Working with a sander on wood
The sole of the vibration sander can be rectangular or triangular. During operation, it makes circular movements with a small amplitude. it vibrates, which gave the name to this type of equipment. This wood sander is used for fine finishing. for varnishing or painting, but has a low performance.
A vibrating sander for wood with a rectangular surface allows you to process large areas, but with its help it is not possible to sand wood near vertical planes and walls. it starts to beat against an obstacle. Triangular in this regard is more suitable for working in corners and hard-to-reach places, but you still can’t bring it tightly to the wall.
The vibrating machine is used for finishing
Another disadvantage of vibrating systems is the so-called “lambs”. If a grain of sand or other solid fragment gets under the surface, it leaves small circles on the wood. “lambs”. Removing these marks is difficult. It is necessary to use sandpaper of increasingly fine grain, gradually removing scratches. But if in the process something gets under the sole again, the process is repeated again. Therefore, before work, the surface is thoroughly cleaned and the plyosos is usually connected. for quick and timely removal of extraneous fragments.
Types of woodworking machines
Currently, there are numerous types of grinding machines that are designed to perform various types of work with wood. They differ in their design and are intended for domestic and industrial use. You can easily select both highly specialized models and universal machines, which are designed for complex wood processing.
If necessary, you can make a homemade sander for metal or wood, made on the basis of a drill, a motor from a washing machine or using other equipment.
It is called so due to the fact that the sandpaper is in the form of a tape, continuously moving with the help of rollers. Therefore, such a sander for wood is also called “endless”.
The wood belt sander is designed for rough and intermediate leveling of the surface. By installing a finer grit sandpaper, a medium finish can be achieved. This is sufficient for joinery that cannot be painted. To bring it to perfect condition, you need a different type of wood sander. over, to eliminate long longitudinal scratches, you will have to carry out stepwise grinding, changing the grain several times. the scratches remain deep.
A belt sander is good if you need to remove the old coating. paint varnish
Why is a wood belt sander good? It has good performance. The tape is installed on it in such a way that it turns out to be sanding close to the wall with one side. What are its disadvantages? Due to the construction, not all points can be reached. For example, corners, grooves, grooves and other small parts. It is not always possible to “crawl” between two parts (when processing handrails, for example). Another drawback is that most of the belt sanders have a solid mass, it is difficult to work with them on weight, sanding vertical surfaces. But on the horizontal plane. they are the most productive.
The next disadvantages are high noise level, not the largest sanding spot. It makes so much noise that it is extremely uncomfortable to work without headphones. Why a small polishing spot, because it looks large enough? Even with a large belt width, it grinds only in the center. the part at the front and back is not used due to the fact that it is raised for feeding onto the rollers.
It can be turned into a grinder
The wood belt sander has features in work. To reduce the depth of the furrows that it leaves, it must be guided along the fibers. Then finishing sanding takes less time. And yet. if you gape in the process of work and leave the machine in one place for a long time, a solid “pit” will form. Despite this, it is the most productive wood sander that is often used.
What type of sander to choose
To summarize, we can say that for housework and construction, ideally, two grinders are needed. for a rough and a fine finish. The most commonly used pair is tape eccentric. If you are planning to make furniture, then you cannot do without oscillation.
If you do not like the result of a belt sander, you can purchase two orbital ones with different eccentricities. For rough grinding, a tool with an eccentricity of 6-8 mm is suitable, for finishing grinding and even polishing. 2-4 mm. The only drawback of this solution is that good eccentric sanders are expensive.
If the budget is limited, and the farm has an angle grinder (angle grinder), rough grinding can be done with it, and for intermediate or fine grinding, use orbital or vibration. Just keep in mind that vibration is the least productive, albeit the cheapest. If possible, buy an orbital one. it is more versatile and gives better results.
