Wood trimming saw with his hands
Saws of crosscutting saws
It is only possible to try to compare the various models of wood facing saws after you have become acquainted with their differences in the processing method. According to this principle, crosscut saws are subdivided into the following types:
The peculiarity of the first type of these devices is an additional mechanism that allows moving the saw’s disc horizontally while the saw is working.
Please note! Simple mitre saws do not usually have this additional function.
The wood compound mitre saw combines two functions in itself: it can be used not only as a trimmer but also as a saw.
As a rule, the saw blade is mounted on two parallel rails in the crosscut saws with the broach. Thanks to this device, it has the ability to move within certain boundaries, allowing the width of the wood cut to be set arbitrarily.
When we study the transmission used in the saw, we must note that it can be belt or toothed. Which of these two mechanisms should be preferred is a complicated question, due to the nature of each. The toothed gearing virtually eliminates the risk of drive slippage in wood processing (a frequent problem when working at very high loads).
Belt drives, on the other hand, are subject to little slippage under heavy loads, but are virtually silent. over, it does not vibrate the disc at all, thus extending its service life.
How to make a self-made crosscutting machine (trimming machine) for wood with your own hands
Trimmer design is similar to the circular saw mounted above the work table. Its main advantages are compactness and low weight. Due to this, they are used not only in workshops, but also on construction sites. Unfortunately, self-made tools are quite bulky and heavy. Operate them conveniently in stationary mode.
Trimming saw is designed for the only task. to cut the ends of lumber at different angles. Due to the fact that during cutting the workpiece on the table is stationary, the cut is accurate and clean. Masters who deal with woodworking, give preference to this very tool. And saws made with their own hands have been successfully used for years.
Materials and tools required
First you need to decide on a project. Above, attention was paid to what a crosscutting machine can be constructed from:
- The most technologically advanced and affordable material is sheet wood. They can easily be cut to the required dimensions using the same existing parquet (part of the future machine);
- frame construction of the bed with the elements of chipboard or plywood in the implementation is more complicated and expensive, and therefore not always justified;
- You will need self-tapping screws.
In addition to construction materials, the following elements will be needed for the construction of a trimming device:
If you choose the technology of production of the bed, which does not contain steel parts and elements, in this case, from the tools will be required:
It is surprising how little you need in order to construct a crosscutting machine with your own hands.
How to make wood trimmers with your own hands
A wide variety of equipment can be used for woodworking. This kind of material is amenable to processing, which determined its popularity in the manufacture of various things. To change the size and shape of workpieces, a crosscutting machine is used. Its design is similar to that of a circular saw, but there are several differences that determine the popularity of the machine. The main advantages are its low weight and small dimensions, which makes it possible to install it in a home workshop. It is possible to make the wood trimming machine by your own hands, but as a rule, the self-made machine will be more cumbersome and less productive. It is convenient to operate this equipment in a stationary mode.
Purpose of the Trimmer
Unlike the drive-through circular saw, the considered trimmer can be used exclusively for trimming the ends of various lumber. Some models allow for a certain angle. In the case under consideration, trimming takes place when the workpiece is stationary, which determines a better cut. This point determines the fact that the homemade crosscutting machine in workshops is quite common, because only when using it, you can make a clean, even end. Saws made by hand can serve for several years without overhaul.
Grinding saw on the basis of an angle grinder
An angle grinder is often used for the task at hand. It is ideal for making your own end trimming machine for machining end surfaces. Self-made version will have the following technical characteristics:
- RPM of the angle grinder disk should not be less than 4500 rpm;
- cutting length is 350 millimeters. Note that this index is significantly higher than the factory tool, which belongs to the middle class.
The created design allows you to remove the angle grinder from the table and use it as an ordinary tool.
