The difference between a hammer drill and a hammer drill

The main differences between a hammer drill and a hammer drill

Rotary hammer and hammer drill are tools that can partially replace each other. Both are capable of punching holes, working with hard materials, and using impact in their work. For this reason, one often hears questions about how these tools differ in general. Throughout the article, we will analyze what an impact drill and perforator are, what are the features of their design.

When to choose an impact drill?

  • Rare use of tools for drilling small holes. If you need to drill something periodically, but not too often, there is no point in buying a rock drill. A drill is more than enough to hang a painting, drill through metal, etc. When storing the tool, the drill takes up less space than a hammer drill.
  • Working with wood and metal parts. the drill will handle these materials. Wood can drill any tool, and when working with steel or iron, a high-quality drill plays an important role.
  • Tightening and unscrewing fasteners. A drill is much more convenient to work with screws and self-tapping screws, even if it does not have an impact mode. If you use a hammer drill for this purpose, the percentage of rejects. damaged fasteners will increase, and the comfort during work will decrease.
  • Preferably work with relatively soft materials. If you do not need to drill often in concrete, stone or brick walls, then it is quite possible to do without a hammer drill.

How to Use a Drill/Driver, Impact Driver, & Hammer Drill and How They’re Different

difference, hammer, drill

What is a drill?

A drill is a handheld electric tool used to drill holes in materials or parts, and to tighten and unscrew fasteners. The principle of its operation is that the motor converts electrical energy into rotation, and then transfers it to the nozzle. If a drill acts as a nozzle, the drill can be used for drilling, if the bit is used for working with fasteners. Drills are widely used in many areas, including construction, repair work, manufacturing, assembly work, carpentry, etc. Electric drills are divided into two subcategories: impact drills and hammerless drills.

A hammer drill differs from a hammer drill in that it has an additional mode. hammer drilling. The impact is generated by the interaction of the ratchets with the shaft. This allows the drill to tackle hard materials such as stone, brick and concrete. She cannot completely replace the punch, since she lacks power and impact force.

The difference between a hammer drill and a hammer drill

The drill and hammer drill have different mechanisms of impact. The very design of these instruments suggests that they need to be handled differently when using the percussion mode:

  • In the case of an impact drill, the operator has to apply additional force, press on the tool. The stronger the impact on the drill, the faster the drilling takes place. But even with maximum effort, the impact force of the drill will be several times less than the lightest perforator.
  • When using a hammer drill, force only needs to be applied to hold the tool with confidence. On average, the pressure should not exceed 2-3 kg.

Impact function. basic for a hammer drill. But in a drill, even a percussion one, this is only additional functionality. On the other hand, this makes the drill a versatile and multifunctional tool.

The correct choice of tool should depend on what kind of work you are going to do. In short: a drill is suitable for minor repairs, carpentry, work with fasteners, and a hammer drill is suitable for constant work with concrete, stone and brick, dismantling and chipping walls.

What is a puncher?

A hammer drill is also an electric tool, which differs from a drill in the details of its design and the specifics of use. In addition to the rotation of the nozzle, it also gives it a reciprocating motion. To create this movement, a special unit is provided in the perforator: a swinging (drunk) bearing. for straight perforators, and a crank mechanism. for barrel drills. Both units convert rotary motion into reciprocating and interact with a piston that transmits a shock impulse to the nozzle.

Despite the fact that the hammer drill is similar to a drill, it is much more often used for dismantling work and, as a rule, is not used for working with fasteners. This is due to the greater impact force of the hammer drill, its heavy weight, and the lack of chiseling mode in the drill.

When is it worth choosing a puncher?

  • Working with hard materials. The hammer drill is much better at handling stone, concrete and brick. Its percussion mechanism generates an impact force sufficient to drill and destroy concrete, as well as large fragments of stone, showing itself many times more effective than a drill.
  • Drilling large holes. The hammer drill can work with large diameter bits, which is not the case with a drill. For example, if drills are rarely able to create holes in concrete with a diameter of more than 20 mm, then a hammer drill (when using a crown) can drill holes with a diameter of up to 120 mm.
  • Dismantling. One of the differences between a hammer drill and a drill is that it has an impact mode without drilling (chiselling). With its help, you can remove tiles, plaster from the walls, gouge walls, etc. The drill cannot cope with such tasks. it is not intended for them.

