What Is The Difference Between A Drill And A Hammer Drill

How to choose a hammer drill for personal use?
Nowadays, buying a branded drilling tool is not a problem, but how to choose the right puncher for yourself and your tasks? Study the punch device and specifications.

How to choose a hammer drill for personal use?

What Is The Difference Between A Drill And A Hammer Drill

Choosing the right drilling tool means making home repairs easier for a long time. How can you successfully choose a puncher so as not to overpay for the brand and get high-quality equipment?

Several decades ago, only powerful electric drills equipped with drills for metal and concrete were used in everyday life. A truly branded, specialized tool was sold only abroad; it was impossible to just go to a construction supermarket and choose a suitable device.

What is the difference between a drill and a hammer drill and vice versa

The hammer drill is characterized by a longitudinal axial movement of the working part, similar to an impact drill. Therefore, hammer drills are confused with a heavy drill. In words, there is practically no difference, however, the hammer drill operates on the basis of pneumatics, and any impact (heavy) drill works thanks to mechanics.

Hence the difference in surface speed. Pneumatic drilling of holes in concrete, brick and stone walls reduces physical stress on the user. For any hammer drill, similar work is associated with great fatigue, and the “hammer drilling” mode wears out the internal components of the drill very quickly.

We come to the conclusion that the hammer drill should be larger and more massive than a drill with an impact function.

Punch device and characteristics

All punchers are divided into three types in terms of functionality:

  1. Single-mode. Impact drilling function only. Most often, such perforators are not used in everyday life, but are used as professional additional equipment for narrow purposes.
  2. Dual mode. Hammer drilling plus classic drilling or chiseling only.
  3. Three-mode. The tool is equipped with all the functions specified in paragraphs 1 and 2.

The choice of a hammer drill is based primarily on the characteristics of power and impact force. The higher these indicators, the better the hammer to be fitted.

Types of working chuck for rock drill:

  • Usual;
  • Quick-clamping.

Which drill chuck to choose? For household or household chores, the keyless quick-release model is best suited. Changing the nozzle in this version is convenient, easy and quick.

Rock drill classification by weight:

  1. Lungs. Up to 4 kilograms. Power is no more than 700 watts. Only available with SDS-plus chuck for 26 mm drill bits.
  2. Average. 4 to 8 kilograms. Power from 700 to 1500 watts. Depending on the equipment, both SDS-plus and SDS-max are equipped.
  3. Heavy. Than 8 kilograms. Power is over 1500 watts. Equipped only with SDS-max chuck for diameter up to 60 mm.

Energy and frequency of impacts

For a hammer drill, the impact function, measured in joules, is very important. The impact energy depends on the performance of the device, as well as the diameter of the hole to be machined. For daily work with a hammer drill, this is one of the most important indicators.

It is essential that an impact drill at the “maximum” will very quickly deplete its resource, and with a hammer drill they perform this work for a long time without wear, especially with a single-mode model.

It turns out that energy and frequency determine the level of performance. When choosing a perforator on your own, you need to estimate the amount of work on chiselling, then, according to the specified characteristics of the impact frequency, calculate the approximate performance.

How to choose a hammer drill for home

The best way to start the selection is to build on weight and power. Super-productive models for the home are definitely not needed.

Suitable criteria for home conditions and the following brands:

  1. Power from 600 to 900 watts.
  2. Impact from 1.2 to 2.2 J.
  3. Three-mode medium punch. Drilling, drilling with impact, impact without rotation.
  4. The rotation speed is necessarily regulated.
  5. Anti-jamming clutch.
  6. Keyless chuck.
  7. Replaceable branded cartridge included.

According to these characteristics, three leading brands are distinguished:

  1. Makita. Light enough drills and hammer drills, with a guarantee of several years. They have established themselves as tools for everyday household work, easy repairs. Average market price available, easy to operate. How to choose a hammer drill for home is this brand? Users refer to the Makita RK 2450 model. The required (useful) power is 700 watts, a shock of 3 joules, revolutions up to 4.5 thousand.
  1. Bosch. German quality and assembly. The pioneers in professional power tools and household equipment. Any models have been tested by time and weather conditions. Rotary hammers are equipped with the function of precise adjustment of the nozzle speed (drill, drill). When purchasing equipment from this manufacturer, pay attention to the color of the case. Blue classifies precisely the professional purpose. The most popular model is BOSCH GBH 2-24 DF. With a power of 790 watts, a blow of 2.7 J, the set includes a SDS-plus interchangeable chuck and a classic keyless chuck.
  1. Hitachi. The best tool in our market from Japan. Priced in the same category as the Makita, but some power tools, including rotary hammers, are lighter in weight. Are you wondering which hammer drill to choose from this manufacturer? Check out the Hitachi DH 22 PG, 620 watts, 1.4 joules of impact, and weighing just 1.9 kilograms.

