Wood drilling tools and fixtures

Hand tools for woodworking

Ax, one of the most common and well-known woodworking tools. It is used for cutting, splitting, heaving wood. It comes in different modifications and sizes, depending on the type of work.

  • Hacksaw. helps to manually cut the product. There are universal ones, they work in all directions, but slowly. There are also hacksaws for longitudinal and transverse sawing, it all depends on which direction the wood fibers are directed. Distinguish between their shape of the teeth.
  • Chisel. used to punch a hole in a tree.
  • Chisel. used after the robot is finished with a chisel, for stripping.
  • Nail Puller. helps to get rid of nails in an unwanted place.
  • Hand drill. used for drilling, holes of different sizes.
  • Clamp. will help fix the part in the workplace, it is also used at the time of gluing or drilling products.
  • Miter box. used when you need to cut a part at an oblique or right angle.
  • Pliers. used for auxiliary work, or when you need to pull out small nails.
  • The workbench is a sturdy and large table that helps facilitate woodworking as it has fasteners that will hold the work in place during processing.

We examined hand tools that will help in woodworking, they also include: a tape measure, a folding rule and a screwdriver.

Now let’s look at mechanized tools. They cost several times more than manual ones, they are most often used for large-scale work, they are mainly found in factories, or among people who are professionally engaged in woodworking activities.

Woodworking tools

In home use, for those who are not professionally engaged in wood processing, and in small quantities, you can use hand carpentry tools. Such tools have an affordable price, they will always come in handy on the farm.

Electric woodworking tools

  • Electric planer. used for planing wood. With its help, the surface will very quickly become smooth and ready for further work. Takes less time than a manual plane.
  • Circular saws. help to cut the product evenly into workpieces.
  • Electric drill. used to drill a hole of the desired size.
  • Screwdriver. it is convenient to use not only because it tightens the screws, but especially because it unscrews them. What helps to save both the efforts and the time of the employee.
  • The jigsaw is indispensable in the household, with the help of it you can perform curly and directional cutting of materials such as wood, plastic, laminate and other materials.

It must be remembered that working with a poor-quality or old tool can damage the wood, and will not bring any benefit.

Tools, fixtures and equipment for performing the drilling operation

Drilling wood. perhaps one of the most common operations in joinery and carpentry. Drilling holes is necessary both for joining parts and for removing excess wood and for organizing access to other tools, for example, a pendulum saw blade or chisel. [8] Drilling is used to select round holes in the wood for pins, round studs, bolts, screws, and also remove (drill out) wood knots and then seal them with wooden corks. It is much faster to gouge out the various slots by pre-drilling the holes. [ten]

Drill. working body of any drilling machine, be it a hand drill or a stationary machine.

Depending on the nature and conditions of the work performed, drills of different types are used. The cutting elements of the drills must provide a free cutting process, the resulting chips must be easily removed from the hole. The design of the drills should be such that the cutting parameters do not change during sharpening.

Each drill distinguishes between a core, a shank and a working part.

The rod can be of different lengths; the possible drilling depth depends on the rod length. In many drills, the rod has a special shape and special processing and is adapted: a) to guide the drill; b) for cleaning the sides of the drilled hole; c) for ejection of shavings.

The shank is the upper, usually thickened part of the rod of a square or hexagonal pyramidal shape, with which the drill is inserted into the chuck of the drilling device (brace, drill).

The working (cutting) part of the drill consists of cutters. By the design of the cutting part, drills can be divided into three main groups: spoon, center and spiral.

A spoon drill (also called a perk) is a rod, in the lower (working) part of which a longitudinal groove is made, ending with a sharpened sting. The bit is used to insert the drill deep into the wood and, in addition, it is centered. One edge of the groove is sharpened to the full length and is a cutting edge, the second edge serves as a guide. This drill works when rotating in one direction. Joiners often sharpen the second edge as well. the drill then works when rotating in either direction.

The spoon drill works by pressing down on it from above. It is not suitable for ejecting chips, and you have to remove the drill from the hole to clean the chips. This reduces the cutting performance. A spoon drill is used to drill holes for pins, screws, screws.

The snail drill is a kind of spoon drills. Its cutting edge follows a tapered helical mowing line; at the bottom, the drill ends with a centering end in the form of a corkscrew. It is easier to work with a snail-shaped drill than with a spoon, since its lower end screw the drill into the wood, as it were, and the screw-shaped groove promotes the ejection of chips.