Impact drill or hammer drill. what to choose?

In this section, we decided to give examples of the effective use of a rotary hammer and impact drill to make it easier for you to choose a tool for yourself.

Impact mechanism structure

The main difference between both tools lies in the main function. If a hammer drill performs chiselling of surfaces, then with a drill the application is reduced to drilling. However, these are not the only differences, since it is necessary to understand the design features of both mechanisms.

You need to start with the striking mechanism. In a hammer drill, it is represented by a complex unit, which can be represented by two versions # 8211, electro-pneumatic and electromechanical. The most common is the first type, which allows you to provide the tool with good technical characteristics.

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Punch hammer mechanism diagram.

The principle of operation of the device is as follows. The rotation of the electric motor is converted into motion that causes the piston to reciprocate. The transformation of the movement of the electric motor is carried out due to the crank mechanism.

As a result of the action of compression, which is present in the area between the ram and the piston, the first element accelerates. With the help of a striker, the ram transfers energy to the working part, which can be represented by a drill, chisel, drill and other elements.

As for the impact drill, the principle of its operation looks simpler than in the previously described version. The mechanism is represented by two ratchets, each attached to its own section. One of them is to the body of the device, and the second is to the rotating chuck.

If the impact function is in the off position, then the ratchets are not in contact with each other, which occurs due to the presence of a stopper between them. The stopper is removed when the drill is switched to impact mode; as a result of pressing the device on the surface to be treated, contact occurs between the two elements. Axial reciprocating motion at the same time is transmitted to the drill and chuck.

Thus, these differences determine the significant difference between the two devices. In turn, this affects not only the scope of the impact drill and hammer drill, but also their technical characteristics.

Technical differences of rock drills

Perforators, in turn, have a wider profile of work. For the most part, they are designed to handle hard material for destruction, for which there is not enough rotational movement, i.e. this instrument has the ability to perform reciprocating percussion actions. This is necessary for the destruction of such durable materials as: concrete, stone, gypsum, brick, asphalt. Rock drills have similar principles of power transmission to a rotary organ as drills, but they need a lot of power to perform both rotary and percussion actions. It is possible to switch modes: rotary, percussion, shock-rotational. There is a speed regulator. Just like the drill has a chuck, but here it is possible to use various adapters, adapters for quick tool change: SDS-max, SDS-plus, and SDS-top, all of them have fixing grooves and latches for secure fastening.

This versatile tool can be fitted with a jaw chuck that will hold conventional drills. The main difference between a drill and a perforator lies in the internal organs.

Drill technical differences

First of all, a drill and a hammer drill have different technical purposes and principles of operation. Drill. lighter in weight and generally less bulky. The purpose of all such devices is to impart torque and impact moment to the drill along its axis. Drills are:

  • manual (these are rarely used in our time).
  • electrical (connected to a regular home network 220V 50Hz).
  • pneumatic (operating on the principle of gas pressure differences).
  • hydraulic (the force of rotation is given by the oil supplied under pressure from the hydraulic pump).

They are used mainly for drilling holes in various materials. Many drills have adjustable blade speed. In particular, they can make holes in wood, metal, plastic, glass, various composite artificial materials. It is possible to use various chucks (devices for transmitting rotational energy of fixing and holding the drill).

What is the difference between a hammer drill and a hammer drill

How the hammer drill differs from the hammer drill in structure and purpose

  • Impact mechanism structure
  • Performance and functionality
  • Tool holder
  • Some other points

Two hammer drills and a hammer drill are often used in construction work. They are considered similar, but at the same time they should be distinguished, since there are differences, and there are many of them. Therefore, you should decide what are the differences between Deri and a puncher, what are their features and principles of work.

How to choose a tool: how a drill differs from a hammer drill

  • Drill technical differences
  • Technical differences of rock drills
  • Impact Drill Features
  • Results of comparative characteristics

During the renovation of an apartment, you cannot do without rotary percussion tools. How does a drill differ from a perforator, what kind of work are these or those tools intended for, what is their reliability and how long does it work? These questions are asked by every self-respecting builder, repairman, installer and mechanic.

The right tool for work will allow you to quickly and efficiently do any job.

Impact drill features

Cordless drill diagram.

