What is the difference between an impact drill and a conventional drill?

What is the difference between an impact drill and a conventional drill?

When choosing a home power tool, we are more often guided by emotions than by common sense. Mistakenly believing that “there is never a good tool,” amateur craftsmen acquire bulky and expensive appliances for simple homework.

In order not to shoot at the sparrows from the gun, consider the most popular device. an electric drill and its functional varieties:

  • The drill is simple;
  • Hammer drill;
  • Hammer drill.

Electric shock drill is very similar to shockless

How is each of these tools different from the others?

The purpose of any drilling tool is obvious. Punch holes in various materials. Depending on the characteristics of the workpiece, a certain amount of energy is required for drilling. Different types of drills facilitate the work of the operator, but there are more advanced ways to increase the efficiency of the tool.

For example, to give translational vibrations to the nozzle. Then the drill acts as a chisel or jumper. over, with a classic drill, even with diamond spraying, it is not possible to drill a hole in reinforced concrete in a short time and with one copy of the nozzle.

How a simple drill works

The electric motor with the help of a gearbox transmits torque to the chuck, and then to the drill. The operator creates pressure in the direction of drilling, the drill cuts the material layer by layer with its working edges, going deeper into the hole. This rule works when the material is relatively soft and pliable.

So to say, if there is something to “cut off”. Otherwise, the operator’s forces for translational motion may not be enough. This is the main difference between a conventional drill and an impact drill. An indisputable advantage is ease of use and the ability to perform work with high accuracy.

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Shock-free electric drill with function of switching of turns

The presence of a speed controller adds versatility in terms of drilling various soft and fusible materials.

The principle of the impact drill

In addition to the usual torque, the impact drill motor gives the chuck and drill also reciprocating movements. Due to this, the working edge of the drill splits the material at the point of contact, and through rotation removes its broken parts and removes them from the working area.

Drilling is much more efficient, but this requires special drills with carbide tips. For example. victorious. They do not have cutting edges in the classical sense, but resemble a chisel head. Only a pointed form.

Drill bit soldering

The percussion drill device is more complex than conventional. But not enough to radically increase its value. There is a ratchet wheel on the axis of the cartridge. On the body. a working tooth-emphasis. When the ratchet is locked (normal drilling mode), only the torque from the gearbox is transmitted to the shaft.

Video: What is the difference between an impact drill and a conventional drill?


Work in this mode does not differ from a conventional electric drill. When the master puts the hammer drill into the “drilling. chiselling” mode, the ratchet engages with the stop, and the shaft vibrates along the axis. The gear wheel slides all the way from the stop.

In this case, the drill literally bites into the material. To reduce wear, the percussion mechanism only works when the drill is pressed in the direction of drilling. When idle, the shaft operates without vibration.

The principle of the impact mechanism of the electric drill

  1. Due to the constant friction of the ratchet against the stop, the wear of the mechanism occurs very intensively;
  2. Non-damped vibrations gradually destroy the impact drill body;
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The rotor and stator of the electric motor also experience spurious vibrations, which also adversely affects the resource of the tool.

  1. Sharp shaking negatively affects the operator’s hands, increasing fatigue;

From constant work in the "drilling-chiselling" mode, joints begin to hurt.

  1. The force and amplitude of the reciprocating movements are small, therefore such a drill is too strong and hard materials;
  2. Such a mechanism cannot provide a “chiselling” mode without shaft rotation;
  3. Regular maintenance and lubrication of ratchet is required.

What is the difference between a drill and a perforator

The hammer drill works on the same principle as a hammer drill, only the chiselling mechanism is implemented differently. In this case, the impact energy is used, taking into account the mass and inertia of the shock mechanism. The force is realized using compressed air. like in a jackhammer. Actually, the "jackhammer" mode is provided in any perforator, regardless of size.

In this video, the master talks about examples of the main differences between a punch and a drill.

The principle of operation is as follows:
On the shaft with a cartridge and a working nozzle (chisel or drill) strikes the firing pin, connected to the ram. The ram receives energy from compressed air, which appears from the operation of the piston. The piston is driven by a crank mechanism or oscillating bearing.

Schematic representation of the hammer mechanism

The hammer mechanism of the punch works with great strength and amplitude. Acting as a damper, the air extends the life of the power tool and protects the operator’s hands. At the same time, the operating efficiency is an order of magnitude higher than that of an impact drill. Durability is also on top.

  • High complexity (compared to a percussion drill) and cost;
  • Bulky mechanism and high power consumption;
  • Inability to perform more or less accurate work;
  • The tool is heavy; accordingly, working with it for a long time is not easy;
  • Regular lubrication and cleaning of the piston group and nozzle retention mechanism.
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In this video you will find an exhaustive answer to the question: What is the difference between a drill and a hammer drill.
In a comparative review, the following points are considered:

  • Visual comparison of a hammer drill and hammer drill;
  • Drill and drill mounting (difference in chucks);
  • The power of the tool and its performance;
  • Convenience of work.

Which power tool do you prefer?

The question is rhetorical. There is no universal tool. precisely, such instances are available. but no more than to formally fill the consumer niche. The quality of work is poor. Therefore, a reasonable choice: each type of work has its own tool.

If you drill holes in familiar materials: such as metal, wood or plastic. your choice is a conventional drill. The tool is compact, inexpensive, and working with it is not tedious. Power (and, accordingly, size) is not difficult to choose.

If necessary, occasionally make holes in brick walls. buy an impact drill. A power tool is a bit more expensive, but it offers some versatility. You turn on the “chiselling-drilling" mode only if necessary, the rest of the time you work with precision drills and pliable material.

At the same time, compactness and low power consumption, allows you to use the cordless version of the drill. A cordless drill is more like a screwdriver, but we’ll talk about this in another article. For a large hammer drill (even in the smallest version), the battery option is not available.

If you started a repair in the house, or the construction of a garage. you can not do without a punch and this article will help you choose it. Especially if you need a classic jackhammer. In this case, you do not need to send a regular or percussion drill to the closet. With a fine finish you can not do without a compact and lightweight power tool.