The main purpose of this type of aggregate is horizontal alignment using a jointer. This type of equipment is used mainly in industrial workshops, which is explained by the complexity of its design and the narrow specialization of drum units. With the help of drum grinding machines, wood products of the same type with the same thickness are made and processed.
How to use a wood sander
A wood sander is an indispensable tool for finishing work in a country house. Using a grinding machine allows you to speed up the process of grinding and polishing wooden surfaces. wall cladding, floors, furniture, decorative items. Sanders for wood are convenient and compact, allow you to perform high-quality leveling of any wood surfaces.
There are several main types of grinders for household use, their different design and principle of operation determine their purpose. For construction and renovation, joinery and carpentry, the following types of grinders are used:
- Belt sanders (LShM). a tool for aggressive and rough processing of wood, plastic, metal surfaces.
- Vibratory grinders (GSHM) allow for softer processing due to circular motions with a small amplitude. The grinding surface of the orbital sander has a rectangular shape, which makes it easier to grind corners.
- A type of flat orbital sander is a delta sander, it has a triangular shape of the sole. Delta sander is handy for small and hard-to-reach areas, corners, grooves and depressions.
- An eccentric sander refers to a tool that allows you to grind a surface to a polished state due to the combination of rotational and oscillatory movements of the grinding pad. But for small surfaces and interior corners, the eccentric sander is not suitable.
Popular models of belt sander
|Interskol||LShM-76/900||900 watts||76 mm / 533 mm||250 m / min||3.2 kg||55-90|
|Makita||9911||650 Wt||76 mm / 457 mm||270 m / min||2.6KG||100-150|
|Bosch||PBS 75 AE||750 watts||75 mm / 533 mm||350 m / min||3.5 kg||120-160|
|Interskol||LShM-100 / 1200E||1200 watts||100 mm / 610 mm||400 m / min||5.6 kg||100-150|
|Makita||9404||1010 Wt||100 mm / 610 mm||440 m / min||4.7 kg||200-270|
General recommendations to help the master make the perfect choice
expert of the category “Power Tools”
To get a smooth and perfectly smooth surface when sanding, I always recommend that craftsmen use two sanders. One is for primary, rough roughing, the other is for final cleaning.
If everything is clear with the initial processing. here you need to take a belt sander, then when bringing the surface to perfection, you can use one of two types:
- Vibrating (another name for surface grinding, or abbreviated. PSHM);
- Eccentric (ESM, another name is orbital).
Both are designed for sanding substrates at the completion of work. Which of these machines is better in which situation. a vibration or eccentric sander? I will tell you today in this article.
You will find out what their main differences are, how their design determines the capabilities of each device, what are their strengths and weaknesses.
The information provided will give you the necessary knowledge on how to grind surfaces of different shapes using these aggregates, and which one is more suitable for you.
Structural difference between the two machines
Both machines are capable of delicately sanding the surface with emery cloths. In fact, they do the same work, but there is a difference between them. They differ in both form and principle of operation. In FSHM, the surface is often rectangular (but it can be deltoid and square). And the eccentric has a round sole. Therefore, depending on the complexity of the grinding work and the shape of the workpieces, you choose a machine with a comfortable sole shape. For example, steps or shelves are quietly sanded with PSHM, thanks to the angular sole, you can reach any corner.
The eccentric clipper is used for working with both flat surfaces and radii, as well as wooden parts of various shapes. Orbital and eccentric grinders are used in construction workshops, in car services they perform not only finishing work for grinding wood, but are also convenient for all kinds of finishing work. But still, their main purpose is to ideally prepare the surface for painting or to give the details the required shape.
In fact, these are two identical instruments, however, there is some difference. The surface grinder (vibration) grinder will cope with any surface: wood, plastic, metal, walls (plasterboard). But she does it a little roughly, unlike ESM. In turn, the orbital sander will perform this entire list of works more delicately due to the fact that it has the function of additional rotation, which helps to hide the traces of grinding.