Disadvantages of this drill. frequent breakage of the thin end, difficult sharpening, work when rotating in one direction. The purpose of the snail drill is the same as that of any spoon drill.

Sewing drill. It has the shape of a triangular awl with a shank, works in both directions. Serves for drilling holes for screws.

Center drill. The working part of this drill has the form of a blade with an awl-shaped point. a center, a lateral arcuate cutter, called a road worker, and a slightly inclined flat knife located along the radius. The purpose of the awl-shaped point. to center the drill, road worker. to cut wood around the circumference of the drilled socket, flat knife. to remove the wood cut around the circumference in the form of a screw tape.

The center drill only works in one direction when pressed from above. It is mainly used for drilling holes for round tenons.

Twist drill. His rod is twisted 2/3 of the length.

Twist drill. The rod is 2/3 of the length covered with a helical spiral.

Spiral tape, or corkscrew, drill. Rod 2/3 of the length is a steel tape, twisted with a corkscrew.

The drills of the last three types have a conical screw-shaped deepener in the working part, two road rails and two flat knives. The chips are easily thrown away. These drills work across the fibers with little pressure on them and even without pressure. Serves for drilling various holes with a diameter of 6 to 40 mm.

The cork drill is used for drilling knots for sealing with corks, works by pressing on it from above. The working part of the drill is a steel cylindrical box with a diametrical baffle.

Countersink drill (countersink). The working part of this drill has the form of a cone with longitudinal grooves on the lateral surface; serves as a countersink drill for conical reaming of the upper part of the holes for the screw heads. [15]

To drill holes in various types of wood across the fibers, use wood-cutting spiral drills with a center and a cutter (Fig. 1, a) with a diameter of 4.32 mm, a length of 80.200 mm.

a-spiral wood cutting with a center and a cutter, b. spiral with conical sharpening, c. cylindrical file with a pusher and a cylindrical shank, d. the same, with a tapered shank, d. drill diameter, A. shank diameter, l. length of the working part, L. length of the drill.

To drill holes in wood along the grain, use spiral drills with conical sharpening (Fig. 1, b) of long and short series. The short series drills have a diameter of 2.12mm, a length of 45.145mm, and a long series. diameter 5.2mm, length 130.210mm.

To cut out plugs and seal knots, use cylindrical files with a pusher (Fig. 1, c, d). In addition, for drilling holes in wood, spiral drills with a cylindrical shank are used, equipped with carbide plates, with a diameter of 5.16mm, a length for a shortened series of 70. 138mm, for a normal series. 66.178mm.

Twist drills with taper shank, equipped with carbide inserts, are available in diameter 10, 30 mm, length 140.275mm for short series and 168.324mm for normal series.

The simplest drilling machine. this is an ordinary hand drill. The drill is clamped in a chuck, the gears are adjusted manually or by an electronic speed controller. Drills, which have a speed controller, can be used as screwdrivers.

To drill a large number of workpieces, or to make holes precisely specified in depth, a bed is used in addition to an electric drill, in which the drill is fixed. The bed allows, as mentioned above, drilling precisely defined holes in depth, but this does not exhaust its functions. The bed also allows you to drill holes at a certain angle, which is sometimes necessary, for example, for joining bulky parts. [17]

The drilling machine is a bed with an electric motor, the drive from which transmits rotation to the chuck with the drill. As a rule, a drilling machine is equipped with a greater number of speeds compared to an electric drill, and great capabilities. [2]

Mechanical drilling is carried out using electric drills or special drilling machines. Electric drills are mainly used in carpentry and joinery.

When drilling, it is necessary to press with your hands on the body of the electric drill, as a result of which it falls along the guide posts, compressing the springs. After the end of drilling, the pressure stops and the body rises upward under the action of the rectifying springs. If you want to drill a hole in another place, then the electric drill is transferred, set in its original position and the whole process is repeated. To perform significant amounts of work on drilling a hole in woodworking workshops, drilling machines are used. They are divided into vertical drilling and horizontal drilling, according to the number of spindles. on one and multi-spindle, and according to the way of feeding. for mechanical and manual. [four]

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a.- vertical drilling; b horizontal drilling.

On a vertical drilling machine, the table is moved up and down using a handwheel, and the drilling head. using a foot pedal.

