What is the best oil for 4-stroke motor-block?
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Variants and types of oil for air-cooled four-stroke engine
Many motorists and owners of agricultural machinery consider the choice of oil used in air-cooled four-stroke engines. This question refers directly to those who own light gardening equipment, motorboats, motorcycles, etc.
What are the features of this unit, why does it need a special oil, and what are the consequences of the wrong choice, which can be very negative. This and many other things will be discussed in this article.
According to the chemical composition there are mineral, synthetic and semi-synthetic motor oils:
- Mineral-based oils are cheaper; they are produced by distillation from fuel oil. Well-proven, but with frosty weather the viscosity increases;
- Synthetic-based is produced by molecular synthesis, their composition is resistant to temperature fluctuations;
- Semi-synthetic base is obtained by mixing in different proportions mineral and synthetic base. This composition of the mixture shows more stable characteristics.
Use the following types of oil as advised by the manufacturers:
- Use in winter, at sub-zero temperatures. SA ;
- The machine is operated at medium power. S. B. Characterized by weak oxidation with good lubricating properties, anti-corrosion protection;
- Engine not equipped with PCV. S. C. Reduces deposit formation over a wide temperature range as well as engine wear and corrosion;
- Engine with PCV. SD equipment, which has better characteristic qualities than the previous one.
Meanings of the letters and numbers in the oil labeling:
- ASEA. The highest number indicates that the features increase capability at higher loads;
- W. The smaller the number before the letter, e.g. 0W, it means it is well adapted to low temperature conditions;
- API. Tells which engine, t. е. gasoline or diesel. Gasoline oil is prefixed with S, and diesel oil is prefixed with C;
- GOST 17479, 1-85.- Domestic;
- 4. used for a four-stroke engine and t. д. ;
- EC. energy efficiency, the higher the value, the higher the quality of the oil.
In the classification the numbers define the viscosity, and the letters. what group the oil belongs to and its properties. All-season ones are written with a fraction, with the winter one in the numerator and the summer one in the denominator.
How to choose engine oil for engines
The model range of “Neva” power tillers and power tillers is distinguished by a wide choice. One of the distinctive features is the variety of motors installed on the models. Mainly brand engines from well-known manufacturers (BriggsStratton, Yamaha, Honda) are used in “Neva” motorized machinery. However, the range also includes models with the Chinese engine KASEI. The choice of this engine is due to the fact that its production is carried out at the same plant, which until 2017 produced popular in Russia engines SUBARU Series EX. In 2019, KASEI engines began to be produced under the brand name “MOTOTECHNIKA Neva. It should be noted that all the engines for “Neva” power tillers and power tillers meet high quality standards and have appropriate certificates.
Each motor for a power tiller has distinctive features that differentiate it from its counterparts. information on this can be found in the article “Engines for power tillers and power tillers Neva”.
Engine Owner’s Manuals list the characteristics of the engine oils suitable for them (API classification, viscosity index, oil type). This information is also presented in the table below.
Table of engine oils for engines
What kind of oil to use
A large number of different oils can be found on sale, which can be poured into the gearbox and motor. The basic classification is as follows:
- Summer grades are characterized by higher viscosity, designed for use in the summer period. High ambient temperatures cause the viscosity to increase, resulting in lower loads.
- Winter grades are used in winter, have low viscosity. Negative ambient temperatures are the reason why oil viscosity increases. Manufacturers take this into account and make the substance less viscous.
- All-season versions are considered the most popular. They can be used in all conditions of the cultivator, suitable for four-stroke engines and other variants.
Different bases may be used in the manufacture of the substance. According to this attribute are distinguished:
- Mineral. This option is much cheaper, but it does not cope well with the load.
- Synthetic. Such a substance is produced by applying modern technology. Therefore, it provides the required level of engine protection against wear and overheating.
- Semi-synthetic. A product in this category is cheaper and, at the same time, is considered to be universal.к. is added to a variety of devices.
Manufacturers make versions for two-stroke and four-stroke engines. Cultivator with the first type of engine is much cheaper, maintenance involves adding lubricant to the fuel.