You do not need to trust a consultant in the selection of a perforator, or any other technique. The maximum is to listen to recommendations. You need to choose and buy a model that best suits your personal requirements.

Electric drill device

Electric drill, an irreplaceable assistant in any kind of repair. But in order to understand the specifics and purpose of this tool, perhaps you should go a little towards the theoretical part, namely, consider how it works.

Let’s consider the main nodes and in a nutshell we will analyze their “role” in the drilling process:

  • Chuck (1), its task is to hold the tool firmly, be it a drill, grinding attachments or using a drill as a screwdriver;
  • Reducer (2), its “role” is to reduce the number of revolutions of the electric motor armature, and their number is measured in tens of thousands per minute, and to transfer the rotation energy through the chuck to the drill. In the same gearbox, the so-called “percussion” electric drills have a mechanism for creating a “blow”, a ratchet mechanism, the principle of its operation is clearly visible in the video below (and although the translators made a little mistake calling the percussion drill a perforator, this does not change the essence). This mechanism essentially vibrates the spindle in an axial direction, towards the drill. Those. There is no impact itself, and there is no impact energy, there are “jumps” along the teeth of the ratchet mechanism. It is important to note this, below we will see why.
  • Electric motor (3), its tasks are clear, to take electrical energy from the network and convert it into rotational energy.
  • The start button (4) is also clear. It closes or opens the power supply circuit of the electric motor. The above figure shows a “wheel” on such a button. Its task is to adjust the number of revolutions of the electric motor, more / less. In other models, it may be located in different parts of the instrument.
  • Mode switch button (5), from normal to shock mode. Again we send you to the video, where the principle of operation is well shown, since it’s better to see once than.
  • Body (6).
  • Induction rings or chokes (7). They are installed to smooth out the frequency component of the current. But we will not go into their purpose and principle of operation, our article is not about repairing a power tool. Over, they are not available in all models.
  • The capacitor (8) is necessary to protect against electrical noise in the motor starting circuit and to extinguish the back EMF on the brushes, i.E. Removes heat and sparks when starting the electric motor on brushes.
  • Network cable (9). In addition, the reverse handle is located above the start button.
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This is actually the basic design of any electric drill.


Repair is an expensive pleasure, and repair by someone else’s hands is twice as expensive. Therefore, it is not surprising that more and more people are starting to master the second profession. The home craftsman. And at the initial stage, questions often arise, such as which tool to buy: a hammer drill or an impact drill? And the cases described in the aphorism below are not uncommon.

  • When there is nothing to read;
  • When everything is already broken. “

But let’s still try to avoid the second option, and after getting acquainted with these two tools.

Punch device

The electric part of the hammer drill is realized identically to the electric drill. Consider the main structural differences between a hammer drill and a drill, i.E. Which is not in an electric drill. Namely, the impact mechanism. Let’s take a closer look at this “beast”.

In general, there are two types of impact mechanisms: electromagnetic and electro-pneumatic. The first one is not widely used due to its high sensitivity to dust (they quickly fail).

The electro-pneumatic impact mechanism is shown below.

In turn, such a system is divided into two subsystems: based on the “drunken” bearing (in the image below) and the crank mechanism. The first option has a lower value of impact energy, respectively, it is used in light and medium perforators. The second option is medium and heavy.

This type of rotary hammer, as a rule, has three operating modes:

  • – drilling;
  • – hammer drilling;
  • – hit.

How it works. Electricity, converted by the electric motor into rotational energy through the gearbox, is transmitted to the inner sleeve of the “drunken” bearing or to the gear train of the crank mechanism. In turn, the bearing or the crank mechanism drives the piston. The piston in a sealed “tube” partly under the influence of air, partly by direct impact energy, sets the ram in motion. The ram, set in motion, transfers the impact energy to the firing pin, respectively, the nozzle strikes the surface to be treated.