The SVA vertical drilling machine with automatic feed is universal, as it allows you to drill any holes. This machine has another modification that allows the use of manual feed. When attaching a platform (support) with lateral movement to the drilling machine table and installing an end mill instead of a drill, it is possible to select longitudinal slots.

The SvGD-3 horizontal drilling machine is designed for sampling horizontal longitudinal slots. It has a bed, a work shaft, a spring, a work table and a caliper. The workpiece to be processed is fixed with a spring, pushing the spindle with the drill onto it. The working table is moved horizontally by the handle, vertically. handwheel. The feed mechanism is different for individual machines. working shaft with drill, machining part, fixed motionless.

Horizontally. The drilling machine consists of an electric motor, a spindle, a carriage, carriage and drill feed levers, a clamp to strengthen the workpiece. The spindle can be moved along the drill axis, and the carriage in the transverse direction.

On this machine, you can drill not only round holes, but also rectangular ones. To obtain rectangular holes, you must first drill a row of round holes, and then combine them with a transverse movement of the carriage into a common oblong hole. When working on machine tools and electrified tools, you must follow the safety rules. [3]

Presentation “Types of wood and wood materials processing” Grade 5 FSES

Classification of types of processing. Safety engineering.

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“Presentation” Types of wood processing and wood materials “grade 5 FSES”

Project Technologies for manual and art-applied processing of wood and wood materials.

“I would go to the carpenters, let them teach me.” improvisation

Introduction

Woody species is a type of perennial woody plant.

The trunks of trees, after pruning branches and twigs, are cut into logs, which are sawn lengthwise and receive. Lumber.

  • Edged and unedged boards
  • Bars
  • Bars
  • Croaker

Wood materials

  • Chipboards (chipboards) are made on special machines by pressing shavings mixed with synthetic resin.
  • Fiberboard (Fibreboard) is pressed in the form of shredded wood sheets.

Fiberboard and chipboard are used for the manufacture of furniture and in construction.

Wood materials

  • VENEER is thin layers of wood. It is obtained on special machines: a special knife cuts a thin layer of wood from the surface of a rotating log. This process is called peeling.

Wood materials

  • PLYWOOD is a wood-based material obtained by gluing three or more thin veneer sheets. To obtain plywood, birch, alder, beech, pine wood is used.

Graphic representation of parts and products.

  • Any product consists of separate parts that are interconnected. For the correct manufacture of parts, use GRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION:
  • Sketch
  • Technical drawing
  • drawing

Graphic representation of parts and products.

this is a hand-drawn image with dimensions.

Graphic representation of parts and products.

  • TECHNICAL DRAWING
as a sketch, it can be carried out by hand, however, it is a three-dimensional image of a part, in which the proportions between its individual parts are observed.

Graphic representation of parts and products.

This is an image of a part, product, indicating their size, scale, name, materials. The drawing is carried out using drawing and measuring tools: ruler, square, compass, protractor.

Workplace and tools for manual woodworking.

  • The workplace for manual woodworking in training workshops is JOINERY WORKSTATION.
  • The main elements of the workbench:
  • Cap
  • Wedge holes
  • Tray
  • Back clamp
  • Podstachye
  • Retractable support
  • Front clamp
  • Chair

Workplace and tools for manual woodworking.

  • When manually processing wooden blanks on a carpentry workbench, various tools are used:
  • Plane
  • Hammer
  • File
  • Mallet
  • Hacksaw
  • Drill
  • Chisel
  • Shiloh and other tools

Safe work rules

  • Before starting work, you should correctly and securely fix the workpiece on the workbench.
  • Do not damage the lid of the workbench with a cutting tool, and also treat the tools carefully and carefully.
  • Use only serviceable tools in work.
  • Work with the tool smoothly without jerks and pressure.
  • Do not use your hand to check tools for sharpness.
  • Do not place the tool on the workbench with the point facing you.
  • At the end of work, remove chips from the workbench cover only with a special broom.

Technologies for processing wood and wood materials

The “transformation” of raw materials into a finished product using various tools is called the PRODUCTION PROCESS.

Part of it is technological process (production of a separate part of the product or their assembly)

He, in turn, the technological process consists of technological operations (preparation of materials, processing of blanks, finishing work of parts).

Technologies for processing wood and wood materials

Sequence of operations, selection of workpieces, tools and fixtures displays routing.

Process flow diagram

wood, drilling, tools, fixtures

Wood processing technologies

Manual woodworking technologies. Markup.