Periodic maintenance of your power tiller helps to prolong its service life and improve its performance. Gearbox is one of the most important elements, which purpose is to increase transferable force. Gearboxes are filled with oil to reduce the wear between the two rubbing elements. When selecting gear oil, the following must be taken into account:
Each power tiller manufacturer specifies the most suitable brands according to GOST. Different gearboxes can be installed with the Honda engine; the choice of oil is made according to its peculiarities.
For your diesel power tiller
Diesel engines are installed on Honda and other cultivators. The advantages of such a unit are as follows:
Diesel engines are characterized by a complex design, so special attention is paid to choosing the right oil. The classification is as follows:
- CA variant designed for low to medium mechanical stresses. The substance can work with low-sulfur diesel fuel. Inclusion of additional elements in the composition prevents the formation of corrosion and rust. Not suitable for heavy-duty applications.
- CB substance suitable for low to medium mechanical stresses when pouring high sulfur diesel fuel. In contrast to the previous type, the variant under consideration offers higher corrosion protection.
- CC similar oil to pour in the motor blocks at medium and high mechanical loads. Additives help reduce the likelihood of deposits when exposed to high temperatures.
- CD oil of this type is used to service an engine that has no supercharger on which a turbine is installed. A special composition protects the metal surface from the effects of corrosion.
It is recommended that only synthetic oils are used in preference, because.к. they are capable of attaining a high level of surface protection. Mineral ones are much cheaper.
For gasoline cultivator
Petrol engines are widespread, t.к. they are very efficient in their application. Petrol engines work with less vibrations than diesel units and don’t have any problems with winter starting. In such a case the following oil is to be filled:
- SA a similar version can be used under low mechanical stresses, where no additive is required in the composition.
- SB substance suitable for applications in the medium range of mechanical stress. Special composition ensures low oxidation, stable lubricating properties.
- SC lubricants of this group are suitable for maintenance of engines that are not equipped with a PCV system. This version eliminates formation of various deposits at high temperatures.
- SD product of this category is used for engines equipped with PCV system. Compared to the previous version, it is more effective in protecting the surface from sedimentation.
- SE version is applicable for lubrication of engines developed after 1972. Special composition protects against wear and corrosion.
- SF substance is used for service of motors that were produced after 1980. New production technologies have made it possible to improve the performance of the product.
- SG oils in this category are produced for engines developed after 1988. Its basic properties are similar to those of the SF product, but it offers additional benefits.
- SH version of grease introduced in the market since 1992. This category includes universal lubricants.
The most common is the gasoline-powered cultivator, since.к. It is easier to maintain and operate.
Is it possible to fill in automobile oil
Car oil is most often found on sale. It is produced for the internal combustion engine of automobiles, but is used in a variety of applications. In some cases, automobile oil is poured into the engine of a power tiller. When considering such a possibility, it is worth considering:
- Manufacturers produce special substances for two-stroke and four-stroke engines. Different requirements are placed on the lubricant according to its design.
- In two-stroke engines, the engine oil comes with the fuel. Therefore, the main requirement is to dissolve the substance quickly, the composition should not include a large number of aggressive additives.
Experts do not recommend pouring automobile oil into the engine of a power tiller, t.к. It can lead to long-term damage to the engine. In this case, the price of special and engine lubricant does not differ significantly.
Classification of oil grades
To increase the service life of a gasoline or diesel engine, you need to make the right choice of engine oil. Its untimely replacement reduces the life of the engine. How to choose it, in what quantity, how to pour it into a single-axle tractor, let’s talk about it in more detail.
Each mini tractor or power tiller comes with a manual and product passport. In the manual, the manufacturer lists suitable fuel and lubricant grades that can prolong the life of the machinery. The oil in an engine performs a function:
Air-cooled oil sits on the walls of a hot cylinder. These deposits contaminate engine parts and complicate lubrication processes. This is why there are antioxidant additives in the lubricant. They clean the cylinder walls from carbon deposits and prolong the service life of the power tiller. Different climate zones require the use of different oily fluids. They differ in viscosity, composition and purpose.
Viscosity grades are identified by the SAE J300 standard. For machinery, it depends on the following specifications:
Engine oils are divided into winter and summer oils. Winter viscosity is denoted by the letter W. Low-viscosity winter grades are often used, marked SAE 0W, 25W and the intermediate grades 20W, 5W, 15W and 10W. Compounds for summertime use have no letters in their names. They are distinguished by their high viscosity and are denoted SAE 20, 60, SAE 30 or 40. Using summer brands in winter causes problems with starting the machine. Winter grades cannot provide good lubrication in the summertime.
