What The Drill Consists Of

Punch device

A huge number of manufacturers of rock drills equip their models with different designs with different design features. But despite all these differences, the perforator device practically does not change and is the same for everyone. Since all models contain the same nodes and modules, which allow them to successfully cope with the task at hand. Usually, depending on the model and manufacturer, rotary hammers may differ from each other only in the location of the modules in the puncher body.

Main nodes:

  • Impact mechanism.
  • Electric motor.
  • Housing.
  • Wiring diagram.
  • Safety clutch.
  • Reducer.
  • Cartridge.
  • Trunk.
  • Anti-vibration system.

Rotary hammer systems

In addition to the main units, depending on the model, the tool can be supplied with different systems. The systems are designed to expand the capabilities of the tool, provide ease of use. There are several systems.

  • Work element fixing system.
  • Anti-vibration.
  • A mechanism that sets a specific drilling depth.
  • Dust extraction from the work area.
  • Changing operating modes.

Different models have different execution of the location of the electric motor. There are two types of engine location.

  • Vertical arrangement.
  • Horizontal position.

Working time without interruption

If possible, it is not worth working without interruption for a long time, since even a professional tool can overheat.

It is recommended to take breaks every 10. 20 minutes of work so that the tool has time to cool down.

detailed information on operating modes is indicated in the instructions for each specific model.

Device and characteristics

The most widespread is an ordinary network electric hammer.

It consists of a body with a main handle, on which the start key with an accelerator is located.

Also on the case, the shape of which directly depends on the location of the engine and design features, there is a switch for operating modes and direction of rotation of the drill.

In the front there is a cartridge in which the working element is attached.

Usually, in front of the cartridge on the body itself there is a place for installing a rotary additional handle, in the design of which there is a place for mounting a drilling depth limiter. a metal rod with a printed millimeter marking.

The electrical part of the rock drill consists directly of the rotor and stator of an electric motor with carbon brushes.

In the simplest mechanical part, where the impact mechanism is located together with the gearbox, the firing pin with the firing pin is located behind the cartridge.


Powered by compressed air, designed primarily for work in hazardous conditions, for example, directly in the water column or its streams, where there is a possibility of electric shock or explosion.

This includes telescopic models. used for drilling wells and blast holes.

The above types of rock drills are industrial tools that are most often used in mining.

These are both portable and stationary options.

Punch barrel. description

The connecting link between the drill and the gearbox is the drill barrel. This one-piece part, although it has a simple structure, fails more often than other units. A high level of risk of deformation is associated with taking the blows of the drill. Often, dirt and dust contribute to the destruction of this part.

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The tool in the process of performing its direct functions withstands significant loads. For this reason, maintenance of the instrument and regular checks on the proper functioning of the instrument are important for safety. Due to the large vibrations during operation, just one minor breakdown can make the entire rock drill unusable. To prevent damage to the tool, it is recommended that you do not skip the regular inspection procedure and take preventive actions aimed at identifying possible breakdowns. By contacting the service center and having received confirmation from the master about the complete serviceability of the puncher, you can be sure that its use will be as safe and effective as possible.

This tool is great for drilling holes in concrete and masonry, chipping off old tiles, removing plaster, installing and expanding openings or slots for junction boxes. Let’s tell you more about it.

Those who live in a brick or concrete house need a puncher all the time. For example, it is difficult to do without it when you need to hang a new shelf, mirror or even a light photo of your beloved child. Of course, you can make a hole for a dowel in the old way. using a punch and a hammer or an impact drill. But the time and nerves for work will be spent incomparably more, and the quality of work will certainly be lower. What can we say about carrying out repairs with chipping walls for new electrical wiring or expanding or moving openings. here the puncher becomes simply an indispensable assistant.

With all the variety of modifications of perforators, the general structure scheme is preserved for all models. Outwardly, the tool resembles an ordinary drill. a body, a handle with controls located on it, a cartridge. Structurally, all tools of this type consist of the following units: an electric motor, a gearbox, an impact mechanism, a cartridge. Rock drills can also be equipped with additional systems that can expand the capabilities or make the use of the rock drill more comfortable.

Rotary hammer electric drive

Perforators used in everyday life usually have a longitudinal (like electric drills) placement of an electric motor. A tool with such a scheme is compact and convenient for use in hard-to-reach and narrow places. Professional class models are usually assembled with a transverse arrangement of the electric motor. This reduces vibration and provides better motor cooling.

What The Drill Consists Of

Many electric rock drills are now networked. But there is a large class of rock drills, the source of electricity for which is a rechargeable battery. The main advantage of such tools is independence from the outlet.

Hammer hammer mechanism

In the hammer drill, the impact function is the main one and is implemented in most models very efficiently and reliably. In a conventional drill, in which this function is auxiliary, it is realized purely mechanically. Two toothed ratchets touch during hammer drilling and repel each other. The amplitude of the impact is low, the impacts are weak, and drilling is slow.