Recently, a large selection of impact drills has appeared on the construction tool market, they are similar in purpose to rotary hammers in almost everything, but there is still a difference in the internal elements of these devices. The first thing that pays attention to is the principle of transmission of striking force. In rock drills, energy is transferred from the rotor to the crank mechanism, which interacts with a reciprocating piston, which injects atmospheric pressure into the chamber, where the force is transmitted to the ram, the latter accelerates and through the hammer gives energy to the chisel, drill, crown, drill.

Unlike a hammer drill, in impact drills all these machinations occur in a simplified form, when the impact mode is turned on, the rotor of the electric motor rotates a ratchet (a gear with small tubercles on the perpendicular plane of rotation), which in turn interacts with a similar ratchet fixed to the body, thereby creating a reciprocating motion. When this mode is turned off, the ratchets move away from each other, and the drill continues to work as usual.


At the same power of the tools, the hole diameter that can be obtained with a hammer drill is approximately 1.5 times the diameter that can be obtained with a hammer drill. The difference increases even more if a crown is used for drilling.


The hammer drill is used only for drilling holes and works in two modes: drilling without impact and drilling with impact.

Working conditions

Impact mechanism

The rotary motion of the electric motor is converted by means of a crank mechanism or a special swinging spherical bearing into a reciprocating piston motion. Under the action of compression in the cavity between the piston and the ram, the latter accelerates and transfers its energy to the tool through the hammer. drill, chisel, drill, crown, etc. For more information about the punch device, see the article Punch device.

The impact mechanism of the drill is much simpler. It consists of two ratchets, one of which is connected to the drill body, the other. with rotating chuck. When the impact function is disabled, the ratchets do not contact each other due to the stopper located between them. When the drill is switched to the impact position, the stopper is removed and when the drill is pressed against the material, the ratchets begin to contact, slipping relative to each other. In this case, the chuck and the drill are given an axial reciprocating movement.

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The difference in the design of the percussion mechanisms determines a significant difference in the technical and operational characteristics of the hammer drill and the hammer drill.

What is the difference between a hammer drill and a hammer drill

Tool and fastening

The hammer drill tool used for drilling concrete walls is most often a winnowed drill bit.

In a hammer drill and a drill, drills and drills are mounted in cartridges, however, their design is very different for a hammer drill and a drill. For a quick tool change, the rock drills use the SDS-plus, SDS-max and SDS-top tool clamping system (depending on the shank diameter, for more information about hammer drill chucks, see the article Punch). Fixation in the chuck takes place by means of specially shaped grooves.

In a hammer drill, the tool has a certain degree of freedom in relation to the chuck in the axial direction, which makes it possible to reduce the load on the hammer during impacts.

In order to use a conventional drill in a hammer drill, you must either use a special adapter, or change the chuck to a cam chuck. In a number of models, thanks to a special fastening system, the change of chucks is quick and easy, while the chuck for a conventional drill must be included in the set of the hammer drill. When using an adapter, a design is obtained from two series-connected cartridges. SDS and three-cam. The disadvantage of this option is the lack of sufficient rigidity of the drill attachment and its runout during rotation.

Life time

Impact drill ratchets are heavily stressed and wear out very quickly. Strong, hard vibration adversely affects all the mechanisms of the drill, disabling them at an accelerated rate.

How does a hammer drill differ from a drill

A hammer drill is needed to drill a hole in a brick or concrete wall. Also for this purpose, you can use an impact drill, the work of which is arranged in such a way that the drill, crown or drill rotates and impacts in the axial direction at the same time.

But it’s worth noting that this is where the similarities end. The first and main difference between the hammer drill and the hammer drill is that the hammer drill is needed for chiselling, and the hammer drill is needed for drilling.

The difference between a hammer drill and a drill is that the hammer drill has an impact mechanism, which is a complex unit, the work of which is possible in an electromechanical and electro-pneumatic design. Often, an electro-pneumatic type of perforator is produced, since pneumatics allows to improve the operating parameters of the tool.

The drill contains a percussion mechanism that is simpler in structure. There are two ratchets here. The first ratchet connects to the body and the other connects to the rotating chuck. If you disable the hammer function, the ratchets stop contacting each other.

If you switch the drill from drilling mode to impact mode, the stopper is removed. During operation, the chuck and the drill move in the axial and translational directions at the same time.

Impact drills can only work in two modes: the first is drilling without impact, the second is drilling with impact. over, with a puncher, you can make niches and grooves in the wall, remove excess material from the surface.