Markup. this is the application of the mowing line to the contours of the future product.

Marking is done with a pencil using measuring tools:

  • Rulers
  • Roulette
  • Gon
  • Reismus
  • Malky
  • compasses

Manual woodworking technologies. Sawing wood blanks.

  • When sawing, various types of saws and auxiliary tools are used:
  • Bow saw Carpentry hacksaw Circular saw
  • Bow saw Carpentry hacksaw Circular saw
  • Bow saw Carpentry hacksaw Circular saw
  • Bow saw Carpentry hacksaw Circular saw
  • Bow saw Carpentry hacksaw Circular saw
  • Bow saw Carpentry hacksaw Circular saw
  • Bow saw Carpentry hacksaw Circular saw
  • Bow saw
  • Joiner’s hacksaw
  • Circular saw
  • Miter box. for cutting the workpiece at different angles.
  • Miter box. for cutting the workpiece at different angles.
  • Miter box. for cutting the workpiece at different angles.
  • Miter box. for cutting the workpiece at different angles.
  • Miter box. for cutting the workpiece at different angles.
  • Miter box. for cutting the workpiece at different angles.
  • Miter box. for cutting the workpiece at different angles.
  • Miter box. for cutting the workpiece at different angles.
wood, drilling, tools, fixtures

Sawing- this is the fit of the workpiece to the approximate dimensions.

  • Saws are widely applicable.
  • Saws are widely applicable.
  • Saws are widely applicable.
  • Saws are widely applicable.
  • Saws are widely applicable.
  • Saws are widely applicable.
  • Saws are widely applicable.
  • Saws are widely applicable.

Manual woodworking technologies. Planing wood blanks.

  • Planing. used to give the part the shape and dimensions indicated in the drawing. When planing, two types of tools are used:
  • Planing. used to give the part the shape and dimensions indicated in the drawing. When planing, two types of tools are used:
  • Planing. used to give the part the shape and dimensions indicated in the drawing. When planing, two types of tools are used:
  • Planing. used to give the part the shape and dimensions indicated in the drawing. When planing, two types of tools are used:
  • Planing. used to give the part the shape and dimensions indicated in the drawing. When planing, two types of tools are used:
  • Planing. used to give the part the shape and dimensions indicated in the drawing. When planing, two types of tools are used:
  • Planing. used to give the part the shape and dimensions indicated in the drawing. When planing, two types of tools are used:
  • Scherhebel. for preliminary (rough) planing of workpieces.
  • Scherhebel. for preliminary (rough) planing of workpieces.
  • Scherhebel. for preliminary (rough) planing of workpieces.
  • Scherhebel. for preliminary (rough) planing of workpieces.
  • Scherhebel. for preliminary (rough) planing of workpieces.
  • Scherhebel. for preliminary (rough) planing of workpieces.
  • Scherhebel. for preliminary (rough) planing of workpieces.
  • Plane. for the final
  • Plane. for the final
  • Plane. for the final
  • Plane. for the final
  • Plane. for the final
  • Plane. for the final
  • Plane. for the final

(clean) planing the workpiece.

  • Widely applicable electric planer.
  • Widely applicable electric planer.
  • Widely applicable electric planer.
  • Widely applicable electric planer.
  • Widely applicable electric planer.
  • Widely applicable electric planer.
  • The electric planer is widely applicable.

Manual woodworking technologies. Drilling holes in wood parts.

If it is necessary to make holes in the workpiece, then they drilled. The holes can be

deaf

cross-cutting.

  • Different types of drills are used to drill holes in wood.

Clamp- fixture used to clamp the workpiece.

Manual woodworking technologies. Drilling holes in wood parts.

  • In the process of drilling, use:

brace or hand drill.

  • Spiral
  • Center
  • Screw

Ways to connect wood parts

The connection of wood parts into a single product is called ASSEMBLY.

Connecting parts with nails.

2.Connecting parts Screw.

This is a screw shank fastener with a slot in the head.

Joining wood parts GLUE.

Manual woodworking technologies. Surface cleaning of wood parts.

After sawing and planing wood parts, it is necessary to smooth out irregularities on all surfaces.

  • Cleaning is done with a FILE.
  • There are several types of them:

The final cleaning of the part is done with a GRINDING PAD.

Manual woodworking technologies. Finishing wood products.