When considering how to make such a version of the design, let us note the following points:
- The cutting tool is mounted on an axle, which is represented by a car wheel. This point determines the possibility of facing at an angle. 150 millimeters diameter bearing is used for fixation of the swivel mechanism. To fix the angle grinder uses a special mechanism that is attached to the rotary axis. It is advisable to lubricate this axle after a certain time, as it is likely to squeak;
- to fix a defined angle during machining, special spacers are welded on the outside of the bearing. Fixing is carried out with a screw, for example, M6. The lugs should be mounted so that there is not a large gap between them. Otherwise, there is a possibility of a strong backlash, which significantly reduces the accuracy of processing; Pole-saw on the basis of the angle grinder 3D-model (drawing) of a self-made crosscutting machine Self-made model, made on the basis of a circular saw
- swarf should be prevented from entering the bearing. this is because swarf inside the bearing causes wear and the cutting tool does not rotate smoothly. The chips can be quite fine, leading to rapid wear of the bearing. The introduction of a lubricant also helps to eliminate the possibility of rapid bearing wear;
- The broach can be created with a shock absorber. It is recommended to choose the versions from trucks, as they are more resistant to the environment. Broken shock absorbers can also be used. Preparation of the shock absorber consists of removing the oil and drilling holes, which become a kind of ventilation. The holes should be covered with mesh with small holes in order to prevent wood chips from getting into the ventilation system;
- In order not to feel a strong jerk at the beginning of work, you should equip the angle grinder with a soft starter module. This module reduces the number of revolutions at the beginning of the start-up and spins up the blade gradually to operating speed. You will not be able to make the softstarter yourself, it must be removed from another device, or purchased separately.
The last stage of production can be called the creation of a shield for the saw. This element eliminates the possibility of getting into the cutting zone of foreign bodies. The end trimming machine can be used in the home.
However, the design under consideration has significant disadvantages, which should be taken into account. These include:
- Trimming machine, made by own hands, is very noisy. This is due to the peculiarities of operation of the angle grinder. During processing there is noise, which is almost impossible to reduce;
- The end trimming machine is used for high-quality machining of end surfaces. That is why quite a lot of attention is paid to the accuracy of the location of the angle grinder with a disc relative to the workpiece. To adjust the location of the angular grinder with a disc, cut-off bars are used. The pull should be fixed by means of a bolt, after which the machining can be carried out.
The drawings of the crosscutting machine determine that it can be installed quite easily in almost any workshop. Take into account the fact that the design is small, and the workpiece can be quite large. In order to eliminate the possibility of loss of accuracy during processing, it is necessary to hold the design to the base.
Particular attention is paid to the type of disc installed. The angle grinder was originally designed for processing metal, which determines the presence of a large number of discs for metal. But there are also discs for woodworking, which have their own features.
Note that there are quite a few drawings that can be used when creating a crosscutting machine. Some are simple enough to implement, others are difficult to perform.
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Professional and homemade wood trimming machines
An ordinary circular saw is the best way to cut a small piece of wood. But the repetition of this operation requires very precise machining of identical workpiece ends. It is best to use a wood mitre saw for this purpose.
This is a more sophisticated device than a simple circular saw. It makes it possible to cut wood surfaces with saws that can be equipped with two basic features: the number of teeth and the diameter of the blade.
Real Pendulum Machines
How a “true pendulum cutting machine” for metal is set up is shown in fig.; the oscillating “pendulum” is color-coded.
Design of a pendulum metal cutting machine
“The key feature of this design is the rocker arm, which is balanced by the weight of the motor so that the idle feed force (without cutting) for the whole length of the stroke is approx. Even and was approx. 5 N (about 0.5 kgf). Such idle force is what enables an experienced cutter to have the best feel for the material and to work at maximum productivity without accumulating fatigue, literally by playing. If, however, a dangerous situation occurs and the worker throws the feed handle, the inertia of the motor and the rocker bar fins ensure a smooth rebound of the disk. Probability of dangerous situation transition to an emergency situation and cutting tool damage is considerably decreased, and the workpiece more often remains undamaged. you looked what is wrong, corrected, finished cutting.