Scientists have developed all-season formulas that can be used to fill a single-axle tractor in summer and winter. Their designations are 5W-40, 10W30.
In terms of formulation
In addition to seasonal characteristics, lubricants are divided into types according to their composition:
Air-cooled engine heats up quickly during operation. Engine oil lowers its temperature. Wrong category causes engine damage. It is not recommended to use synthetic oil mixed with mineral oil.
When lubricants need to be changed, each manufacturing company recommends pouring in a different brand. For Honda agricultural machines, they use 10W-30 all-season brands of the SF category. Subaru specifies in its recommendations for operation in moderate climates 10W-30, in colder regions 5W-30. Category SE oil.
Summer grade SAE-30 is required for Lifan products, SAE 10W-30 for winter conditions. No quality category conditions. All-season composition 10W-30 or 15W-30 of SF or SH quality is poured into Kaluga engine blocks.
Differences in oils for cultivators
Regardless of the type and brand of lubricant, it performs the following functions
- Reduces friction between moving elements, protecting them from wear and tear;
- Protects parts against corrosion;
- Provides heat removal, preventing overheating of friction pairs;
- Cleans the unit from dirt and foreign particles.
Modern lubricants are distinguished by their purpose. Cultivators use motor, transmission and flushing oils.
One of the main parameters, which defines chemical composition, method of production, as well as viscosity and performance characteristics, is the oil base:
- Mineral grades. natural products obtained by refining and purifying oil from harmful fractions, including sulfur, paraffin, unsaturated and asphaltene-resin compounds. The quality of the finished oil depends largely on the raw material and its composition. The main disadvantage of mineral engine oils is their low viscosity at low temperatures, which prevents proper engine starting in winter. In addition, the durability of natural grades is much lower compared to synthetic lubricants. The main advantage of mineral oil is its affordable price.
- Synthetic grades. produced by complex chemical conversions of petroleum products. The resulting composition is distinguished by high fluidity, chemical stability and temperature resistance. Synthetic oil producers use additives to improve base oil performance. Synthetic grades are the most expensive because of technological complexity of production process.
- Semi-synthetic grades. a mixture of mineral and synthetic oils. Such compositions have sufficiently good resistance to low temperatures. an excellent option for regions with temperate climates.
Remember that mixing engine oils with different bases is categorically not recommended. it can lead to irreversible changes in the properties of the mixture, which usually leads to rapid failure of the unit. Also you should not perform this operation for products with the same base, but from different manufacturers. no one can predict how additives will interact with each other. Most likely, the consequences will be unfortunate.
Let’s move on to the peculiarities of lubricants for different assemblies.
For two stroke internal combustion engines
In the USSR, the first two-stroke oil, M-12-TP, appeared in the late 1970s. This was caused by the need of logging companies, which use chain saws of Druzhba type, for a specialized lubricant. Now there are many two-stroke compositions from domestic and foreign manufacturers on the market, which simplifies the process of choosing a suitable product.
A characteristic feature of two-stroke engines is the absence of their own lubrication system. This forces you to mix fuel and oil in certain proportions specified by the manufacturer. The resulting mixture is fed to the carburetor, lubricating in passing all moving elements. Some modern two-stroke engines implement the principle of separate lubrication with a special pump. Mixing with gasoline-air mixture is usually carried out outside the carburetor. Also known constructions in which lubricant is supplied to crank bearings and excess is mixed with fuel-air mixture and lubricates the cylinder.
Given that two-stroke engines for garden equipment, including motor blocks and cultivators, are designed with an air cooling system, the following requirements are placed on the lubricant:
- Complete combustion with minimal ash and other products that will settle on the cylinder walls;
- Good solubility in gasoline to form a quality fuel mixture
- High antifriction, antioxidant, antiwear properties;
- Low volatility, good fluidity.
For four-stroke engines
Most modern power tillers with four-stroke engines use an air cooling system that demands high quality lubricants. Forced lubrication system without oil pump is the most common.
Its distinctive feature is the low bearing location that allows you to automatically lubricate the bearing during operation. All other moving parts are lubricated by a sprayer.
