Which Grinder Is Best For Wood Processing

How eccentric (Orbital) grinders work and what are their strengths

In their design, these machines are somewhat similar to an angle grinder. the abrasive cloth is attached down to the platform, the engine is located in the housing in a vertical position and there is an eccentric. Movement occurs Not only with a certain vibration frequency, but also with additional rotation of the sole around its axis. over, both movements occur simultaneously, which makes sanding amazingly clean and smooth. no scratches, no waves, no roughness.

There are 2 types of machine rotation:

  • Forced;
  • Inertial.

This type of technique is used in furniture industries, performing finishing work before opening the surface with varnish, paint, polishing wood and is very popular among craftsmen who are engaged in the restoration of old wooden products.

To choose the right orbital machine, we carefully look at the following indicators:

  • Motor power. electric motors in this technique Also do not require high power, as in the PSHM. Average power range. 150 to 350 watts. But there are models where the power reaches 750 W
  • Vibration amplitude of the sole. The range of motion and vibration is also similar to an angle grinder. 1 to 5.5 mm;
  • Oscillation frequency / Number of revolutions. In terms of the number of oscillations, the parameters are also similar to an angle grinder, but the number of revolutions may be different. 4000 to 12000;
  • The size and shape of the working platform. It happens only in a round shape, and there are only two standard, most popular sizes. 125 and 150 mm;
  • Fastening emery. The fastening of the soles of these sanders is almost 100%. Velcro. This option is extremely convenient for a quick change of grinding materials;
  • Forced dust removal. This system, as in the previous types, independently removes up to 70% of dust, so I recommend using a construction vacuum cleaner.

Vibrating or flat grinder, its features and advantages

The choice of a sander for wood in its final processing always fluctuates between two types. vibration and orbital (eccentric) model. They both rub the surface well to perfect smoothness and cleanliness. But in a surface grinding (aka vibration) sole, as a rule, it is larger. Therefore, for serious volumes of work, it is better to choose it.

The structure of the PSHM is as follows: the engine is located vertically, the rotation mechanism is an eccentric, and at the output we get a clockwise vibration movement. The range of motion depends on the size of the sole and the rotation mechanism itself. The outsole is perpendicular to the engine, and the sandpaper attachment is very comfortable. On the sides of the sole there is “doggies”, Which firmly and securely fix the tape. The big plus is that you don’t have to stick with the standard size of the skins. You can just buy sandpaper in rolls, cut off the required size and work.

Also these machines are very popular for sanding plaster, walls and plasterboard joints. But this is not their profile direction, but rather. Improper use of the tool. In such operating modes, they can fail faster, since the dust protection system is designed only for working with wood dust.

The advantages of this design:

  • Low cost;
  • Quick change of grinding Skins;
  • The shape of the sole allows you to work in corners, cut edges, do not leave the so-called “dead” zones;
  • The device is lightweight, compact and convenient.

When choosing a device, Pay attention to:

In this type of equipment, it makes no sense to install a super-powerful engine, so the motor power of the largest machine does not exceed 400 W and it is enough, since installing a more powerful engine significantly increases the weight of the machine, and this will greatly limit the speed of operation.

  • The amplitude of movement of the sole

It can range from 1 to 5 mm. The higher the amplitude, the less effective the quality of surface grinding, but at the same time productive.

  • Sole vibration frequency

Also an important parameter. The higher the vibration frequency. The cleaner is the grinding. But not equally good for all materials.

  • The size and shape of the working platform

The soles are rectangular, square and deltoid. Rectangular. for flat large surfaces, deltoid and square. Convenient for radii and hard-to-reach places.

  • Rectangular. 185 and 229 mm;
  • Square. 114 mm;
  • Deltoid. 100 mm.

The material of the sole also matters. Most machines have a plastic sole with glued rubber for better cushioning. But, as practice shows, in inexpensive machines, these soles have a slight factory curvature, which is not suitable for prof. Work, but for everyday tasks it is enough. The opposite is true for professional. Instead of plastic, durable, composite materials are used, and in its large mass the sole is made of light alloy, so the accuracy and quality of work is guaranteed. A special porous material is attached to the sole.

  • Fastening emery

Rigid and stable fastening of the skin is provided by spring-loaded locks ( “crocodiles”). The replacement is quick and convenient. However, there is an even faster way to attach and replace. Velcro. But such a sole has very high wear.

