All joints are welded together. It is best to use rails as guides. Then the carriage is assembled. During assembly, special attention should be paid to the accuracy of all dimensions that are indicated in the drawing.
A high-power gasoline engine is installed in an angle or circular sawmill, which effectively affects the process of sawing wood. The engine is mounted on the structure frame and connected to the working elements through special holes. Most often, a chain transmission is installed on such sawmills, but in some cases this leads to overheating of the drive itself. During assembly of the actuator, due attention must be paid to safety measures and to exclude possible risks during its operation.
The principle of operation of such a homemade product resembles a band sawmill, with the only difference that it uses a chain saw. The design of such a device is much simpler and smaller, which means that it is much easier to make it yourself. The chain sawmill is installed on a level platform in such a way that it is convenient to approach it from any side.
The assembly of the chain device begins with the fact that the frame is made from a metal profile. After collecting the main part, they make several technological holes, while observing the utmost accuracy. The number of holes depends on the length of the stride. Then they begin to assemble the racks and install the bed on them, after which additional stiffeners are made. Thus, the basis of the chain structure is obtained.
In addition, it is necessary to assemble a movable cart for the sawmill with your own hands. To do this, prepare the base and attach the stop, gaskets, clamping plates and mounts for the electric motor to it.
Then the cart is mounted to the frame, the engine with the saw is fixed, the chain is pulled, and that’s it, the chain sawmill is ready with your own hands.
It is rather difficult to assemble a band-type sawmill with your own hands at home. This is explained by the fact that it is difficult to achieve the maximum coherence of all its constituent elements in the process of work. In addition, the necessary components and special tools will be required, but, most importantly, the necessary drawings are at hand. The finished structure should work with material weighing about three hundred kilograms. In addition, it is necessary to debug the adjustment of the rifling thickness and observe safety precautions.
Do-it-yourself sawmill assembly is carried out on a site of the required size, which should be prepared in advance. The device will need special wheels and band saws. Then, in accordance with the drawings, the frame of the future unit is assembled. The work on the frame begins with the manufacture of special rails. To do this, you can pick up a corner and set one of the sides up. Then the wheels are installed, observing the ultimate strength.
Between the two corners, set in parallel, sleepers are made from a profile pipe, which are designed to ensure their reliable fastening to each other. A fastener for logs is welded to this profile pipe, which can move freely in all directions. Then, according to the drawing, the cart is assembled and the wheels are attached to it.
At the end, the installation of an electric motor is carried out, connected through a special pulley with the working mechanism of the device.
Sawmill from a chainsaw
In a domestic environment, such a large sawmill is most often not required, so a mini-machine, which can also be made by hand, will be considered the best solution in this case. There are several types of mini sawmills, they are small in size and, if necessary, can be easily moved to another place. Such a device is made using a chainsaw, which acts as the main element.
To make a mini-sawmill from a chainsaw with your own hands, you will need:
- two channels;
The work begins with the assembly of the frame, on which it is necessary to drill several technological holes. Then screeds from a metal pipe are installed. They are fastened with fixing bolts in pre-drilled holes. During installation, it is imperative to control the angles between the elements: they must be straight.
To strengthen the frame, several stiffeners are mounted. Then, the movable cart is assembled from the steel plate. At the bottom of this plate, two corners are welded, after which it is placed on bearings or rollers. Two corners are welded to the top of the movable trolley, designed for fastening the chainsaw.
In conclusion, a special structure is installed for fastening the processed logs.
Sawmill do it yourself video.