Another distinguishing feature of the hammer drill from the drill is the presence of a protective sleeve. It is necessary due to the structural features of the hammer drill, such as the inability to turn the drill in the chuck when it is jammed. This clutch dampens the torque in such cases. This protects both the worker and the tool itself.

There is also the presence of an anti-vibration system and some other nuances, but to understand the main difference between a hammer drill and an electric drill, the above is enough.

The scope of the drill and hammer drill, or what is the difference?

Above, we saw what is the structural difference between the hammer drill and the hammer drill. In this part of the article, we will look at the difference between a drill and a hammer drill from the user’s point of view.

  • Various basic characteristics. For an electric drill, this is the amount of torque or torque. What do you think of a hammer drill? This is what Wikipedia says: “The power of a hammer drill is determined by the impact energy (in joules).” As you can see, they initially have completely different purposes. The torque on the spindle of the rock drill is much lower than that on the drill, with the same power of the electric motor. Therefore, the question: which is better than a drill or a hammer drill, is the same as asking which is better than a fork or a spoon? They are different.
  • Mode of operation. This point follows from the above point. The main mode of operation of the drill is carpentry and locksmith work with a high degree of accuracy in materials such as metal, wood, tiles, etc. The hammer drill is a machine designed for working with concrete and brick. Accordingly, the time and quality of work with such different materials will be completely different. Those. The drill’s rebound function is auxiliary for one-time work, the hammer drill has a one-time work. Drilling and rebounding (remember the three operating modes of the hammer drill). If these requirements of the instructions are not met. Rapid wear, expensive repairs and reading the instructions “when everything is already broken.”
  • The differences between a drill and a hammer drill also lie in the accuracy of material processing. Let’s take a look at the hammer drill cartridge, its abbreviation is SDS. In fact, the use of this type of cartridge has led to the end of the versatility of the hammer drill. Why? Consider a drill for it. We have 2 straight and 2 oval grooves. The first “play” the role of rigid guides. Oval grooves, in the chuck with the help of a ball, the drill is fixed, but it is not so rigid, with a certain sliding stroke. Due to this, the tip of the drill has an orbit of rotation, and the longer the drill, the greater the size of this orbit. Given this state of affairs, what kind of drilling accuracy can we talk about? Therefore, you cannot drill wood or metal with a perforator, or rather, you can, but not for long (see the previous paragraph). And the accuracy of the drilled hole is unlikely to satisfy you.
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There is really the HR2450FT system, this is when it is possible to change the chuck of the hammer drill to a more familiar one. Like a drill. Accuracy will be higher, but this does not change the wear of the main units of the tool.

To the point, long-term operation of the perforator in the jackhammer mode is just as destructive as the impact mode of an electric drill. This is due to the high load on the shaft, and it simply is not designed for this. Accordingly, it will fail ahead of time.

Summarize. If you are planning a cosmetic repair, with a single drilling in concrete or brick, take a drill. But if a major overhaul is planned, with knocking out holes for the same sockets, there is no way without a puncher. Ideally, a home craftsman, if his financial condition allows, should choose both a drill and a hammer drill.

The main differences of the tool

So, the main purpose of the rock drill is to drill holes in durable materials such as concrete, artificial and natural stone, and brick. This is possible thanks to particularly durable drills, which replace drills in the construction of the hammer drill. If you don’t really go into technical details, then we can say that one of the characteristic differences between a drill and a hammer drill is the principle of operation. That is, the hammer drill mechanism is configured for impact, while the drill operates on the principle of rotation. Simply put, a hammer drill knocks out holes, and a drill drills them. The impact principle, on the basis of which the hammer drill works, makes it possible to use the tool in work with high-strength building materials.

In addition, it is worth highlighting the differences in electricity consumption. Despite the impact principle of operation, the hammer drill requires much less power, which means that the tool is economical in energy consumption. But here it is worth noting that the hammer drill is still a professional tool and is more often used in large construction than in cosmetic repairs. Agree, not every repair requires gouging concrete reinforced walls or knocking holes in the stone. Therefore, the hammer drill is most often used in large-scale construction.