Finishing is the final technological operation that gives the product a better look. Finishing types:

Toning Varnishing

  • When toning, use stain for darker color (yellow to black).
  • Varnishing protects the product from moisture and decay.

Technologies for artistic and applied processing of wood materials. Sawing with a jigsaw.

Sawing with a jigsaw. giving a product made of plywood or thin wood to the required curvilinear shape.

Technologies for artistic and applied processing of wood materials. Woodburning.

Burning out it is used for decorative finishing of products and is performed. electric burner.

Technologies for artistic and applied processing of wood materials. Turning.

Turning this is the treatment of shaped external surfaces.

  • Carpenter. the oldest profession. Thanks to her, we can make a variety of household products, dishes, decorations, construction equipment, furniture and much more.

Drilling wood with hand tools

Drilling is a carpentry operation performed to produce round holes for pins, screws, bolts, and other rods in wood. Drilling also removes wood defects. knots, followed by their sealing with wooden corks with glue. Drills are used for drilling wood: spiral, center, screw and countersink (Fig. 1.38).

Drilling tools

Various types of drills are used for drilling.

Twist drills with conical sharpening (see Fig. 1.38, a) are used to drill wood along and across the fibers, as well as at an angle to the surface of the part. Twist drills with a guiding center and cutters (see Fig. 1.38, b) are used to drill wood across the fibers. Twist drills have helical grooves on the surface of the shank for removing chips from the hole. They choose deep and precise holes.

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Center drills with a flat (see Fig. 1.38, c) and cylindrical heads (see Fig. 1.38, d) are used to drill through and shallow holes in wood across the fibers. Center drills with a cylindrical head are also used for drilling holes for hinge hinges. Center drills are used to drill shallow holes with a diameter of 12.50 mm. Such a drill consists of a core with undercutters located downward, a cutting edge (blade) and a guiding center (tip).

During operation, the drill has to be removed from the hole frequently to remove chips.

Auger drills (see Fig. 1.38, d) are used to drill wood across the fibers. Auger drill diameter 10.30 mm.

Countersink drills, or countersinks (see Fig. 1.38, e), serve to countersink [4] holes for screws and bolts.

Preparing drills for work

The drills are sharpened with fine-grained grinding wheels on a sharpener or manually with files. When sharpening with a file, the hardness of the drill should be less than the hardness of the file. The cutting blade of drills with a guiding center is sharpened from the back, the cutter. from the inside, the guiding center. along the edges of the pyramid. For twist drills with conical sharpening, the back edge is grinded along the generatrix of the cone. Sharpening is done manually or using sharpening devices.

Hole drilling techniques

When drilling a hole, the drill must make two movements: rotary (clockwise) and translational (deep into the hole). To rotate the drill, it is better to use a ratchet wheel (Fig. 1.39), which is a cranked rod, in the middle of which there is a handle for rotating it. At the upper end of the rod there is a pressure head, and at the lower end there is a chuck for fastening the drill. The brace should rotate to the right and to the left. The direction of its rotation is set by a ring. a switch. The rotary can be used to tighten screws, bolts and nuts if a screwdriver or socket wrench is inserted into the chuck. The rotor can drill holes up to 10 mm in diameter. Drilling techniques using a brace are shown in Fig. 1.40. In addition to the brace, a mechanical drill is used for manual drilling (Fig. 1.41). To perform drilling, the workpiece is fixed on a workbench, then the center of the hole is marked and pricked with an awl. After determining the center of the hole, start drilling. Through holes in thick parts are usually drilled on both sides. In thin workpieces, one-side through drilling is made with a backing board on the back side. When drilling at an angle to the surface of the workpiece, a vertical hole is first drilled to a shallow depth, and then the drill, without stopping the rotation, is rotated at the desired angle to the surface of the workpiece. When drilling at an angle, you can first cut the top of the socket with a chisel, and then drill.

Often, for drilling several holes, overhead templates are used, which have holes of the required diameter and exclude marking. Templates (jigs), made of hardwood, are blocks in which 2. 3 holes are drilled equal to the diameter of the drill. The conductors are fixed to the workpiece with a clamp and the holes are drilled to the required depth. The resulting holes must have the exact size, and their axes must be strictly perpendicular to the upper surface of the workpiece. When drilling wood, use properly sharpened drills without cracks or defects. Feeding the drill deep into the hole should be done easily and smoothly.

