Vibrating plate for paving tiles with your own hands
The vibratory plate is a multifunctional construction tool that helps efficiently compact surfaces of fine and coarse soil, asphalt or sand. The vibratory plate is also indispensable for laying paving tiles and preparing the ground for foundations. The advantages of a compact vibratory plate in the home is its size, it allows you to perform work even in the most remote areas, the area of which makes it impossible to use an industrial roller for tamping pavement. Compact and handy to buy or rent. But if you plan to work with a vibratory plate often, the vibratory plate with your own hands. is ideal.
The principle of vibratory plates
For a better understanding of how the vibratory plate works, let’s take a look at its general design. This unit consists of 4 main parts:
The base of the machine is a solid plate at the bottom of the machine. The vibrator is in the center of the plate and the motor is on top. The engine communicates with the vibrator through a clutch and V-belt drive, which feeds the vibrator with rotary motion. Right in the vibrator these movements are converted into vibratory movements. From the vibrator the vibrations are transmitted to the slab and from the slab to the ground. Thanks to its mass and the vibration, the machine does the job of tamping down bulk materials of varying thicknesses and densities.
Vibratory plates with cast iron or steel bases and engines powered by electricity, gasoline or diesel fuel. Different models have different weight, vibration torque, motor power. All of these are discussed below.
Vibratory plates are used
The main areas of vibratory plates are construction and repair of varying degrees of complexity, paving paths and roads, construction of sports fields and much more. They are used both for industrial purposes and for private homes. The uniqueness of this mechanism is its relatively small size and ability to cope in those conditions, where a normal bulldozer can not perform its purpose. Paving a sidewalk or driveway in a private home, for example.
The vibratory plate tamped concrete, asphalt, sand, gravel and ordinary earth on the lawn. Such a machine is indispensable for laying roads and sidewalks. The vibratory plate works even in trenches and narrow pits. As this set of the mechanism allows it to move in reverse, it greatly simplifies the work in a small area, where there is a need for frequent turns or overcoming obstacles.
General characteristics of vibratory plates by weight
The plate weight is the most important factor when choosing the right model or when selecting parts for your own hand-made vibratory plate. This indicator defines 70 percent of the machine’s productivity and suitability for the job in hand. Vibratory plates are divided into four classes:
- Lightweight up to 75 kg;
- Universal with a mass of 75 to 90 kg;
- Medium-duty plates with a mass of 90 to 140 kg;
- Heavy Duty. weighing 140 kg or more.
The lightweight models are best suited to pavement work in private grounds, these models have a maximum ground cover of 15 cm. These models are also used for laying paving tiles and installing polyurethane sidewalk dampening mats.
The medium-sized models are used for partial repair of asphalt roadway, laying tiles on the sidewalk, repair of roadway after the replacement of the underlying communications. The maximum soil layer for these models is 25 cm.
The medium and heavy models are excellent for more demanding tasks, such as paving layers of pavement. This category vibratory machines are used for backfill of trenches and the perimeter of a low-rise house foundation. The maximum soil layer for these models is 60 cm. Limiting the weight of vibratory machines for asphalt paving to 100 kg.
Special attention must be paid to engine power when selecting the optimal weight of the vibrating machine. A weak motor on a heavy plate will not produce the expected performance. Such a mechanism will sink into a layer of soil and require additional effort from the person performing the work. This mismatch is especially acute for models in categories 3 and 4. When making or buying a vibratory plate, you should calculate this ratio. Example of a discrepancy between a 150-170 kg plate and a 5-6 liter motor.с. An example of an ideal ratio per 100 kg 5 liters.с.
General characteristics of vibratory plates according to other criteria
Additional data include:
These parameters determine the density of tamping, which in the end will give the mechanism, as well as the ease of operation and management. Now in more detail:
- Vibration force the level of the vibration power of the base of the machine. For dense soils and pavements this value is chosen as high as possible. Because weak shocks will not tamp the hard soil to the required density.
- the size of the working surface this indicator determines the pressure of the board on one unit of the processed surface. On a surface with a small area this index will be lower. This figure should not exceed a value of 0.3. The conclusion the smaller is the working surface, the higher is the efficiency of vibratory plate. Models with cast-iron base have the highest index, steel base has lower index.