Note: There is almost always a boom return spring in balanced pendulum cut-off machines, but the role of a rebound emergency spring (see Pic. further) it practically does not play, it only gives the initial push to the heavy rocker if the disk is “bent”. The return spring in this type of machine is most often used to set the idle force “under itself”.
Examples of a homemade machine
The most complicated assembly unit of the design shown above is a rotary table with angle divider; it is impossible to make it “on your knee” at home. Cutting at a given angle with all the designs described below is carried out by turning and fixing the whole machine relative to the table (workbench) for workpieces with a longitudinal stop (or vice versa, the workbench relative to the machine). Easier with parting machines made of angle grinders, see the below. further.
The outline and basic detail drawings of the most common makeshift cutting off machine are shown on the next page. Figure.
Appearance and basic detail drawings of the universal self-made cut off machine
This machine is also mobile: it can be hand-carried within the site and carried in the trunk of a car. This can be a valuable quality, e.g., when assembling/disassembling/repairing pipelines on site. Motor power on the shaft (see Fig. further) 1,2-1,5 kW. Wheel speed 2500-2900 rpm; up to 350 mm wheel diameter.
For those still confused about tolerances and fits, see also fig. the conditions for coordinating the coupled dimensions are given; dimensions D32 are coordinated according to the rule for D15. To get the required alignment (centering) of shaft journals for bearings (D20-0), we recommend to use the following machine.03) on a normal precision lathe, they need to be turned clean in one setup and one pass of the cutter (the feed. minimum, it’s not you pull dross).
Beaker in this case is steel sheet S4, reinforced by a collar from the pipe D30; its bend is a feed lever. The boom can be framed, made of 30x30x2 profiled tubing. Its span (length) is not critical within the range of 400-500 mm. There is no return spring (it is possible to put one). Luffing up of the boom is set by moving its “tail” backwards from the hinge (see Fig.3). below).
The bearing shells of the machine shaft are assembled with the D21 holes facing each other in a mirror-like fashion. In informal design jargon, this mounting method is called “butt to butt” (relaxed in a freely accessible publication). In this case it allows to exclude longitudinal displacement of the shaft in the bearings without additional constructive elements, as.к. cups of their cages are closed on the right by the faceplate, and on the left by the driven pulley. Assembly of the working shaft knot on the wishbone is performed as follows. procedure:
- The bearings are inserted into prefabricated cages (with brackets welded and trimmed to the plane);
- the bearing shells are put on the shaft as described above;
- the long shank D15 (left in the drawing) is put on the idler pulley;
- The spacer is put on top of the pulley on the same shank;
- Push the sheave through the spacer and tighten it with an M14 nut;
- the shaft with bearings and the pulley is placed on the rocker and temporarily tightened to it by the middle of the clamp (not too tight)!);
- the bearing shells are also temporarily braced with wooden splinters;
- the shaft is aligned precisely parallel to the leading edge of the rocker arm: its projections upwards should be tangent to the bearing shells. Use two straighteners at the same time!
- Press studs are quickly welded on to the bevel brackets. Current. no more than 60-80A;
- the clamp and spacers are removed, check the ease of rotation of the shaft. Stuck. cut off bezels by welding and repeat step. 6-10;
- finally weld the bearing shells together. Weld with short stitches alternately right-left;
- let the assembly cool down completely and check again shaft rotation. Cleats, jams. alas, overheated during welding. Hands still need to grow, as it is necessary, and the rims will have to make (order) anew. Probably change the bearings as well;
- the shaft rotates easily and smoothly. cover the bearing unit with an easy guard against filings and dross.
the rocker arm pivot is assembled similarly, but with the boot from the boot (with the cups of the cage inside) and also covered with a light dust cover. Hinge axle. piece of round bar D(21 45), what you have at hand. On the ends are turned bearing journals, the same as on a working shaft, and shanks M14 length from 40 mm. The frame is made of profiled pipes, angles from 40×40 etc.п. from scrap metal at hand. The hinge is fastened in eyes of its supports with a pair of nuts (inside and outside). Another variant of joint assembly. its bearing shells are welded to the flat frame together with the axis, as on the inset in pic. Then the rocker is welded to the axis of the hinge or attached to it by threaded hardware. But it is much harder to center the joint in this way, and more difficult to protect its bearings from dust.