What is the difference between a drill and a hammer drill

  • What is the difference between a drill and a hammer drill
  • How to choose a puncher
  • How to choose a drill

Drill benefits

A modern drill is a multifunctional tool, which is often equipped with an impact function. In addition, some models provide the ability to use perforating drills in the drill. But in this case, a special nozzle must be used, otherwise the instrument may be damaged. Yet the main use of the drill is to drill soft building materials such as chipboard, wood and iron.

In home construction, some drill models can be used in a wider field of work. Thanks to the special additional attachments, the drill can be easily converted into a pump, construction mixer or nibbler.

Unlike a hammer drill, a drill is a more accurate and multifunctional tool that allows you not only to work with various materials, but also drill holes of a fairly small diameter.

Summing up the main differences between a drill and a perforator, it is impossible to say unequivocally which tool is more in demand in construction. Depending on the tasks and materials to be processed, it is advisable to use both a hammer drill and a drill. The main thing is. Clearly navigate the main purpose of each instrument.

Apparatus performance

If you plan to drill holes in stone surfaces, then it is more advisable to choose a hammer drill. The productivity of these devices is higher than that of drills, which is explained by the impact force indicator. For light models, the value is 1.4-1.7 J, and for heavy models. 19-26 J. Working with drills, the impact is determined by the force of pressing the device to the surface. But even if the exponent is high, the value will be small because the amplitude of the axial element is low. As a rule, the parameter is equal to the height of the gear tooth. The efficiency of the punch is also higher due to the mass of the device. Weight contributes to an increase in this parameter.

The hole made with a drill will be 1.5 times smaller than that made with a punch. When using a crown, the difference becomes even greater. In addition, professional rotary hammers help to solve the problem much faster. The result also depends on the version of the used working element, the power of the apparatus. But the hole made by the hammer drill will always be larger.

Service life and reliability

The period of use of the instruments is another important parameter that determines the further purchase. An impact drill such as the Bosch EasyImpact 550 has a shorter operating time than a hammer drill. The advantage is that the pneumatics reduces vibrations, therefore, the working conditions will be optimal for the entire structure of the apparatus. A special coupling helps to eliminate breakdowns when the drill is jammed. For example, if the element hit the reinforcement.

The working parts of the drill quickly become unusable, which is due to the acting load on the gears. As a result, vibration affects with great strength and rigidity, negatively affecting the tool components, disabling the elements.

Differences in striking mechanisms

The question is not what is more practical, but for what purpose the device is needed. The impact mechanism of the apparatus determines the main distinctive features. Drills stand out for their simpler design. The “body” includes two ratchets, where one connects to the body and the other connects to the rotating chuck. When the shock option is turned off, these elements cease to contact each other, which is due to the presence of a special stopper.

When turned on, they interact with each other. This is due to the fact that the stopper is removed, and when the drill is pressed against the material, contact occurs. Simultaneously, the working element and the clamp for it are in motion, which is axial reciprocating.

Perforators are distinguished by a more complex design, which is made in the form of a knot. The mechanism exists in two variations: electromechanical and electro-pneumatic. The second is used more often than the first, due to its better performance.

The bottom line is that the engine rotates, which is due to the KShM (crank-connecting rod) converter mechanism. A special swinging assembly in the form of a sphere is also used. This leads to the fact that the cylindrical rod acquires a reciprocating motion. A space is formed between this element and the ram, in which a certain force acts, which leads to an increase in the movement of the latter. As a result, the element gives off energy to the working tool.

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In other words, hammer drills are mechanics and rock drills are pneumatic. Due to this, the amplitude and force indicators differ, respectively. With equal power, the functionality of the former will be lower compared to the latter.

Functionality of devices

The first difference is the functionality of the devices. This directly determines the operation of the tools. Drills are distinguished by a wide range of applications, in particular:

  1. Drilling holes in thin coatings including wood and plastic. The switch uses the kicks option.
  2. Punching holes on hard surfaces. This is where the impact option comes to the rescue, allowing you to work even on brick surfaces.
  3. Driving and loosening screws, screws and screws. But such actions should be performed provided that the shock function is disabled.

Rotary hammers also perform the above tasks. In addition, these tools cope with punching holes in materials with high hardness. For example, reinforced concrete. In the process of work, various types of chisels are used, but on condition that it is necessary to make breaks or grooves in walls of concrete or stone. Such tools operate in three modes:

  • Turns with blows;
  • Like a jackhammer;
  • Execution of revolutions without impact function.