- Vibratory plates are divided into electric, gasoline and diesel depending on fuel consumption. Vibratory gasoline plate is recognized by practitioners as the most convenient and in-demand. The engine for this mechanism has a lower price, if compared to a diesel, and such a machine works in all conditions. An electric vibratory plate has a lower price than a gasoline or diesel plate, but the power and performance are at the same level. The disadvantage is the need for access to the electrical grid. As for diesel engines, these mechanisms are the most expensive, but the fuel for them is cheaper than for models with a gasoline engine. The disadvantage of the diesel plate is the high noise level.
- Engine power determines the vibratory plate’s ability to work on sticky ground or gradients. The higher the power, the easier the machine can move on tough terrain. A powerful motor pulls the plate forward on its own and doesn’t require extra effort from the person making the ramming operation. At low power indicators, the plate is buried in the ground, especially problematic is the work on a slope. The exception is the models from the first weight class, in which the motor power and the weight of the stove are matched to each other.
Useful functional extras for the vibratory plate
In addition to the basic indicators, there are some additions to the mechanisms that make it easier to use the vibratory plate. One of these useful additions is the presence of wheels for transportation and folding handle. In operation and use, these features are useless, but when transporting the mechanism makes it much easier.
- One of the important extras without which it is difficult to perform asphalt compaction with a vibratory plate is the presence of a sprinkler system. Without this feature, the machine would stick to the asphalt and cause a lot of inconvenience.
- The addition of a belt and clutch cover to extend the life of your vibratory plate. It must completely cover these parts of the machine to protect them from the ground and parts of the rammed surface.
- Reversible vibratory plates machines with the ability to move in reverse. You don’t have to have a cover, but it makes the work a lot easier, especially when it comes to ramming in narrow or small areas like trenches, pits, small yards or narrow sidewalks.
Instruction: a vibratory plate do it yourself
One of the most important arguments for making a vibratory plate with your own hands is that it saves a lot of money. The most inexpensive, but reliable Chinese model will cost about 550 EUR, and the cost of self-made machine will not exceed the figure of 250 EUR. In addition, it is always nice to work with your head and hands to beautify your own home.
The process of independent design and manufacturing of a vibratory plate is quite simple, as this mechanism and by its own design is not very complicated.
- the engine is chosen at your discretion, for example, it can be a site vibrator IV-98E, running on 220 V, gasoline three-stroke version with one cylinder. preferred model. Honda;
- base for the platform sheet metal, thickness 8 mm and size 45×80;
- channel 2 pcs.;
- Soft elastic cushions, necessary to fix the handle on the vibratory plate. 2 pcs.;
- M10 bolts for the electric motor or M12 bolts for the gasoline one;
- 2 plastic wheels.;
- a piece of pipe;
- hollow tube about 1.2 m long.
After collecting all the necessary things, start the work, and the drawings of the vibratory plate do not need to do:
- motor operation. Remove the cover to be able to adjust the vibration force, this only applies to the electric motor.
- On the metal plate, a notch is made with an angle grinder. Distance from the edge 10 cm, depth of about 5 mm. The cuts are made in two pieces on both sides symmetrically.
- Bend the edges along the cuts with a hammer, bending angle 20-30o. This is done to prevent the machine from digging in during operation.
- The notches are welded and the position of the ends is secured. This work is not meaningless, because without the previously made notches to bend the metal to the desired angle will be very problematic.
- Fasten the vibrator to the slab using two channels. They are fitted so that the edges do not protrude beyond the line of the work surface. At this point, welding is again necessary. The channels are welded very well, the optimal position of the mowing line is across. Spacing 7-10 cm apart with respect to the center point of the plate and taking into account the position of the fixing holes on the engine.
- Fix the vibrator to the metal using M10 or M12 bolts. Measure the distance between the attachment holes of the motor, drill at the same distance holes on the channels, and attach the motor to the base with screws.
- Elastic cushions and a tube are needed to make the handle of the vibratory plate. The handle is attached to the base over these cushions, to dampen the vibrations as the machine operates. This is very important because if vibrations are not dampened, the plate will tear from the hands and the vibrations will have a negative effect on the joints of the upper limbs.