The drive pulley of the engine should be made /sorted so that the speed of the disk was close to the nominal. The starting scheme of the engine is assembled beforehand on the left side (looking from the shaft) of rotation, “sparks from itself. In such a case, the recoil of the cutting force will tighten the nuts of the pulleys and disc; they will be held firm by friction, cotter pins, cotter pins, etc.п. no additional “inconvenient” technologically advanced clamps are needed.
Smaller but more accurate (suitable for diamond discs) cutting machine drawings are shown in Fig. Electric motor 350-400 W 2800-3000 rpm.
Blueprints of a homemade precision cut-off machine
Breakdown by positions: 1. electric motor; 2. frame; 3. protective cover of the working body (steel s2); 4. working body (abrasive disk); 5. protective cover of belt transmission (steel s2); 6. V-belt A-1018; 7. screw M8x14; 8. driving pulley (D 16); 9. cover of the belt transmission hood (s2 steel); 10. driven pulley (D 16); 11. spacer sleeve (steel); 12. washer (steel); 13. feed handle; 14. bolt M6x12; 15. screw M5x10; 16. machine shaft (steel) 17. front cover of bearing unit (D 16); 18. rear cover of bearing unit (D 16); 19. bushing (steel); 20. washer (steel); 21. nut (steel); 22. ball bearing 03; 23. spindle housing (steel); 24. gear housing boss (steel); 25. screw M6x8; 26. screw M8x16; 27. disk housing boss (steel); 28. rocker arm bracket (steel); 20. bolt M6x16; 30. rocker arm pivot (1/2″ tube, steel); 31. joint axis (steel); 32. bushing (steel); 33. washer; 34. nut M10; 35. mounting plate of electric motor (steel), 36. motor starter housing (D16).
Note: housings of spindle and rocker arm joint before assembly are filled with CYATIM-221 grease.
Features of this design, the first, the absence of ball bearings in the rocker arm pivot. This simplified the manufacturing of the machine assembly (no complicated turning of its axis and its alignment). The second is that the long arm of the boom is not a straight ridge, but a broken cantilever in the plan. This makes the machine more compact and the working body more resistant to torsion along the axis of the pendulum. Т.е., thin diamond disks sensitive to jamming and chipping can be dressed in this machine without any fear. But rough work and frequent transportation from place to place would not withstand such a machine: in the pendulum joint a transverse run-out occurs, and that would negate all cares and efforts to improve accuracy. In general, it is a machine for accurate work with enough quality materials.
Note: the machines of this kind are successfully using “softer” motors from washing machines, plugged directly into the domestic power grid, see. e.g. roller:
The following machine (see. Figure.) even more specialized: it is a pendulum wood saw. It makes work much faster and easier when cutting firewood in the Nordic regions (compared to a chainsaw). It pays for itself in 1-2 seasons in a household with wood heating; in a sawmill or lumberyard, for cutting logs into manageable pieces of wood, even faster.