Useful tips for the carpenter

A piece of styrofoam worn on the drill can not only serve as an indicator of the depth of the drilled hole, but also act as a fan blowing off the chips. Proper organization of the workplace contributes to ease of use, reduced worker fatigue, increased productivity and job satisfaction. The concept of “organization of the workplace” includes the availability of a set of equipment, tools and devices; convenient location of the material required for work; storage place for workpieces and working tools; normal lighting with natural and artificial light; sanitary and hygienic working conditions.

For processing wood with hand tools, workbenches of various designs are used. In training workshops, a carpentry workbench with a screw clamp is more often used (Fig.1.1), consisting of a cover (workbench) and a base (pedestal).

Bench board equipped with front and rear vise,

which are designed to clamp the workpieces in them (Fig. 1.2). The workbench has a tray for the tools used in the work process; on a workbench. a series of holes for installing wooden or metal stops.

The pedestal consists of racks connected by bars. The bench board is attached to the sub-stitch with dowels (round tenons).

The bench board is made of hardwood (birch, oak, beech, ash), and the bench board is made of coniferous wood (pine, larch). Overall dimensions of the workbench (mm): (50.70) x (400.500) x (1600.100).

The height of the workbench is selected according to the height of the worker. The carpenter should stand near the workbench and rest his palms on it. If the carpenter, not bent over, easily leans on him, then the workbench corresponds to his height. On a workbench, boards, bars and parts up to three meters long are processed and individual units of joinery are assembled.

Carpenter’s tools, fixtures, auxiliary materials and overalls must be stored in a special tool cabinet. Wood-cutting tools are placed in the cabinet so that they do not deteriorate from accidental impacts and cannot cause injury.

Ensuring labor safety provides for the implementation of the following rules:

before starting work.

carefully inspect the workbench and check the correct position of the cover on the underside;

by a trial rotation of the screws, make sure that the front vise and the rear clamping

check for the presence of wooden wedges and a metal comb in the holes of the clamping

boxes and workbench lid;

check that the height of the workbench matches your height;

study the drawing, an approximate technological map and technical requirements for the upcoming-

work on the manufacture of joinery;

prepare the tools and devices necessary for the work; make sure they are working properly;

prepare materials, check the conformity of their quality and size to the task received and put them in the place provided for this;

make sure that there is nothing superfluous, distracting and interfering with work on the workbench and in the work area;

during work:

make sure that only those tools and devices that are used to perform the current operation are on the workbench, all the rest should be placed in the tool cabinet;

using one or another tool and device, it is necessary to put them in the place designated for them;

Place processed materials, workpieces and parts so as not to block the working area at the workbench;

observe the accepted work schedule, taking breaks for rest at the set time;

maintain a clean and tidy workplace at all times;

Best wood drill bit for FAST clean deep holes

at the end of work.

clean the tools from shavings, dust and put them in the tool cabinet, observing the following rules:

a) the knives of planing tools should not protrude beyond the plane of the soles of the pads;

b) the blades of bow saws should be turned by their teeth towards the midships (spacers), the bowstrings are slightly weakened;

c) chisels, chisels, drills, files, screwdrivers, instrumentation, instruments, etc. should be stored in special sockets;

d) storage of the tool “in bulk” is not allowed; put the processed parts and workpieces in the place provided for them;

to collect educational and technical documentation and hand over to the master of industrial training;

clean the workbench and work area from sawdust, shavings and other wood waste;

hand over the workplace to the workshop attendant or the head of the group.

General conditions for choosing a drainage system: The drainage system is selected depending on the nature of the protected.

Papillary patterns of the fingers. marker of athletic ability: dermatoglyphic signs are formed at 3-5 months of pregnancy, do not change during life.

Transverse profiles of embankments and foreshore: In urban areas, bank protection is designed taking into account technical and economic requirements, but attaches particular importance to aesthetic.

Drilling holes in metal and wood

The production of many metal parts involves the creation of various types of holes in the structure. They can be pass-through or deaf. Holes are drilled during plumbing work. These operations make it possible to obtain holes of various diameters and required depths. The technology of drilling holes in metal is brought in line with the flow chart. The drawing indicates the dimensions of the hole, the size of the tolerance, design features (for example, a constant or variable diameter, chamfering from one or both edges, and so on).