- To make it easier to transport the plate, a piece of pipe is welded to it, to which the wheels are attached. The weight of the finished machine is about 60 kg, so this measure will not be superfluous. Fix the wheels so that they can be easily mounted and dismounted.
Useful tips for operation: to dampen vibrations during work, wrap a rope around the handle and make a loop from it. During the performance of ramming works hold not by the handle itself, but by this hinge, so as not to feel the vibrations from the mechanism.
Rules of operation of a homemade vibratory plate with a gasoline engine
To extend the service life, vibratory plates with a gasoline engine require some rules for their use:
How to make a vibrating table with your own hands
Dimensions of the vibrating table for tiles
- it is reasonable to make the size of the table top 600×600 or to lengthen one or both sides. Making them already. it is impractical, t.к. the forms tend to move when vibrating and must be constantly “caught” or set smaller and placed strictly in the center. A table that is too narrow makes the vibratory table too unstable.
Note. The size of the vibrating table is also affected by the planned volume of production, the larger it is, the larger should be the size of the table top. Increased size of the table top places greater demands on the manufacturing material, frame stability and motor power.
- vibrating table height. Calculated based on the physiological parameters of the person who will work at the table. The comfortable height for an average person is 900-1000 mm.
Note. When deciding on the height of the table take into account how it will be set up. If the legs of the table will be digged and cemented, they need to be made longer. If you intend to keep the table mobile, this height will be sufficient.
Materials for making the table:
- material for the tabletop. Plywood or metal can be used as such. Plywood table top (14 mm) due to its light weight allows you to transfer more vibration from the vibration motor, besides the noise level is significantly reduced. But most users give preference to metal, steel sheet thickness of 5-10 mm, in view of its greater resource.
Table top for the vibrating table made of sheet steel
Note. The thinner sheet should be strengthened with a metal tube or angle, welding them around the perimeter and in the center.
Metal angle 50×50 mm(136 /m.п.). For edging worktops. This skirting will not allow the molded containers to move from the surface during the vibration;
edge stopper of the vibrating table made of angle
The frame design of the vibrating table for tiles
For your information. The cost of a spring with a diameter of 53 mm, height 113 mm. for scooter is 500
- bolts to install the springs on them. Or billets of pipe, 50-70 mm long and with a diameter exceeding the diameter of the springs by 5-10 mm, which will serve as a cup for the spring;
The place of attachment of cups for the vibrating table springs
Note. At the diameter of the cup significantly larger diameter of the spring will be uneven vibration and deterioration of the springs. And the table top will sway, not vibrate.
- bolts and washers (4 pcs). Designed to mount the motor;
- Electric cable with a sufficient cross section, socket, switch, circuit breaker;
Fixing the electric motor for the shake table
Electric motor for the vibrating table
How vibratory plates work
These construction machines are used for vibratory ramming of loose materials like sand, soil, etc.д. Vibratory plates are often used in construction work, to ram the soil for foundations, or to lay tiles.
Vibratory plates are smaller than large machines, making them suitable for difficult terrain. Some models of rammers are reversible. This feature permits their use even in narrow pits and trenches.
The vibratory plates work on a simple principle. The base of the plate is a solid platform. The vibrator is mounted on the plate and connected to the motor via a coupling and transmission.
When the motor is switched on, it starts to create rotational movements, which are then converted into oscillating movements with the help of the vibrator. In turn, the oscillating motion is transmitted to the plate and through it to the soil or other material for tamping. Under the action of the tool, the material is rammed, the particles fill all the voids. As a result, the surface is levelled, and the mound becomes very dense.
There are 3 main types of ramming machines, the main difference being the type of engine:
For work in private households and on small construction sites, the electric one is considered the best option. Of all types of vibratory rammers, this tool has the lowest price. Technical characteristics are generally not worse than those of more expensive tools.
The only drawback is the inability to work without a power source, and therefore the area of action depends greatly on the length of the cord.
Average in price is a tool with a gasoline engine. The diesel rammer has one important disadvantage: the high noise level during operation. At the same time, diesel fuel is cheaper than gasoline.