Grinding is used both for large, flat surfaces and for round blanks, grooves, finishing of decorative elements, for sealing seams and joints. The range of grinding works is quite wide, so there is no universal machine that would grind everything in the world with the same efficiency. Modern manufacturers present such a variety of tools for grinding that it is not so easy for a beginner, but even for a professional, to determine on the fly which grinder is best for wood.
First, you need to clearly know what task you will set for your instrument, for what, in fact, it is intended. This is important, since grinders differ from each other not only in power, but also in design, in the principle of operation. Each class of machines is designed for specific tasks. Therefore, I will introduce you to the main types that it is advisable to know for making the right choice.
And there are not so many of them, only three:
- Tape machines. remove a rough layer of paint, varnish, blackness from wooden surfaces. They do it quickly enough, roughly, but very effectively. Grinding thanks to the rotating belt;
- Flat sanding. sanding is carried out thanks to a vibrating sole, on which sandpaper is put on. Also well suited for removing paint, varnishes and, depending on the size of the sole, they successfully carry out finishing work;
- Eccentric ones have the most complex grinding mechanism, but thanks to this they make it possible to perform any grinding work delicately, ideally bring the surface to be painted or hidden with varnish and give the best quality result.
Ideally, for a good craftsman, furniture workshop, carpentry workshop, all three types are needed. Since their purpose is different. As you can see, they are necessary for different stages of sanding wood or other materials. plastic, metal (not profile materials for processing). But if finances do not allow, then choose the one that you need the most. You can try to finish everything else manually. Although difficult and inconvenient, it can also be time consuming.
Now I will tell you in detail about each type of grinder, which will undoubtedly help you in your further choice.
How does a belt sander work and why?
Note that a belt sander for wood is the most productive and most powerful in the class of equipment presented. It copes well with a large amount of work, especially where you need to grind a lot and quickly. If you compare it with agricultural machinery, then this is a tractor for virgin lands. However, this tool can be adapted for processing smaller parts, because some manufacturers complete the machines with additional equipment that allows them to be turned into small grinding machines. The only thing that you limit yourself to is the grain size of the tape, because the most popular sizes are 60, 80 and 120, and the smallest is 230 mm. Smaller sizes, unfortunately, are either extremely rare or made homemade, which is not always good for the instrument itself.
The design of the tape machine is simple and reliable. The main drive of this machine is belt drive. The abrasive belt is connected in a ring, the movement of which is provided by two rollers, like a caterpillar on a tractor. This design allows for impressive rotational speeds. For some models, it may exceed 500 m / min. Depending on the performance and its class, the rollers can be made of different materials. In the household class, both rollers are made of plastic, covered with rubber. In the hobby class of cars, the rear drive roller is made of metal, and in professional equipment, both rollers are metal (although there are machines for complex work equipped with two plastic rollers). But this performance has its drawbacks. due to the high speed of rotation of the tape, some units are exposed to overheating, especially for household machines. Manufacturers of professional tools install special cork (graphite) gaskets, which reduce the temperature and make it possible to work with a machine for a long time.
- Peel off paint, varnish, darkening;
- Remove irregularities from a wooden board;
- Grinding large areas.
As you understand, this device works quite roughly and after such grinding, the question immediately arises as to more delicate processing of the workpiece with which you are working. Then they will need to be smoothed out either with the notorious sandpaper in hand, or with vibration or eccentric machines, which are more delicate in grinding.
When choosing LSHM, we take into account the following characteristics:
- Electric motor power
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The spectrum ranges from 0.5 to 1.2 kW. The more powerful the engine, the heavier the machine, has a high belt speed and does not need excessive pressure, that is, it works well under its own weight, which is convenient for horizontal grinding.
- Belt speed
Possible in the range from 150 to 550 meters per minute. The higher this indicator, the more area you will be able to process in a short time. For most models, a speed regulator is installed for convenience, since the work may not always be of the same type and the material can be not only wood, but also plastic and metal, then you obviously cannot do without it. With high frictional force, the wood starts to burn.