In modern rock drills, the most commonly used pneumatic impact mechanism. It allows you to obtain high impact energy with a low power tool motor. The air pressure required for impact in the cylinder of the mechanism is created by the work of the piston, which is set in motion either by the swing bearing (in light household models), or by the crank mechanism (in tools belonging to the medium and heavy type). The pneumatic version of the percussion mechanism allows, among other things, to provide automatic shutdown of the hammer drill at idle.

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Safety clutch

Jamming of the drill or bit during operation threatens the breakdown of the hammer drill or injury to the operator. To avoid such a situation, the tool is usually equipped with a special safety clutch.

The principle of operation of couplings in models is different

For example, in the Metabo rock drills, it is based on the slippage of the clutch discs, which in the working position are tightly pressed against each other.

Rotary hammer reducer

A gearbox is necessary to transfer rotation from the electric motor to the hammer drill chuck. In addition, the gearbox ensures the functioning of the impact mechanism. It should be noted that to date, models have been developed and produced with two-speed gearboxes for rock drills. This allows you to select the required high-speed operating mode on different materials.


Modern rock drill models are equipped with SDS type keyless chucks. In low-power rock drills, SDS-Plus cartridges are most often used, SDS-Max cartridges are installed on more powerful professional rock drills. These chucks allow for quick tool changes and provide a secure fit. The main difference between the SDS chuck and the chuck used on drills is that the bit is not clamped tightly here. The shank of the nozzle has slots that allow the nozzle to move in the chuck. In order to fix a drill with a cylindrical shank in the hammer drill, use conventional cartridges with adapters for the hammer drill cartridge.


This is one of the most important characteristics, it determines the maximum diameter of the drill (drill) that can be used on this hammer drill. Low-power rock drills (500-550 W) are able to drill a hole no more than 16-18 mm in diameter with a drill length no more than 500 mm.

If you have to make a hole in the wall for a socket (diameter 68 mm) with a crown, then it is advisable to use a more powerful puncher, at least 800 W, if the hole is 100-120 mm, then it is better to use a tool of 1000 W or more. Powerful rotary hammer, in addition, it heats up less during prolonged operation, as a result of which the load on the engine is reduced and the tool life is increased.

As practice shows, for household needs, a not very powerful perforator (500 W) is usually enough, since most often this tool in an apartment or a country house is used to hang a shelf or a picture, fix a plinth, cornice, chandelier, fix a children’s corner on anchor. And absolutely any punch can handle such work.

Impact strength

The performance of the tool directly depends on this parameter. the stronger the blow, the easier and faster the work is. For household models, it reaches 3-4 J.

Rotational speed

Another important parameter affecting the speed of work. Some models of rock drills are produced in two-speed. the speed on them is set depending on the hardness of the material in which the drilling is performed. Another indicator of perforator performance is directly related to this parameter. the frequency of blows per minute.

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It determines the comfort of work. lighter models are easier to handle. Therefore, for household needs, it is better to choose models that are not very heavy.

Additional functions and accessories


This function allows you to use the hammer drill as a screwdriver, that is, twist and twist the fasteners. But for this work, you must have a special adapter for attaching bits.


Conventional household rock drills are designed to operate in two modes. drilling and hammer drilling. But in many models, a third mode is provided. a jackhammer. In this case, the bit moves only back and forth, without circular rotation. This function is necessary for grooving wiring grooves, for knocking down old ceramic tiles and irregularities on walls, floors, for punching large holes in walls with a lance. When carrying out repairs in an apartment, this function will not be superfluous.

Depth gauge

To drill a hole of the required depth, drill depth stops are installed on the hammer drills. The device is very simple, but effective. It is a rail that is pulled out to the desired length. Continue drilling until you touch the wall stop.

Dust extraction

A large amount of dust is generated during the operation of the rotary hammer. Therefore, special attention in such tools is paid to protecting the room and the perforator itself from dust.

Standards have been developed for rock drill bits to facilitate their selection for different models. The main selection criterion is the size of the nozzle shank. The most common today are two standards: SDS-plus and SDS-max.

The SDS-plus drill has a 10 mm shank diameter. It fits most domestic and semi-professional rock drills and matches the same designation cartridge. The SDS-max shank has a diameter of 18 mm, which is the standard for professional tools.

The type of bit shank required for each hammer drill must be specified in the instructions for the tool.

These bits are ideal for drilling holes in concrete or masonry. Their design allows for good dust removal, which means that the work will go with less load on the tool, and it will take much less time.


There are three types of them: a chisel (shovel), a lance chisel and a channel chisel. A conventional chisel is used for removing plaster, tiles, etc. The lance chisel is used for dismantling, slitting and punching holes in concrete and other types of surfaces. The purpose of a channel chisel for a hammer drill is to quickly create a groove. It is especially useful during work on the replacement and installation of electrical wiring in the house.

Drill bits

This type of attachments is indispensable when working on the installation of electrical wiring. The crown allows you to quickly and easily create nests in the walls for switches, sockets and junction boxes. There are crowns of different diameters.

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