The vibratory plate is a construction tool used for tamping crushed stone, soil, sand, asphalt and various other bulk materials. Without using such units it is impossible to pour a foundation, make a garden path, level the surface for laying lawns and lawns. Today you can find various models with different parameters, operating principles and price.
The principle of operation of such equipment is extremely simple. On a heavy working platform the vibrator is installed, on which the engine is mounted. The drive is connected to the vibrator by a belt drive or coupling. During operation, the engine generates numerous rotational motions, which are transmitted to the vibrator and are converted into low-frequency vibrations. These impulses are transmitted to the heavy plate, which rams the materials.
Some versions are equipped with reversing drives at the front and rear, which allows to work in narrow pits and trenches with convenience. The working plate can be made of cast iron or steel, and the quality of the material and its dimensions will determine the characteristics. Preference should be given to units in which the working plate is made of thick steel. But when using cast-iron blanks, such plates can be covered with cracks, quickly fail, resulting in an expensive repair.
Vibratory plates are divided into several categories depending on the motor used:
For small amounts of work, an electric vibratory plate that combines affordability, power, and versatility of use would be an excellent option. But modifications equipped with diesel and gasoline engines are designed primarily for professional use, with mobility, increased power and functionality.
Depending on its mass, such equipment is commonly divided into the following categories:
Each piece of equipment is designed to perform certain works. For example, lightweight vibratory plates are used for compacting paving slabs and landscaping. Universal models perfectly cope with vibrotrampivka sand, gravel, with such equipment you can tamp the sand, perform patching of asphalt and various kinds of landscape works. Heavy equipment can be used for compacting and laying roadbeds in layers, vibroplating trenches and preparing the site for laying foundations.
The equipment presented in specialized stores is characterized by reliability and versatility in use. The disadvantage of such equipment is its high and more, what to say about professional equipment, which is estimated at 100-200 thousand. That is why many homeowners who need to perform various kinds of construction work, lay walkways and level the base for the lawn, independently construct vibratory plates with a gasoline engine.
Despite the apparent complexity of such equipment, it is quite feasible to make it yourself.
Manufacturing technology of a vibrating table
Before you make a vibrating table from rolled steel, you should consider the following nuances:
- the best option for the connection of structural elements are rivets, long time withstanding vibration loads without destruction;
- in practice, in 99% of cases they use welding, so the vibrating table is installed on the bed through damping springs;
- height is selected individually taking into account master’s build, electric drive maintenance and FEM elements manufacturing technology used;
- the vibrator is always mounted to the upper plate with clamps or to the welded platform from below.
VIBRATING TABLE. I make a with my own hands
The most economical and rational solution for the home handyman will be the following option:
- prefabricated design of the vibrating table, necessary for manufacturing garden curbs, gutter trays and shaped paving elements in the required quantity for the site;
- After paving walkways and parking lots with paving tiles, the vibrator is moved to a vibratory plate for finishing leveling and compaction of the cladding;
- the vibration table turns into a circular machine table top.
For the given conditions it is best to use the table dimensions of 0,4 m x 0,8 m or 0,6 m x 0,8 m for better stability. The pure height of the base is 0.8 m, with a spring-loaded platform of about 0.9 m, which is comfortable for a user’s height in a wide range of 150. 185 cm.
An angle grinder with metal tooling and a welding machine will be required. To manufacture the frame you can choose any drawing of the shake table or take any size. The construction is constructed according to the methodology:
Instead of the angle bar you can use any section, for example the legs of a round tube becomes a ready-made guide for the spring of a suitable diameter, as in the bottom photo.
Tubular racks are convenient for placing springs.
For the specified conditions of the universal machine will have a base construction:
- Supports. bottom 5 x 5 cm of sheet metal 1.5 mm (you can weld nuts for height adjustment), legs of the tube 4 x 4 cm with a wall of 1.5 mm;
- crossbars. the lower 2 x 2 cm and the upper 2 x 4 cm with the same wall thickness of 1.5 mm;
- for a removable platform, M14 x 40 bolts are welded on the corners;
- electrics (socket switch) is placed on the plate welded to the uprights.
At these sizes brackets and stiffeners are not needed, taking into account the small operating loads.