In terms of productivity, the hammer drill is far behind the hammer drill. The latter has a sufficiently high impact energy. The impact energy of the drill is very small and depends on the pressing force of the tool against the material being processed. The impact force of the drill will be small, even if you press it strongly, since it has a small amplitude of drill movement in the axial direction.

Various tools and methods of fastening are used for the hammer drill and drill. Drills and drills are mounted in chucks for both representatives, but the design is very different. The rock drill has a clamping system for quick tool changes. These include SDS-plus, SDS-max and SDS-top. The instrument is fastened by means of special shaped kanafoks.

Today, hammer drill manufacturers equip the kit with special adapters and chucks for conventional drills.

How Impact, Hammer and Torque Drills work?

The difference between a hammer drill and a drill If you use an adapter, a structure is formed that does not firmly fasten the drill, and accordingly the runout during rotation will not pass properly.

The difference between a hammer drill and a drill also lies in the fact that work with a hammer drill is much easier. The clamping force for a hammer drill is 5 kg, for a drill. 10-15 kg.

Since the rock drill has less pressing force, there is less vibration on the hands. Thanks to the softening air cushion in the pneumatics, the firing pin and the piston do not collide with each other, which means that the hands will be less tired.

The hammer drill has a special safety clutch that protects the tool from breakage in some cases, for example, if the drill hits the reinforcement.

With a drill, the ratchets will work without a sparing mode, therefore, these parts wear out quickly. The cost of tools differs for the same power. The price of a hammer drill is twice the price of a drill.

Impact drill and hammer drill what is the difference

Outwardly, the main difference between a hammer drill and a hammer drill is in weight and dimensions. The modern impact drill has the same dimensions as the hammerless counterpart, and the hammer drill is heavier and larger.

Also, most drills have a pistol-like layout, with a horizontal motor. Among rock drills, a vertical engine design is also very common. This option allows you to shift down, closer to the hands of the worker, the center of gravity, thereby making it easier to work with a heavy tool.

Internally, a modern hammer drill and a hammer drill differ much more. An impact drill, to create not only rotational, but also reciprocating movements, is equipped with a unit consisting of a pair of toothed ratchets. In simple drilling mode, these two ratchets do not interact with each other in any way.

A hammer drill is a more complex device equipped with a complex percussion mechanism. Often separate shafts are used to drive the drill and generate jolts (as opposed to a hammer drill).

The shock movement is transmitted by means of an eccentric mechanism or a swinging (“drunk”) bearing to the piston, striking the striker (ram). The latter transfers the impact energy to the chuck with a drill or drill located. The torque is usually taken from a separate shaft.

Knowing how a rock drill and a hammer drill work, the difference between the two becomes clear. Due to its design features, the drill has a low impact impulse. When working with very hard materials, recoil significantly affects the ratchet teeth, leading to their heating and accelerated abrasion.

Rotary hammers have another drawback: their large dimensions make the work in the drilling mode more difficult, more energy is required from the worker. A drill, weighing 1.5-2 kg, is much more convenient to hold than a 4-5 kg ​​perforator. And this tool consumes more electricity (per unit of time).

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Even knowing the pros and cons, it is quite difficult to decide which is better. a hammer drill or an impact drill. In fact, the question itself in this form is incorrect and is a classic example of the “battle of an elephant with a whale”.

If there is a choice of the type of “hammer drill or hammer drill”. which to prefer. depends only on the specific conditions of use. As a bus is good for transporting people, and it is more convenient to transport rubble on a dump truck, so these tools are good for everyone in their business.

What is the difference between an impact drill and a non-impact drill

    Before proceeding to consider the differences between an impact drill and a hammer drill, consider the differences between an impact drill and a non-impact drill:
  • Scope of application. The hammer drill is more versatile, it can handle more materials.
  • Accuracy. An impact drill can handle more materials, but due to the presence of a push, its accuracy is lower. Therefore, when working with soft materials, switch to simple drilling mode.
  • Punch device

    The controls are located on the body of the instrument, as can be seen in the following

      The following main components are hidden in the plastic case:

  • electric motor;
  • safety clutch;
  • “Drunk” bearing;
  • flying piston;
  • cartridge.
  • The principle of operation of the perforator is to convert the rotation of the electric motor into the shock-rotational movement of the nozzles. The electric motor drives the rest of the hammer mechanism.