  • Forced dust removal

As with belt sanders, the dust extraction system works effectively only with the connection of a vacuum cleaner.

Types of grinders

Grinding is used both for large, flat surfaces and for round blanks, grooves, finishing of decorative elements, for sealing joints and joints. The range of grinding work is quite wide, so there is no universal machine that would grind everything in the world with the same efficiency. Modern manufacturers present such a variety of tools for grinding that they cannot, that it is not so easy for a beginner, and even a professional, to determine on the fly which grinder is best for wood.

First, you need to clearly know what task you will set for your instrument, for what, in fact, it is intended. This is important, since grinders differ from each other not only in power, but also in design, in the principle of operation. Each class of machines is designed for specific tasks. Therefore, I will introduce you to the main types, which it is desirable to know for the correct choice.

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And there are not so many of them, only three:

  • Draw frames. Remove a rough layer of paint, varnish, black from wooden surfaces. They do it quickly enough, roughly, but very effectively. Grinding thanks to the rotating belt;
  • Flat sanding. sanding is carried out thanks to a vibrating sole, on which sandpaper is put on. Also well suited for removing paint, varnishes and, depending on the size of the sole, they successfully carry out finishing work;
  • Eccentric ones have the most complex grinding mechanism, but thanks to this they make it possible to perform any grinding work delicately, ideally bring the surface to be painted or hidden with varnish and give the best quality result.

Ideally, for a good craftsman, furniture workshop, carpentry workshop, all three types are needed. Since their purpose is different. As you can see, they are necessary for different stages of sanding wood or other materials. plastic, metal (not profile materials for processing). But if finances DO NOT allow, then choose the one that you most need. You can try to finish everything else manually. Although difficult and not very convenient, it can also be time consuming.

Now I will tell you in detail about each type of grinder, which will undoubtedly help you in your further choice.

How to choose a wood sander

Author: Alexey Ryndya

Expert category “Power tool”

Wood, despite its hardness. The material is surprisingly flexible. It can perceive any, even the most bizarre, forms, depending on what product the master wants to surprise the audience with.

Wood processing is a multifaceted process. What is not done with a wooden blank to achieve the final result. It is dusty, planed, trimmed, hammered, milled.

One of the final stages of processing is grinding. It seems that there is nothing complicated in it. Run a tool with an emery cloth over the surface. However, everything is not so simple.

Grinding is laborious work, requires patience and skill, besides, it is always accompanied by the worst enemy of a working person. the smallest wood dust.

Which sander to choose for wood, in order to make sanding simple and affordable, more comfortable and dust-free, I will tell you in this article.

You will learn what types of wood sanders exist on the modern market, how to choose them correctly for your work, how to use them to achieve a flat and smooth surface, without roughness and burrs.

How does a good belt sander work and why?

Note, wood belt sander. The most productive and most powerful equipment in the class. It copes well with a large amount of work, especially where you need a lot of thin sections and quickly. If you compare it with agricultural machinery, then this is a tractor for virgin lands. However, this tool can also be adapted for processing smaller parts, because some manufacturers complete the machines with additional equipment that allows them to be turned into small grinding machines. The only thing that you limit yourself to. This is the grain size of the tape, because the most popular sizes. 60, 80 and 120, and the smallest. 230 mm. Smaller sizes, unfortunately, are either extremely rare or are made self-made, which is not always good for the instrument itself.

The design of the tape machine is simple and reliable. The main drive of this machine. Belt. An abrasive ring-shaped connection belt, driven by two rollers, similar to the tracks on a tractor. This design allows for impressive rotational speeds. For some models, it may exceed 500 m / min. Depending on the performance and its class, the rollers can be made of different materials. In the household class, both rollers are made of plastic, covered with rubber. In the hobby class of cars, the rear drive roller is made of metal, and in professional equipment, both rollers are metal (although there are machines for complex work equipped with two plastic rollers). But this performance has its drawbacks. Due to the high speed of rotation of the belt, some components are subject to overheating, especially for household machines. Manufacturers of professional tools install special cork (graphite) gaskets, which reduce the temperature and make it possible to work with a machine for a long time.

  • Peel off paint, varnish, darkening;
  • Remove irregularities from a wooden board;
  • Grinding large areas.

