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During the manufacture of cabinet furniture, various types of tools are used. To obtain smooth workpieces, format-cutting equipment is necessary. In most cases, a small production is not able to purchase this machine. Therefore, as an alternative, you can consider the option of self-production.

Purpose of a format saw

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The main functions of a format-cutting machine are to form an even cut on the surface of a laminated chipboard or fiberboard. In this case, special requirements are imposed on the quality of the edge.

Externally, the design resembles a simple sawmill. The difference lies in the rigid fixation of the workpiece relative to the cutting components. To increase the quality there are two disks of various diameters. One of them is larger than the other and rotates in the opposite direction. This makes it possible to reduce the likelihood of chips on the end of a wooden surface.

When making a home-made design, the following points should be considered:

  • equipment stability during operation;
  • the availability of measuring tools for preliminary cutting of a wooden sheet.
  • desktop size. They directly depend on the dimensions of the workpiece;
  • security measures. This applies to equipment and personnel. To remove chips, an exhaust mechanism must be present, the cutting components are under a special cover.

An important factor is the preliminary calculation of all structural elements. It should perform its functions depending on the degree of load. One of the disadvantages of the format-cutting machine is the impossibility of forming cuts in a curly shape. This requires other types of equipment.

During the analysis of factory models, the thickness of the processed material and its specific gravity should be taken into account. This will affect the choice of saw blades.

Design of a home-made format saw

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The next stage of design is the development of an optimal manufacturing scheme. The best option would be a detailed analysis of factory-made home-made models to create unique equipment for a furniture workshop.

The main working component is the cutting unit, which consists of two saw blades, an electric motor and a bell for connecting to a chip vacuum cleaner. To complete the machines, it is recommended to purchase a factory model of this unit, since self-production can lead to difficulties in the operation of the equipment.

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Components that a DIY saw machine should have:

  • bed. It is the main body of equipment on which other elements will be mounted in the future. Most often these are tubular structures with adjusting legs;
  • Desktop. A workpiece is installed on it. Basic requirements for materials: perfectly flat surface, no defects that could damage the laminated sheet;
  • clamps for the workpiece. They are necessary for fixing a wooden sheet to trim part of a certain size;
  • movable carriage. This is the supporting element for the saw block. Most often made of an I-beam or two pipes of circular cross section;
  • protective covers.

This is the simplest design of a format-cutting machine, which you can make yourself from improvised materials. One of the main conditions for their choice is reliability and the ability to withstand mechanical stresses, constant vibration. Any home-made formatter must meet these requirements.

In some designs, the saw blades are located on different sides relative to the workpiece. Cutting is at the bottom, and the main is at the top. This greatly improves the quality of the cut, but complicates the manufacturing process.

The procedure for manufacturing a format saw machine

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After drawing up the optimal scheme and selecting components, you can proceed directly to the process of manufacturing equipment. To do this, you will need a welding machine, an angle grinder with a metal disc, an electric drill, and a measuring tool.

First, a frame is made. To do this, square or round pipes are used. They are trimmed according to the manufacturing scheme and fastened to each other using clamps. After checking the dimensions and the correct location of the components, you can start welding. To increase the rigidity of the structure, it is recommended to install several profiles between the legs of the bed.

The subsequent stages of self-manufacturing of a format-cutting machine.

  1. Movable carriage. The guides are installed first. It can be a beam or two pipes of circular cross section interconnected. The construction of the carriage itself must have rollers for smooth movement.
  2. Desktop. In addition to the requirements for its surface, the table is a component of the stability of the entire structure. Experts recommend making it from two materials. The base is made of steel sheet with a thickness of at least 3 mm, the working surface is made of chipboard sheet, and measuring rulers are attached to it.
  3. Clips for sheets. It can be a lever mechanism of any configuration. The determining condition is the relatively large area of ​​the fixing components. Pressure on the surface of the workpiece should not have a destructive effect.

As additional components, you can make a node to change the height of the disks relative to the surface of a wooden sheet. To do this, it is necessary to provide a lifting mechanism and subsequent fixation of the cutting unit relative to the workpiece. In practice, such mechanisms do not. This is due to a significant increase in the complexity of work, the purchase of additional components or their independent manufacture.

At the end of manufacturing, the cutting unit is connected to a chip pump. Before full operation, a series of test operations should be carried out. During execution, the quality of the cut is controlled, the saw moves smoothly, and there are no noticeable vibrations.

The video shows a homemade machine in the process of work:

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