    The safety clutch ensures the safety of specialists during work. Drunken bearing drives the piston, creating an impact force, and the chuck secures the nozzles.

    Principle of operation

    In a hammer drill, the impact occurs due to the reciprocating movements of the first piston in the cylinder. Air is compressed between the pistons. The air energy drives the second piston-striker or hammer, which strikes another intermediate striker of a smaller diameter or striker, which strikes the butt of the drill. The return of the hammer is due to the rarefaction of air between the two pistons during the return stroke of the first piston. This principle of impact was most widespread even in jackhammers.

    Sds plus sds max difference

    Despite such a variety of convenient and practical SDS shanks, the following are common in construction: the SDS Plus holder and drill for simple household tasks and its “brother” SDS Max chuck and drill for heavy professional work.

    The unique technology of construction and fastening of drills in the tool makes them indispensable in our time: the SDS system has proven itself as a reliable innovation that extends the operating life of the working tool and allows you to maximize the functionality and power capabilities of the tool without loss.

    And the modern design of drills makes them convenient and practical for working with household and professional percussion tools. The SDS Plus concrete drill is used with small household rock drills: 2-4 kg, they are used in domestic and industrial conditions for drilling holes in hard materials up to 26 mm deep.

    The structure of the SDS shank is easy to remember: there are four grooves on the profile: 2 open and the same number of closing ones. Open ones serve as guides for entering the chuck (40 mm deep). Locking balls fit into the closed slots, fixing the drill in the tool.

    Drills are available in commonly used diameters. 6mm, 8mm, 10mm, 12mm.

    Breaking drill SDS Max. already visually different. The diameter of the SDS Max drill is twice that of SDS. from 20 mm, and is used as a working part of heavy rock drills in construction and when dismantling surfaces.

    Such drills are relevant when gouging walls, ceilings, concrete, foundations, asphalt and other hard surfaces.

    The design of the sds max is a little complicated: the length of the drill allows you to insert it into the hammer drill 90mm deep, and the fivefold number of grooves (of which 3 are open and guides, and 2 are closed and holding) ensures reliable holding and free movement of the drill.

    The SDS Max concrete drill requires special SDS Max rotary hammers.

      Models with special demand among professionals are produced by the following brands:
  • Hilti;
  • Bosch Professional;
  • DeWalt;
  • Sparky Professional.
  • Impact drill device

    In order to drill a hole not only in wood and metal, but also in brick and concrete, in addition to rotational movements, translational percussion is required. Impact is designed to crush the material, while drilling pulls the crumbs out and helps the drill dig into the material.

    That is, for efficient drilling of hard materials, it is necessary that rotational and impact movements occur simultaneously.

    Impact drills consist of several main components: a tool body, an electric motor, a gearbox, bearings, buttons for switching on and adjusting revolutions, a chuck.

    This impact system is called mechanical. And since the ratchets are subject to a lot of friction as they rotate, they gradually wear off. With the active use of the shock mode, this process will be accelerated many times over and, as a result, the shock function will come to naught.

    The main function of the hammer drill is still drilling, therefore the control mechanism of the hammer drill is provided with a speed regulator. This switch is essential for efficient handling of various materials and consumables.

    For example, for drilling a brick, the regulator is recommended to be set at a large number of revolutions, for drilling tiles, on the contrary, at a small number. The same analogy can be drawn using different attachments.

    Most manufacturers in parallel produce tools with two types of chucks. with key (cam) and keyless (keyless). Their main difference is that a special clamping wrench must be used to clamp the key chuck.

    Whereas, to clamp the keyless chuck, it is enough to tighten it by hand. Both systems have their own advantages and disadvantages. Keyless chuck will allow the operator to quickly change the working attachments, while the key chuck will allow you to fix these attachments much more reliably.

    Reverse is also a very important system for the efficient operation of the hammer drill. By switching this mode, the operator forces the tool to rotate the working attachments in the opposite direction. This function is essential when the working attachment is jammed in the material.

    In order not to damage the hole, pulling the drill out of it is enough to turn it in the opposite direction on the reverse. In addition, the reverse function is perfect for those cases when the operator will use the drill as a screwdriver. It will help not only to tighten the threaded fasteners, but also to unscrew them.