Wood pendulum saw blueprints
- motor power is reduced, t.к. wood is quite a soft material;
- Unpretentious about the power supply. Single-phase 1.5 kW 220 V motor can be found on sale, and a 12/24 V DC voltage converter. AC 220 V 50/60 Hz costs up to 30-40;
- The rotation speed of the working body is optimized to the wood saw blade;
- because the likelihood of the saw jamming in wood is much higher than the abrasive in metal, the center of mass of the pendulum is shifted far back from the axis of swing (pivot). For this purpose the heavy motor is mounted on the rear console of the rocker;
- according to p. 4 lengthened and the front arm of the rocker so that the operator does not have to apply excessive force to the feed lever;
- there is no return spring. with such a swing arm span it is either useless or needed very tight and making it very difficult to work;
- In consequence of n. 6 and because no special cleanliness and precision of cutting is required, the pendulum pivot is a piece of pipe and a piece of round pivot pin;
- due to the pn. 4 and 5 the direction of rotation of the working body is changed to straight (sawdust from itself);
- because of n. 8 the attachment of the belt drive pulleys is keyed, and the saw blade. on the left-hand thread;
- sawdust from wood is much higher than from metal, and it is sticky. That’s why the narrow protective guard. “” of the disc is replaced by a wide front guard (shown with a dotted line on the left in Fig.);
- again because of the p. 4 master and idler pulleys are used with parabolic blade profile. The wedge belt in parabolic pulleys dampens jerks well on small knots, but slips when the disc gets stuck in the wood, not allowing an abnormal situation to develop into an emergency situation;
- the additional safety precautions must be observed when working with this saw. In particular, it is forbidden to stand behind the working saw and lean over the feed lever in order not to get a “crowbar in the face” inadvertently.
Note: The wood pendulum saw spindle can be structurally identical to the one described above (for the universal mobile machine), but the threads on its shanks and the nuts for it need to be left-handed.
About the choice of the motor
In the construction descriptions above the mechanical output of the motors on the Pm shaft is indicated. For asynchronous motors its difference from the rated electric Re is significant, t.к. their torque cannot vary within a wide range. Selection of a suitable asynchronous electric motor for the projected “cut-off” is made as follows. in this way:
- Look on the nameplate or on the data sheet for Re and cos φ (analogous to the efficiency for AC motors);
- determine the nominal power on the shaft Rn = Reos φ;
- if a 220 V single-phase motor, consider Рм = Pn;
- if a 3-phase 380 V motor is converted to single-phase 220 V star, we consider Рм = 0.707Pn;
- the same, in a triangle, Рm = 0.5Pn.
Example of “backwards” calculation. Need a 1.2 kW “mechanical” motor. Single-phase household power. The typical value of cos φ for powers of this order is 0.85. So, we must look for Pn/cos φ = 1.2/0.85 = 1.4 kW. There are no single-phase motors for that power within reach, so we are looking for 3-phase with Pn/0.707 = 2kW with star winding or the same type with Pn/0.5 = 2.8kW if the winding is connected in delta.
Note the amateur cutting machines. universal “garage-economy” on the disk up to 350 mm:
with electronic speed regulator (the motor power is excessive, t.к. adjustment is made by changing the operating frequency, at lowering of which the torque decreases significantly):
powerful high-performance complete with a rotary die table:
Grinding saw out of the angle grinder with my own hands
Trimmer design is similar to a circular saw installed above the work table. Its main advantages: compactness not low weight. Therefore, they are used not only in workshops, but also on construction sites. Often, self-made tools are quite bulky and not heavy. It is convenient to operate them in the stationary mode.
Trimming saw is designed for the only task. trimming the ends of lumber at different angles. Due to the fact that at the time of cutting the workpiece on the table is stationary, the cut is neat not clean. Craftsmen who work with wood rely on this tool more than any other. over, self-made saws have been successfully used for years.
A crosscut saw from a hand circular saw with their own hands
Trimming saw most often represents a circular saw, the features of which structure allow with the best effect to cut at a certain angle many materials, including metals.
Today we will tell you what is a crosscut saw, what are its characteristics, how you can assemble it with your own hands and what to consider when choosing ready-made models. It is worth thinking about how to assemble a trimmer with their own hands, because it will save you a lot of money.
- 2 Special features of facing saws application
- 3 How to make a crosscut saw with your own hands
3.1 Advantages of makeshift crosscut saws
How to make a crosscut saw from a circular saw with your own hands?
Trimming saw. a device that every builder should adopt. However, it is no secret that high-quality professional tools, presented in the construction market, are quite expensive. That is why those who want to save money, as well as to show their skills, should try to make a crosscut saw with their own hands. The starting material for this will be a circular saw.
Varieties of mitre saws
There are several types of trimming saws (they are also popularly called “trimmers”). Let’s get acquainted with these varieties.