Cultivator engines work under unstable loads, unlike car engines. It can go from minimum to maximum in a short space of time. The nature of operation imposes its own requirements on the lubricant, which must prevent the formation of scoring and other defects on the surface of the cylinder walls. In addition, the grease must have good fluidity for fast delivery to the friction zone and good viscosity values for temperature fluctuations.
Due to the operation location of cultivators and tillers (garden and park areas), stringent requirements are placed on the lubricants with regard to smoke formation and emission limits.
Gear oil has a number of differences compared to engine lubricants. First and foremost, viscosity and operating temperature.
The intervals for changing transmission lubricant depend on the gearbox type, operating conditions, ground class, and the recommendations of the equipment manufacturer.
Gear oil is characterized by high viscosity. This is necessary to create an oil film that will cope with the high loads that occur when gearbox parts interact.
Most often gear lubricants are classified by API. an American standard, which includes five groups. from GL-1 to GL-5, depending on the composition, properties and application area. Domestic products are produced in accordance with Interstate State Standard GOST 17479.2-85.
Each piece of equipment, including power tillers, comes with a passport and instruction manual. In the instructions, manufacturers always recommend the types of oil that will allow the equipment to last a long time and not break down.
You should know that engine oil performs four functions during the operation of your power tiller:
Will 4-stroke oil damage a 2-stroke engine? Let’s find out!
When working on an air-cooled motoblock engine, the lubricant burns and remains on the hot cylinder, after which there is a smoky exhaust. The deposition of resinous substances has a dramatic effect on the contamination of some parts and complicates their lubrication.
It is recommended to use antioxidants with oil, which cleans the engine from dirty deposits. Correctly selected SAE engine oil is a guarantee of durability.
Using a single-axle tractor it is necessary to choose a lubricant based on the climatic zone.
For example, if an SAE 10W30 oil is used at 5°C or higher, it consumes much more oil and is more likely to cause engine damage. Summer lubricants should not be used at temperatures below 5° C. This use leads to hard starting of the engine and damage of the cylinder surface.
1.1 Classification of Oil Grades by Viscosity
Viscosity grades of motor oil are commonly classified according to SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers).
High-quality flushing oil MPA. 2
- Summer grades. oils of this category are used in summer, have high viscosity and no letter designation. These include: SAE 20, 30, 40, 50, 60.
- Winter grades. these oils are used in winter and have low viscosity. The letter designation for this grade is W (Winter). These include: SAE 0W, 5W, 10W, 15W, 20W, 25W.
- All-season grades are the most popular nowadays as they are used both in summer and winter. They are designated by the double combination: 5W-30, 10W-40.
In addition to the differences in lubricants according to seasonal characteristics, they are divided into two types according to their composition:
Also, all oils are divided into lubricants for both 2-stroke and 4-stroke engines. Original air-cooled, 4-stroke engines are normally fitted to power tillers. Only 4-stroke oil should be poured into these engines.
Checking the oil level with the dipstick in the oil filler opening
An air-cooled engine heats up more than a water-cooled engine under the same operating conditions. Therefore, the filling fluid must have low evaporation and high thermal-oxidative stability. Also, modern oils should be environmentally friendly.е. The amount of smoke and toxicity of exhaust gases is monitored.
Since the waste is often simply burned in boilers or steam generators, it must not contain components that form toxic compounds when burned. In a motocultivator, which runs on gasoline, and has no instructions, it is better to pour 4-stroke oil brand 5W30 or SAE30.
Winter or gear oil, for example 0W40, is preferable in winter. But this quality comes at a price. Don’t skimp on it, because high-quality oil affects less engine wear and longevity.
Why automobile oil is not suitable
Among automotive oils there are many special oils, with various additives, which are not suitable for power tillers.
For example, it is not recommended to use TM 5 gearbox oil for tractor-block gears. This special oil with a large amount of protective phosphorus-sulfur additives is used only where it is recommended.
On the gear wheels of a motor-block gearbox it may form protective sediments, films of considerable thickness, which are not erasable and are not required in this unit. This can lead to changes in tine sizes and problems.
The same applies to special engine oils. In addition, such oils are often much more expensive.
So it would be more accurate to say that automobile oils are suitable for power tillers, but not all. I hope we answered the question in full and now you understand whether you can pour automobile oil into the 4-stroke engine of a motorblock.