Drilling modes

To obtain accurate and high-quality holes, it is necessary to observe the modes and technologies of all operations. Drilling metal assumes compliance with the following modes:

  • selection of the required diameter and type of drill;
  • cutting speed and depth;
  • feed speed and accuracy (drill or workpiece);
  • the angle of contact of the cutting surface with the workpiece;
  • heating temperatures of the workpiece and drill (providing cooling, if necessary).

Fulfillment of all modes makes it possible to obtain a hole in the metal that meets the conditions of the design documentation. Correctly selected mode improves machining accuracy and extends the life of the cutting tool. For the selection of drilling modes for metal products, special tables have been developed. They include precise parameters for cutting data. For example, knowing the steel grade and the diameter of the drill used, you can use the conversion table data to set the cutting speed. This will allow you to fine-tune the spindle speed of the machine you are using. To do this, use a conversion table, which is applied to a special plate and fixed on the front panel of each machine.

In some cases, pre-drilling is used. It prepares the rough hole for further processing (milling or reaming). If the workpiece is thick enough or it is necessary to obtain a deep hole, a phased manufacturing mode is used.

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Drilling technology

The process involves the successive removal of a layer of metal in a circle of a given diameter using a cutting tool. Drilling in metal combines two types of movement. rotary and translational. To obtain the required hole dimensions in metal blanks, it is necessary to accurately maintain the following parameters of the technological process:

  • cutting tool rotation speed;
  • speed of horizontal or vertical movement (depending on the relative position of the workpiece and the drill).

A hole in the metal is obtained with the specified parameters only if the preparatory and basic operation is correctly performed, as well as the selection of the necessary equipment and cutting tools. Pre-drilling is often performed to obtain the required accuracy. It’s called rough. An operation with a reduced accuracy class is performed. Further, the finishing operation is carried out using high-precision machines and tools for metal blanks.

wood, drilling, tools, fixtures

The process itself is carried out in various modes: using a hand tool (drill or other tool), special drilling or metal-cutting machines.

In all cases, various types of drills are used to obtain the required hole. On drilling machines, the chuck with the fixed drill rotates and is brought to the surface of the workpiece. On metal-cutting machines, the drill is fixed in the tailstock of the machine, and the workpiece rotates. The second method allows you to obtain a higher accuracy of the hole and the walls of the resulting hole.

Depending on the tasks for both methods, the following types of drills are used:

  • spiral (the most common type of this tool);
  • with brazed plates on the cutting edge;
  • centering;
  • cannon;
  • feather (used for drilling holes in workpieces from any wood species).

Twist drills exert pressure on the metal surface with their transverse edges. This process accounts for more than 65% of the effort in rotational and translational movement. At this point, there is a significant increase in temperature, both of the workpiece surface and the leading edge of the drill. Therefore, it is necessary to correctly observe the thermal regime during the drilling process.

To speed up the cutting process in twist drills, the so-called double sharpening is used. It allows you to work more efficiently on the hardest grades of metal, including cast iron. Such sharpening leads to an increase in the chip width, a decrease in the value of the main angle, and an increase in the durability and durability of the drill.

The technology for creating centering holes involves the use of special centering drills. They are made of tool steel and have a double-sided combination design.

Application of plates with increased strength to the cutting edge of the drill allows them to be used for drilling in cast iron, metal of increased hardness, dense building structures (from concrete, stone, ceramic granite, and so on).

Pen drills differ in cutting edge design. It is made in the form of plates. They are usually used to make holes in wood blanks. Sometimes special nib drills are used to make holes in hard forgings and some types of casting.

Hole types and drilling methods

In the theory of metalworking, all holes are divided according to the following criteria:

  • appointment;
  • geometric dimensions and depth;
  • degree of processing.

According to their purpose, they are subdivided: for fastening two or more elements, subsequent threading, insertion of individual structural elements.

On the second basis, the following types are considered:

  • end-to-end;
  • deaf (including deep);
  • half-hearted;
  • large diameter.

A special place is occupied by holes that are prepared for cutting internal threads. In this case, drilling and reaming of the holes is carried out taking into account the future diameter of the screwed in element with an external thread. For each of the holes, choose their own drilling methods.

Since drilling is a process of mechanical cutting of metal, therefore, to obtain the desired result, the necessary processing methods should be selected. For the production of through holes in parts, it is necessary to think over a system of their fastening, which will not allow damaging the surface behind the part. It is most advisable to use a vice or clamps.