- Belt width
Abrasive belts come in two basic sizes. 75×533 mm and 76×457 mm. These sizes are suitable for almost 80% of belt sanders from different manufacturers. There are other sizes, but they are less common and are only suitable for narrow specific jobs.
- Protective systems
Protection of the motor against overheating and overload only if it has a speed controller installed (only in a professional power tool). Reducing the heating of some elements of the case is also mainly used in professional and hobby-class tools.
Each machine is equipped with a garbage bag or a special filter. But, as practice shows, they collect no more than 70% of dust, so connecting a construction vacuum cleaner will ideally solve this issue.
- Additional elements
- clamps for securely attaching the machine to the table (turns the machine into a machine and makes it possible to work with small parts);
- an additional frame prevents distortions during grinding;
- rip fence and crosscut fence. increase work precision.
Vibrating or flat grinder, its features and advantages
The choice of sander for wood in its final processing always fluctuates between two types. vibration and orbital (eccentric) model. They both rub the surface well to perfect smoothness and cleanliness. But in a surface grinding (aka vibration) sole, as a rule, it is larger. Therefore, for serious volumes of work, it is better to choose it.
The structure of the PSHM is as follows: the engine is located vertically, the rotation mechanism is an eccentric, and at the output we get a clockwise vibration movement. The range of motion depends on the size of the sole and the rotation mechanism itself. The sole is located perpendicular to the engine, and the sandpaper attachment is very convenient. there are “pawls” on the sides of the sole, which firmly and reliably fix the tape. The big plus is that you don’t have to be tied to the standard size of the skins. You can just buy sandpaper in rolls, cut off the required size and work.
5 biggest sanding mistakes to avoid with a random orbit sander | Basic woodworking skills.
The advantages of this design:
- Low cost;
- Quick change of grinding skins;
- The shape of the sole allows you to work in corners, sand the edges without leaving so-called “dead” zones;
- The device is lightweight, compact and convenient.
When choosing a device, pay attention to:
In this type of equipment, it makes no sense to install a super-powerful engine, therefore the motor power of the largest machine does not exceed 400 W and it is enough, since installing a more powerful engine significantly increases the weight of the machine, and this will greatly limit the speed of operation.
- The amplitude of movement of the sole
It can range from 1 to 5 mm. The higher the amplitude, the less effective the quality of surface grinding, but at the same time productive.
- Oscillation frequency of the sole
Also an important parameter. The higher the vibration frequency, the cleaner the grinding is. But not equally good for all materials.
- The size and shape of the working platform
The soles are rectangular, square and deltoid. Rectangular. for flat large surfaces, deltoid and square. convenient for radii and hard-to-reach places.
- rectangular. 185 and 229 mm;
- square. 114 mm;
- deltoid. 100 mm.
The material of the sole also matters. Most machines have a plastic outsole with glued rubber for better cushioning. But, as practice shows, in inexpensive machines, these soles have a slight factory curvature, which is not suitable for prof. work, but for everyday tasks it is enough. For professionals, on the contrary. instead of plastic, durable, composite materials are used, and in its large mass, the sole is made of light alloy, so the accuracy and quality of work is guaranteed. A special porous material is attached to the sole.
- Fastening emery
Rigid and stable attachment of the skin is provided by spring-loaded clips (“crocodiles”). The replacement is quick and convenient. However, there is an even faster way of attaching and replacing. with Velcro. But such a sole has very high wear.
- Forced dust extraction
As with belt sanders, the dust extraction system works effectively only with the connection of a vacuum cleaner.
How eccentric (orbital) grinders work and what are their strengths
These machines are somewhat similar in design to the PSHM. the abrasive cloth is attached down to the platform, the engine is located in the housing in a vertical position and there is an eccentric. The movement occurs not only with a certain vibration frequency, but also with additional rotation of the sole around its axis. over, both movements occur simultaneously, which makes sanding amazingly clean and smooth. no scratches, no waves, no roughness.