The basic part of such a saw is the bed. On the bed is mounted table, which must have a swivel mechanism equipped with a ruler. It is this mechanism that allows the process of cutting at a certain angle, adjusting it to the specific individual needs of each user. And this angle can be changed by moving the working table directly in relation to the bed.
As for the saw itself, it is fixed in this device with the help of a lever, as well as spring-loaded by means of a hinge. Thanks to the pendulum, which gave its name to this type of mitre saw, the saw moves downward or upward.
When using a combination type saw, the cutting angle can be changed in 2 directions. The device consists of an additional joint, just like the previous version. In order to change the angle of cut, it must be adjusted and pulled to the side that is opposite to the place where the drive is mounted.
This device is considered the most versatile, as the saw can be shifted not only around the axis, but also along the kerf in a straight line.
110 Year Old Hand Saw Restoration. Disston & Sons, Inc.
How to make a coping saw from a circular saw?
If you do not have the opportunity or desire to buy a ready-made mitre saw, such a device can be made by yourself. But it is not possible to make it from scratch. The initial design should be a manual circular saw and drawings.
So, in order to make a face grinder with your own hands at home, you need to make a box, which will perform the function of the base. You can use Woodchipboard (particle board) as the raw material for making the box.
In the process of knocking down and assembling the box, experts recommend using screws, consisting of 1 element. they are essentially ordinary ties to connect the wooden parts. The final box for the base for trimming should have the shape of the letter “U”.
When making the box, it is important to ensure that it does not shift. Often it is attached to the table with special clamps (a tool used to fix it). Next, on top of the shelf you need to screw the manufactured base for the saw.
Important: when attaching the base it is necessary to observe an angle of 90 degrees, otherwise you will not be able to align the sole of the saw.
On both sides by means of self-tapping screws should be fixed small pieces of chipboard. Thanks to such manipulation, you will adjust the position of the tool soleplate. The next step in the transformation of the circular saw is its fixation. And you should do it with the same clamps, and you can also use wing clamps.
Then you should move on to install the so-called table. It should be fixed near the base of the table. However, keep in mind that in the process of performing this activity, you reduce the depth of the cut by 1.5 centimeters, so try to put the profile as close as possible to the saw element.
After the above described manipulations you can proceed with the test cut. you should get a line of the cut on the base of the stop. If it happened that way, you did everything right.
As you see, it is quite possible to make a mitre saw from a circular hand saw. The main thing is to strictly follow the instructions and recommendations, as well as to apply a little effort and patience.
Advantages and disadvantages of a homemade device
Like any other device, the homemade mitre saw, derived from a manual circular saw, has its own characteristics and features. Some of them have a positive character, and the other part is colored negatively. Either way, it is necessary to take into account both of these attributes.
- The first and most important advantage of the home-made mitre saw is a significant financial saving. Thus, the purchase of ready-made tools will cost you quite a lot (average ), and making the tool with their own hands from the material point of view is available to almost everyone.
- Another advantage of the device made by oneself is the fact that all saw parameters (e.g. cutting depth, rpm, power, length and width of the base) are chosen individually. Thus, this unit will be more effective for personalized work than a purchased unit.
- In addition, self-made saw, you will be familiar with all its components, and this, in turn, means that in the case of any breakdowns and malfunctions you can easily repair the tool.
- Often, as the starting materials for the manufacture of crosscut saw with their own hands use available in the household improvised means. It is worth noting that these materials are not always of high quality. That is why the service life and quality of the homemade device can be very short and low.
- In order to make the machine, it is necessary to have at least minimal technical knowledge and skills. A beginner will not be able to cope with such a task.
- Self-made trimmer is not suitable for jobs that require high-powered saw. If this is the type of unit you need, you will need professional parts, extensive knowledge and quite a lot of time to make it. Thus, it is easier to buy a ready-made device.
- A crosscut you make yourself from a circular saw would not be safe and could be accidental in use.
on how to make a crosscut saw from a circular saw, see the video below.