The main condition to ensure repairability and mobility of the equipment is a removable cover-platform vibro table for paving slabs and kerbstones. It can be made of different materials:
steel sheet of 2.5 mm thickness is expensive, but ensures the maximum service life of the construction;
To fix the vibration motor in the center of the platform from below, you can use the following methods:
Strengthening the frame of the table top with a corner in the middle, welding to it a plate on which the electric drive will stand;
Vibrating table with eccentric shaft. This design allows the bearings of the electric motor to last longer.
Springs can be inserted not only into the cups of larger diameter, but also put on pieces of smaller pipes. The length of these guides should be less than 1/3 of the size of the spring, both on the bed and on the table.
Less often, instead of springs, rope, harness or belt loops are used, on which the top platform is suspended. However, these options damping less reliable, increase the material intensity of construction, as to the table top will have to weld rails in the corners.
For our case of combination table we should apply the construction:
- tubular frame. 2 x 2 cm and 2 x 4 cm;
- table top. 3 mm sheet of 0,4 x 0,8 m or 0,6 x 0,8 m;
- guides. the springs are put on the nuts M12, and welded;
- motor platform. 2 channels 4 x 8 cm across the frame.
Important! The vibrator is unfolded along the long side and the holes for the motor are drilled in the Bars.
The length of the channel must be slightly longer than the width of the vibrator feet in order to allow the bolt connections to be repairable and access to the motor unbalance (within 4 cm).
It is impossible to produce a vibration table for the production of paving slabs without the main unit, providing the oscillation of the upper platform. To do so, it is possible to buy a premade vibrator or to construct an eccentric assembly from any existing electric motor of suitable capacity and size.
Given the fact that the vibrating table at the end of the work will be upgraded to a circular saw, the best option of the drive becomes the factory “Vibrator EV-98E square” on 220 V. It has an amplitude adjustment, so the forcing force can be set within a comfortable range of 1 mm. (See the instructions for this motor here)
The vibration motor is prefabricated.
The main difficulty lies in the adjustment of the electric drive:
- the disturbing force is calculated according to the formula F = 3 (M1 0.3M2)/100, where M1 and M2 are the masses of the machine and the concrete, respectively;
- for the conditions considered, the disturbing force is approximately equal to 1.84 kN for forms with 6.5 kg of concrete and a table weight of 55 kg, while the vibrator produces 5.6 kN minimum, i.e. a 4 mm amplitude;
To reduce this force to an acceptable 0.5. 1 mm, you need to perform the actions:
- the unbalance blades are moved apart to the maximum distance;
- a metal strip 2 x 6 cm is attached to one pancake (rigidly fixed to the shaft);
- the second oval hole is enlarged with a file to reduce the amplitude within 1 mm;
- the amplitude of the platform is measured with a pencil taped to it, the sharpened lead of which draws a curve at the moment the drive is activated on a sheet of paper.
Approximate settings for the given weight of the platform and concrete mix forms should start with a hole distance of 38.5 mm between the unbalance pins.
The primitive example of vibration drive is a piece of armature (bolt, drill) bent in a vice, clamped into an electric drill. When you turn on the clamped tool and adjust the speeds, the curved edge introduces unbalance, creating vibrations.
The specified version is not suitable for long-term operation, because the drill bearings break, friction parts wear out, the motor winding burns. When using a used electric motor, a scheme similar to the factory vibrators is usually used:
Tip! Made according to the above instructions his vibrating table should be grounded, before the extension cord for power equipment mounted RCD.
Design and operation features of the vibration table
diagram of vibrating table for paving slabs drawing of vibrating table drawing of vibrating table for paving slabs schematic diagram of vibrating table design vibrating table
You can make a homemade machine for paving stones, t.к. The construction is simple enough, represented by a combination of several assemblies. The circuit consists of the following elements: 1. A support or a frame, which is a supporting element of the construction. 2. The vibrating pad, designed for spreading the mortar. 3. Connector for electrical power. 4. The switch of the device. 5. Rubber mounts. 6. The electromechanical component.
On the Internet you can find a drawing, according to which the construction is assembled. The principle of operation of the device is characterized by the following features: 1. The working part of the design is attached to the bed, which is often made of profiles. 2. The upper part is fixed by means of special springs. 3. A motor is required to generate the movement. It is important to calculate the required power. 4. An eccentric is placed on the shaft, and its center of gravity is shifted to provide vibration.