As you understand, this device works quite roughly and after such grinding, the question immediately arises about more delicate processing of the workpiece with which you are working. Then they will need to be smoothed out either with the notorious sandpaper in the hand, or more delicate in grinding with vibration or eccentric machines.

When choosing LSHM, we take into account the following characteristics:

  • Electric motor power

The spectrum is in the range from 0.5 to 1.2 kW. The more powerful the engine, the heavier the machine, has a high belt speed and does NOT need excessive pressure, that is, it works well under its own weight, which is convenient for horizontal grinding.

  • Belt speed

Possible in the range from 150 to 550 meters per minute. The higher this indicator, the more area you will be able to process in a short time. For most models, for convenience, a speed regulator is installed, since the work may not always be of the same type and the material can be Not only wood, but also plastic and metal, then you obviously cannot do without it. With high friction, the wood starts to burn.

  • Belt width

Abrasive belts come in two basic sizes. 75×533 mm and 76×457 mm. These dimensions are suitable for almost 80% of belt sanders, which are produced by various manufacturers. There are other sizes, but they are less common and are only suitable for narrow specific jobs.

  • Protective systems

Protection of the motor against overheating and overload only if a speed controller is installed in it (only in a professional power tool). Reducing heat Some parts of the body are also mainly used in professional and hobby tools.

Each machine is equipped with a garbage bag or special filter. But, as practice shows, they collect not more than 70% of dust, so connecting a construction vacuum cleaner will ideally solve this issue.

  • Additional elements

These include:

  • Clamps for secure attachment of the machine to the table (turns the machine into a machine and makes it possible to work with small parts);
  • Additional frame prevents distortions during grinding;
  • Parallel and crosscut stops. for increased precision.

General recommendations that will help the master make the perfect choice

  • For household chores, choose a machine that is light and comfortable. After all, you need to hold it in your hands, sometimes for a very long time. I recommend considering the following brands: Hyundai, Einhell, Stark. The hobby class is represented by TM Sparky, and in the professional segment the leaders are Metabo, Makita, Dewalt;
  • Always carefully inspect the structure and test it for convenience. For example, the handle may be a staple handle, but you may prefer the “mushroom” handle. If possible, take a model with an additional handle;
  • Explore all the parameters we talked about above. speed, frequency, amplitude, tape and sole size, etc. And then measure them according to your tasks. what exactly suits you best. The best sander for wood. Individual choice of each user;
  • If money allows, then choose a grinder with a speed regulator. They are comfortable and reliable, designed for safety and comfort.
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Types, classification

There are different designs of grinding machines. They are used for processing not only wood, but also other materials. Let’s take a closer look at them:

Brush sander for wood

This type of tool is mainly used for cleaning surfaces from old varnish or paint and structuring wood. The brushing machine is often used for working with wooden furniture. With its help, the surface is “aged”, creating pieces of furniture “antique”.

Cleaning takes place using a rotating cylindrical drum (brush) with metal or nylon bristles. Instead of a brush, it is possible to install an abrasive nozzle for grinding or a nozzle with a soft polishing material.

There are two design options for brushing machines. The first is a tool in a wide body that hides a shaft with a nozzle. The device is equipped with two handles with a trigger trigger in one of them. Such models have the ability to adjust the depth of processing.

The second option is almost identical to the “angle grinder”. The difference lies in the equipment on which the cylindrical brush is installed. The handle is positioned differently. It is installed parallel to the working shaft. The possibility of adjusting the working depth in such models is not provided.

Belt Sanders (LSHM)

The prototype of such structures is the stationary machine SHLPS, the working body of which is a large loop made of an emery tape. Hand tools are much more compact, but they work on the same principle. It has two drums. drive and tension, on which ready-made hinges are installed.

They are commercially available and are designed to be used on appropriately sized instruments. In addition, manual gluing of loops from roll sandpaper is possible, which is cheaper and is often used by craftsmen to save money, as well as to obtain the desired result.

Grinding dust, which generates a lot, is collected either in a special dust collector, or removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner connected to the corresponding socket on the back of the tool body.

What are these devices?

Hand grinders are compact and lightweight analogs of industrial designs. All of them perform surface treatment with abrasive materials. sandpaper. There are different options for using this material, and for each of them the corresponding tools are made.

They have a different design, designed to perform specific tasks:

Types, classification

There are different designs of grinding machines. They are used for processing not only wood, but also other materials. Let’s take a closer look at them:

Which sander is best for wood

There are several types of wood sanders. The design and principle of operation determine their purpose and the ability to perform certain types of work.