There are 2 types of machine rotation:
This type of technique is used in furniture manufacturing, performing finishing work before opening the surface with varnish, paint, polishing wood and is very popular among craftsmen who are engaged in the restoration of old wooden products.
To choose the right orbital machine, we carefully look at the following indicators:
- Motor power. electric motors in this technique also do not require high power, as in PSHM. The average power range is from 150 to 350 watts. But there are models where the power reaches 750 W;
- Amplitude of vibration of the sole. In terms of the range of motion and vibration, it is also similar to the PSHM. from 1 to 5.5 mm;
- Oscillation frequency / Number of revolutions. In terms of the number of oscillations, the parameters are also similar to the PSHM, but the number of revolutions can be different. from 4000 to 12000;
- The size and shape of the working platform. It happens only in a round shape, and there are only two standard, most popular sizes. 125 and 150 mm;
- Fastening emery. The fastening of the soles of these sanders is almost 100% Velcro. This option is extremely convenient for a quick change of grinding materials;
- Forced dust removal. This system, like the previous types, independently removes up to 70% of dust, so I recommend using construction vacuum cleaners.
Pay attention to the parameters when choosing a grinder
It should be noted that both of these grinders for the most part perform finishing work and if you have the task of performing work on a large scale, then the wrong choice will bring you not only monetary losses, but also wasted time.
Vibratory or eccentric grinders can be of different purposes:
- For household use;
- Professional scope.
When choosing a grinder, you should pay attention to the following technical characteristics:
- Amplitude of the platform stroke. This is one of the main characteristics of grinders. The average vibration is 2-3 mm. The higher the amplitude, the better the performance of the grinder, but the grinding becomes much coarser. That is, if you need a grinder for primary processing, pay attention to models with a high amplitude. For finishing, on the contrary, machines with an amplitude of 2 mm and below;
- Sole size. The soles of PSHM and ESHM come in different sizes and shapes, although there are generally accepted standards. for eccentric diameters of 122 and 150 mm, for PSHM 187×90, 115×230, 114×105 mm. Models with small soles will help when working in hard-to-reach places;
- Speed control. Thanks to this function, you can customize the operation of the machine. primary or finishing, as well as select the optimal speed for grinding a particular material. For example, if we are sanding soft wood or plywood, then it is recommended to choose a medium speed, and if hard wood. high;
- Power. The power consumption of the machines can range from 130 to 900 watts. But, as a rule, for most jobs, a power of 200-300 W is quite enough, because such models are light and compact, conveniently controlled, and work with them is more comfortable;
- Fastening sanding paper. For a surface grinder, manufacturers have provided 2 types of fastening: a clip (similar to a regular latch with a spring, which is on most household-grade grinders) and Velcro (it is less hassle with it, since you do not have to cut the paper, it has a standard size, but the cost of such machines. like the consumable, above).
- Additional handle. For PSHM and ESHM, the additional handle is either cast or removable. If it is removable, it reduces the size of the device and allows you to work with the instrument in one hand. Convenient when sanding small parts.
Basic principles of grinding
These two types of grinders differ significantly in the principle of grinding. First, let’s review the vibrating tool. The mechanism of operation is quite simple, for cleaning the surface, reciprocating movements are used with an amplitude of 1-3 (low-power) to 5-8 mm (powerful). This allows you to cope well with a metal surface or plastic, in contrast to ESM. However, PShM leaves traces on the tree and will not be suitable for opening with varnish, but only for coating with paint.
The principle of operation of ESM is that with the help of a round sole, not only vibration occurs, but also rotation around its own axis. Thanks to such a double movement, ESHM perfectly prepares the surface for varnishing. In the process of work, it does not leave traces of grinding at all. Models of this type ideally create the effect of abrasive grinding. Widely used for furniture restoration or decoration.