For the correct construction, you need to know the principle of its operation. When selecting suitable materials, care must be taken to ensure that they can withstand the effects of high humidity for the duration of use.
Algorithm of assembling a vibrating rail
For the implementation of the simplest options drawings are not needed. The w ire b ris tle will fit as a drive unit:
This power tool does not even need to be disassembled. The homemade machine will take very little time to assemble.
You will also need the following tools and materials:
- A flat, sanded board with a length of 0.5 m, a thickness of about 3 cm and a width of 25 cm;
- self-tapping screws;
- 5 x 5 cm long bar 1-1.5 (2 pcs) to make the handle.
Vibrating rail from an electric drill in the form of a mop is assembled in this sequence:
- The surface of the board (if it is not sanded) is made smooth with a planer and sandpaper;
- To it from the top exactly in the center, using peolent and self-tapping screws, fix the laid along the electric drill;
- on both sides of the drill, a few centimeters apart, attach handles at an angle, having previously trimmed the ends of the bars obliquely;
- Fix an attachment, the center of gravity of which is offset in the chuck of the power tool, such as a clamp wrench, a bent drill or a piece of rebar;
- plug the unit in and check its performance.
The drill chuck should rotate around the axis, which coincides with the central longitudinal line of the board. Vibration occurs due to the use of an implement with an offset center of gravity.
Vibrating rail from the grinder, angle grinder or an electric screwdriver is made in a similar way. Only after the concrete has been compacted and leveled will the power tool need to be well cleaned of mortar, so that it can be used in the future.
If you want to compact and level out the concrete layer up to 10 cm, the vibrating screed from the deep vibrator is suitable. It is made as follows:
- Cut out of plywood sheet of rectangular shape (with a length of the sides about 70×50 cm);
- a mace is attached to the machine by means of tape or clamps, and the internal vibrator itself serves as a sort of a handle.
To make the rail move freely, the working surface of the plywood rectangle is better to be trimmed with tin, bent at the edges.
In the considered options, to fix the power tool to the base, you can also use other fasteners. This opens up a lot of room for engineering creativity.
Assembling an electric vibratory plate 220V with your own hands
Home masters perform construction work as economically as possible. In this case it helps to have a preassembled homemade tool. Accessories for it are usually selected from improvised materials. Recently assembled vibratory plate with its own hands with an electric motor is in demand. It is used for laying paving tiles, compacting shallow soil, in the process of foundation laying.
Rules of tamping with a vibratory plate
Each construction material has its own properties and characteristics, which must be taken into account when choosing the mass of the vibratory plate. Depending on the weight vibratory plates can be:
- Light equipment with weight up to 75 kg suitable for compacting soil and loose components with layer up to 15 cm. Used for laying various kinds of paving tiles, in the preparation of garden areas, paths.
- Universal models with a weight of 75-90 kg are used for loose material with a layer not exceeding 25 cm. This type of equipment is in demand for partial road repairs and asphalt paving.
- Medium-heavy equipment with a weight of 90 to 140 kg is used on sites where the material layer is up to 60 cm. Such equipment is used for compacting backfill of pits and trenches, in the construction of road embankments.
- Heavy vibration equipment with a weight over 140 kg. The technique is used for the same work as the equipment of medium weight.
When working with a vibratory plate, you need to adhere to a few simple rules:
- The work should be carried out systematically and consistently.
- If the technology requires the cushion to be multi-layered, each layer is compacted separately.
- Never leave any part of the plate uncovered.
- The quality of construction materials must be checked, no deviations from GOST are allowed.
- The site must be flat, height differences are allowed not more than 2 cm.
- It is always necessary to monitor the compliance of the vibratory plates capabilities and the thickness of the layer to be treated.
- The number of passes of the plate depends on the specific conditions, optimally from 4 to 6 times.
Vibratory plate speed: The higher the frequency, the more convenient it is for working on fine-grained soils. So, for example, to compact detritus or gravel with the size of individual stones up to 10 mm (or less) is well suited equipment with 6 000 rpm. If the stone is 6 cm in size, a compactor with 3,000 rpm is the right choice.