Which Grinder Is Best For Wood Processing
  • Belt sanders are designed for rough cleaning and adjustment of parts. Surface treatment is carried out using an abrasive belt stretched on rotating shafts.
  • Vibrating (surface grinding) machines. They have a flat sole, often of a rectangular shape, to which a letter of abrasive material is attached. Suitable for large flat surfaces.
  • Vibrating with deltoid sole. Vibration type angle grinders. They are used to work in hard-to-reach places and to process parts with complex configuration.
  • Eccentric (Orbital) grinders. They have a round sole with replaceable abrasive pads. Designed for finishing and fine sanding.
  • Brush grinders. The rest are distinguished by the fact that a brush with metal or synthetic bristles acts as a working consumable. This tool is NOT intended for fine grinding. Its main function is to remove paintwork and rough surface preparation.

Depending on the type of the proposed work, one or another type of tool is used. Professional craftsmen usually have at least two grinding devices in their arsenal. for coarse and fine processing.

Eccentric (Orbital)

Eccentric machines have a complex type of rotation. around their axis and additionally around a center offset from it. This type of movement allows you to combine increased productivity with high quality surface treatment. The diameter of the emery wheel is relatively rice, so there is some possibility of processing curved or concave parts.

Installation of the skin occurs only with the help of ready-made circles, fixed on the sole with Velcro. There is nothing to replace them with, so you have to buy ready-made consumables, which is not always convenient. In addition to emery wheels, there are elastic and polishing wheels, allowing you to get an almost perfect surface.

During operation, the “orbitals” generate a large amount of dust. Most models have holes in the sole for collecting it, and in the back of the case you can attach a cloth bag or an industrial vacuum cleaner.

What are these devices?

Hand grinders are compact and lightweight analogs of industrial designs. All of them perform surface treatment with abrasive materials. sandpaper. There are different options for using this material, and for each of them the corresponding tools are made.

They have a different design, designed to perform specific tasks:

Belt Sanders (LSHM)

The prototype of such structures is the stationary machine SHLPS, the working body of which is a large loop made of an emery tape. Hand tools are much more compact, but they work on the same principle. It has two drums. drive and tension, on which ready-made hinges are installed.

They are commercially available and are designed to be used on appropriately sized instruments. In addition, manual gluing of loops from roll sandpaper is possible, which is cheaper and is often used by craftsmen to save money, as well as to obtain the desired result.

Grinding dust, which generates a lot, is collected either in a special dust collector, or removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner connected to the corresponding socket on the back of the tool body.

Professional wood sander

Any professional tool differs from a domestic one in that it is able to withstand heavy loads and is designed for long-term operation in large volumes. Endurance and reliability depend on quality and specifications.

Models of hand grinders for professional use, depending on the type and purpose, can have a power of over 1000 watts. For example, the average power of orbital-type devices is about 350-450 watts. Belt type machines consume from 500 to 1200 watts. There are more powerful models.

An important indicator for the professional segment is functionality. Some models anticipate the possibility of using special equipment: interchangeable soles, guides, attachment devices, etc. This expands the capabilities of the instrument and improves its accuracy.

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The equipment of the option is typical: smooth speed control, various operating modes, automatic centering of the belt, the presence of a dust collector or the ability to connect to external devices for collecting dust.

All special grinders are professional. A special place is occupied by multifunctional devices. Usually these are small portable machines for grinding and polishing wooden parts.

Small sander for wood

For work at home, small and medium power hand tools are quite enough. Small devices will be especially convenient to use.

Sanding small parts and machining in awkward places will be easier to accomplish using a vibrating machine. There are two types of such devices with compact dimensions: in a case with a “mushroom” handle and in an elongated case that resembles an angle grinder. Both variants have a deltoid (triangular) sole. People call such an “iron”.

Some models of eccentric and surface grinders are compact in size. However, they do an excellent job of sanding and polishing wood.

You can pick up a tape type device. It will have a body with a longitudinal motor arrangement, as in an “angle grinder”. The tensioning mechanism with abrasive cloth is located on the gearbox. This tool is suitable for machining ends and edges.

It should be borne in mind that small grinders have a power of 50 to 300 watts. This indicator excludes heavy loads. The performance will be within the limits of the capacity.