Drills have only two modes. This is drilling with and without impacts.

Working attachments used and type of fixation

Another parameter that distinguishes the devices from each other is the working tool and the type of fixation of the element. Most often exploited:

  • Crowns;
  • Borax;
  • Chisels;
  • Strobers.

In drills, as a rule, a working element is used in the form of a drill, on which a soldering from an alloy is applied. This option is relevant for concrete surfaces. It should be noted that the element is fastened to a special clamp in both versions. But their design is different in the devices. Rotary hammers involve the use of a number of systems that allow you to quickly change the working element. These are, in particular, SDS:

  • Plus;
  • Max;
  • Top.

For fixing, special grooves are used with a special configuration. It should also be said about the degree of freedom in relation to the clamp in the direction of the axis. This approach helps to reduce the workload during work.

A standard drill is used only if the device is equipped with a special adapter or a chuck with a cam mechanism is installed instead of the traditional one. The latch facilitates quick and easy clamp changes. The standard model is included with the device. When a cam variation is used, a structure is formed, which consists of two clamps connected in series with each other, and one auxiliary. But in this case, beating occurs during the operation of the apparatus, and the mount is not sufficiently rigid.

From the above, it follows that rotary hammers are used to solve a wide range of tasks compared to impact drills. In addition, they benefit from power and performance. This means that this option is more relevant for performing complex operations. Drills are rational to use for solving small tasks.

How an impact drill differs from a hammer drill: 7 main criteria

When it is necessary to carry out a series of repairs, it is recommended to use a hammer drill or impact drill. The principle of operation of the devices is similar, but the number of differences is the same as the general characteristics. Therefore, before proceeding with the solution of the task, you need to decide which is better: a drill or a perforator.

Behind the external similarity lies a number of differences that determine the capabilities of each of these tools. The design of the devices does not allow them to be interchangeable. As a result, operational restrictions are imposed. Therefore, what is the difference between these two instruments, below.

Tool and fastening

The hammer drill tool used for drilling concrete walls is most often a winnowing drill.

For a hammer drill and a drill, drills and drills are mounted in cartridges, however, their design is very different for a hammer drill and a drill. For a quick tool change, the rock drills use the SDS-plus, SDS-max and SDS-top tool clamping system (depending on the shank diameter, for more details about the hammer drill chuck, see the article Punch). The fixation in the chuck takes place using specially shaped grooves.

In a hammer drill, the tool has a certain degree of freedom with respect to the chuck in the axial direction, which makes it possible to reduce the load on the hammer during impacts.

In order to use a conventional drill in a hammer drill, you must either use a special adapter, or change the chuck to a cam one. In a number of models, thanks to a special fastening system, the change of chucks is easy and quick, while the chuck for a conventional drill must be included in the hammer drill kit. When using an adapter, a structure is obtained from two series-connected cartridges. SDS and three-cam. The disadvantage of this option is the lack of sufficient rigidity of the drill attachment and its runout during rotation.

What is the difference between an impact drill and a hammer drill

The rotational motion of the electric motor is converted by means of a crank mechanism or a special swinging spherical bearing into a reciprocating piston motion. Under the action of compression in the cavity between the piston and the ram, the latter accelerates and transfers its energy to the tool through the hammer. Drill, chisel, drill, crown, etc. For more information about the punch device, see the article Punch device.

The impact mechanism of the drill is much simpler. It consists of two ratchets, one of which is connected to the drill body, the other. With a rotating chuck. When the impact function is disabled, the ratchets do not contact each other due to the stopper located between them. When the drill is switched to the impact position, the stopper is removed and when the drill is pressed against the material, the ratchets begin to contact, skipping over each other. In this case, the chuck and the drill are given an axial reciprocating motion.

The difference in the design of percussion mechanisms determines a significant difference in the technical and operational characteristics of the hammer drill and the hammer drill.

Working conditions. Functionality

The hammer drill is used only for drilling holes and works in two modes: drilling without impact and drilling with impact.


At the same power of the tools, the hole diameter that can be obtained with a hammer drill is about 1.5 times the diameter that can be obtained with an impact drill. The difference increases even more if a core bit is used for drilling.