For the production of blind or half holes, an exact stop of the drill should be provided, which will provide the required size. Drilling large holes requires special equipment. If you need to get holes of different diameters, you should select the required set of drills or use machines with numerical control. They will allow you to automatically change the drill to a tool with a given diameter.

Equipment and accessories for drilling

For each of the stages, a hole drilling tool has been developed. At the preparatory stage, the following tools are used to accurately mark the location of the future hole. To do this, use: a core, a special template or a conductor. The core is a well-sharpened rod made of durable tool steel. With its help, a recess is made on the surface of the workpiece, at the point where drilling is planned. Getting into this recess, the drill does not slip on the surface and accurate drilling is performed.

To increase productivity in enterprises with mass production, special templates are made. They make it possible to mark the places of future holes in the same type of workpieces. Special templates are used for drilling on cylindrical surfaces. They are made from a steel strip bent at a right angle. A small hole is drilled on one of the surfaces, which will later allow the core to make a mark on the cylindrical surface.

To obtain increased accuracy of marking, compliance with the vertical position of the drill and compliance with the specified distance, a tool called a jig is used between the holes. In addition, it is used when drilling thin-walled products, for which a strong mechanical effect is not possible (for example, a hammer blow on a core).

In addition to these products, tools and devices are used that allow drilling with a drill when it is rigidly fixed. For this purpose, I use:

  • guide lock;
  • holding rack;
  • guide for the direction of the drill.

The first two devices are made for a specific design of an electric drill. The jig allows you to accurately guide the drill to the place of the future hole. It is successfully used for sizes not exceeding 20 millimeters. Therefore, when making large-diameter holes with the help of a jig, pre-boring is performed.

All these problems are easily solved when using drilling or turning machines. Drilling machines are divided into three categories:

  • universal;
  • specialized;
  • special.

They are classified according to the following criteria:

  • table design;
  • level of automation;
  • the number of spindles available;
  • degree of accuracy;
  • availability of additional features.

The first category of machines allows you to solve almost the entire range of tasks for the production of holes. A serious limitation is the permissible distance that the chuck can move with a fixed drill. This circumstance does not allow drilling to a great depth. In this case, specialized machines are used. To increase labor productivity and increase the number of produced parts of the same type, special units are designed. They are capable of performing a list of necessary operations with high accuracy and speed.

By design, these machines are available with one or more spindles. The design of the table is diverse: ordinary, floating, lifting and others. The level of automation is determined by the way the drilling operations are performed. The simplest machines are manual and mechanical. advanced are automatic and numerical control machines.

In addition to drilling machines, various lathes are used to solve these problems.

To obtain holes on a lathe, a drill is fixed in the spindle of the headstock, and a workpiece is fixed in the tailstock.

On a lathe, you can perform the entire list of operations related to obtaining holes: directly drilling itself, boring with subsequent reaming or countersinking.

Tips from the masters

When carrying out work, professionals advise you to pay attention to the following features. They are divided into three categories:

  • preliminary (preparatory) stage;
  • stage of work;
  • safety compliance.

At the first stage, it is necessary:

The preliminary stage should end with a check of the reliability of the fastening of the drill and the workpiece. If a drill retainer is used, check its reliability.

Hole drilling operations must be carried out in strict sequence with the drawn up flow chart or technical process. Particular attention should be paid to:

  • the drill must be brought to the place of the future hole only after it has gained a given rotation speed;
  • the drill should be removed only during its rotation (preferably at minimum speed, if there is a possibility of changing the rotation speed);
  • monitor the cutting process (for example, if the cutting edge does not perform the drilling operation, therefore, the drill material is softer than the workpiece material);
  • for drilling non-through holes, it is necessary to provide a retainer or a mark that allows you to determine the depth of the passage in the material;
  • when working on machines equipped with CNC, it is necessary to control the sequence of operations.

An important element when carrying out drilling work is the observance of safety precautions. It assumes compliance with the following rules:

  • ensuring the reliability of fastening of all structural elements;
  • organization of the conditions for the removal of the formed shavings;
  • compliance with the temperature regime (preventing overheating of the drill and workpiece);
  • the use of special clothing and protective equipment (hands, eyes, open areas of the body);
  • there should be no loose hanging elements on the clothes;
  • long hair should be tucked into the headgear (this will prevent the possibility of winding them around the rotating elements of the machine).

The use of professional advice will allow you to perform a high-quality drilling operation and get holes of a high degree of accuracy in the places indicated in the design documentation.