Belt sander for wood

It is the most powerful and productive species. Machining takes place with an abrasive belt attached to a pair of rotating shafts on both sides of the flat sole. The web width can be up to 110 mm. This tool easily handles large flat surfaces.

Some models provide for attachment to the workbench and the ability to install additional equipment. This turns the tool into a mini-machine, which is convenient to machine small individual parts.

Which sander is best for wood

There are several types of wood sanders. The design and principle of operation determine their purpose and the ability to perform certain types of work.

  • Belt sanders are designed for rough cleaning and adjustment of parts. Surface treatment is carried out using an abrasive belt stretched on rotating shafts.
  • Vibrating (surface grinding) machines. They have a flat sole, often of a rectangular shape, to which a letter of abrasive material is attached. Suitable for large flat surfaces.
  • Vibrating with deltoid sole. Vibration type angle grinders. They are used to work in hard-to-reach places and to process parts with complex configuration.
  • Eccentric (Orbital) grinders. They have a round sole with replaceable abrasive pads. Designed for finishing and fine sanding.
  • Brush grinders. The rest are distinguished by the fact that a brush with metal or synthetic bristles acts as a working consumable. This tool is NOT intended for fine grinding. Its main function is to remove paintwork and rough surface preparation.

Depending on the type of the proposed work, one or another type of tool is used. Professional craftsmen usually have at least two grinding devices in their arsenal. for coarse and fine processing.

Grinding machines for wood: which one to choose

Grinding is a process that most people associate with painstaking, monotonous and often dusty work. But is everything being simplified? Through the use of a special power tool. Grinding machine not only simplifies work. increases productivity and processing quality.

Brush sander for wood

This type of tool is mainly used for cleaning surfaces from old varnish or paint and structuring wood. The brushing machine is often used for working with wooden furniture. With its help, the surface is “aged”, creating pieces of furniture “antique”.

Cleaning takes place using a rotating cylindrical drum (brush) with metal or nylon bristles. Instead of a brush, it is possible to install an abrasive nozzle for grinding or a nozzle with a soft polishing material.

There are two design options for brushing machines. The first is a tool in a wide body that hides a shaft with a nozzle. The device is equipped with two handles with a trigger trigger in one of them. Such models have the ability to adjust the depth of processing.

The second option is almost identical to the “angle grinder“. The difference lies in the equipment on which the cylindrical brush is installed. The handle is positioned differently. It is installed parallel to the working shaft. The possibility of adjusting the working depth in such models is not provided.

Wood floor sanders

This is a separate niche for highly specialized power tools, exclusively designed for working with wooden floors and natural wood flooring. The devices have a specific design that simplifies the processing of large areas. High power ensures sufficient performance.

The principle of operation of such machines is similar to manual options for grinding tools. The following types of equipment are most commonly used:

  • Drum: The working principle is the same as in the brushing machines. Instead of a cylinder with bristles, a drum with an abrasive belt is used. The device is used mainly for stripping old coatings (scraping) or for preliminary rough grinding and eliminating differences at the junction.
  • Belt: differ from the manual version in power and use of a wider blade. Handle both scraping and finishing.
  • Disc: grind the surface with abrasive materials attached to one or more rotating discs.
  • Eccentric (Orbital): The round sole rotates and simultaneously reciprocates in the horizontal plane. Emery cloth is used as consumables.
  • Vibrating: devices with a flat working sole of a rectangular shape. The mechanics are driven by a vibration drive or an eccentric motor mounted on a shaft. In this case, the sole does NOT rotate, but makes short horizontal movements with a high frequency.

Most of these machines are rather bulky, so all parts and assemblies are located on a movable frame. Power and performance do NOT come out of thin air either. These “units” are powered mainly from the 380 V network.

How much does a wood sander cost

It all depends on the class of the tool and the manufacturer. Bosch, DeWalt, Makita, Metabo, Hitachi. The most famous and reliable brands. for the household segment start from one and a half thousand rubles and reach 5-6 thousand. Professional models have a price tag of 6 thousand rubles and above. The average price is in the range of 10-12 thousand.

A professional tool costs 3-4 thousand and more.

When choosing a grinder, do not be guided solely by price or brand awareness. The choice should be based on the need to purchase a specific type of power tool Based on the intended type of work. But in no case should quality be relegated to the background, because the tool is needed not for one day.