Hacksaw For Metal Manual How To Put The Canvas
How to choose a hand hacksaw for metal How to choose a reliable, efficient and high quality hacksaw for processing metal products. The main characteristics of the tool. Criterias of choice.
Varieties and areas of use of the tool
The purpose of this tool is considered to cut products from durable metals, cut grooves and seams, trim metal blanks, etc. Among other things, using a hacksaw, you can cut metal alloys, and, for example, ceramics, plastic, polystyrene, wood and organic matter.
There are three types of metal saws:
- Home use models the most affordable and popular option, suitable for solving simple household tasks. It is characterized by ease of use. In most cases, such devices are equipped with screws and a wooden handle, which is located longitudinally to the cutting blade.
- Professional hacksaws can work for a very long time, creating high-quality cuts. Professional hand saws for metal are often equipped with a comfortable and durable handle and allow you to set the blades at a certain angle, which is required to create unusual cuts.
- A pen has a special shape that resembles a bracket. This allows you to use this type of hacksaw in hard-to-reach places. This tool is perfect for internal cuts.
How to work with a hand-type hacksaw
Working with a hand saw for processing metal alloys does not require special knowledge and skills. But there are certain rules:
- Do not forget about the importance of the correct position of the master’s body in relation to the cutting areas. The arm should be bent at right angles and the feet should be slightly unfolded. So you can increase stability.
- Before installing the cutting blade, it must be straightened to the width of the frame. Then the element is fixed with nuts. Correct fastening of the blade makes it possible to avoid all kinds of vibrations during work. But over-fixing often leads to breakage of this part. It is better to adjust the tension at the very first fastening of the nuts.
- Hold the tool with both hands when cutting. At the same time, movements should be uniform and calm.
- It is recommended to fix the workpiece to be processed with a special vice. This minimizes the possibility of cutting blade breakage.
The tool has a fairly simple design. Manual models resemble a bracket, between the ends of which a stretched canvas is fixed. The tool includes a frame and a blade with teeth.
Each of the elements of the instrument has its own characteristics and characteristics:
- The handle is very important in the process of work. This applies to convenience during long-term use. The best grip options are two-piece, equipped with special inserts made of soft but durable rubber. The handle is located on the top or side of the hacksaw.
- Frame that secures the saw blade. It can be made from different materials. A frame made of high-strength composites is used for cutting hard products. The design of this element is directly dependent on the conditions of its use. So, if you regularly have to cut metal in hard-to-reach places, then it is better to purchase a device with an adjustment of the inclination of the cutting blades or a small frame.
- The web is a thin steel strip. It is the thinnest and most fragile element of the instrument. Therefore, in the process of work, you need to be as careful and accurate as possible with the fasteners. Sloppiness will lead to breakage of the canvas. Wedge-shaped incisors (teeth) are located on this part. When choosing a saw, you should pay attention to whether the teeth of the cutting blade have been hardened to increase the service life and performance of the tool. For cutting hard metal products, blades with small teeth are used, while soft structures are processed with large cutters. It is recommended to take bimetallic or hardened versions. The blades are installed in the frame so that the teeth are in the opposite direction from the handle.
How to choose a hand hacksaw for metal
Hacksaw, designed for working with metal alloys, it is a device that is in the arsenal of many owners. Without this tool, it is difficult to imagine performing a large amount of household work.
At present, the assortment of this type of saw is very wide, and, as a rule, there are no difficulties in choosing a device. The main thing is to take into account some parameters and characteristics of saws for metal.
- Varieties and areas of use of the tool
- Design features
- How to work with a hand-type hacksaw
- Criterias of choice
On the market, hacksaws for metal are presented in two versions electric and hand tool. The manual solution can be used for any job, as this hacksaw is very compact and lightweight. The advantages also include its low cost. Only lack of significant expenditure of effort and time in the process.
Criterias of choice
So, you need to select a tool, guided by the following characteristics:
- The shape of the teeth varies depending on the inclination of the front cutter.
- The pitch of the teeth characterizes the thickness and strength of the materials with which the tool can work. The choice depends on the size and material of the workpiece. When working, two or three teeth should be involved.
- The size of the web depends on the size and volume of the blanks. The average length of the saw blade varies from 290 to 700 millimeters. The canvas must be flat, clean and keep its original shape. There must be no cracks or rust marks on the surface.
- Try to bypass the handle with hollow variations. Such a tool can break even with slight pressure. When choosing, hold the fixture in your own hands. The palm should fit snugly around the handle.
- The price of a saw for processing metal products depends on the material and type of blade, as well as on the configuration of the teeth. It is undesirable to choose too cheap models, as well as to be equal to eminent brands.
Having chosen a good hacksaw, do not forget to replace the saw blades in time and use the tool wisely.
Design parameters of hand saws for metal
The hand saw looks quite simple for metal:
- Base or U-shaped frame, mainly made of metal
- Handle of various shapes for handcraft
- Blade for metal for a manual hacksaw or a cutting element fixed at the edges of the frame
These are the main elements that make up hacksaws for metal. An important detail is the blade, which has a characteristic serrated appearance. The fine teeth are specially designed for working with hard materials.
On the frame the canvas is fixed. Alloy steel is used to make the frame. Frames come in many different types, shapes and designs. Professional hand-held devices have the function of adjusting the angle of inclination of the blades. There are frame options that can be moved apart. This function in the tool allows the installation of cutting elements of different lengths.
Lever is also an important unit, as it is able to provide the convenience and comfort of the tool. Handles come in different shapes, and are also made of such materials as wood, metal, plastic. The simplest handle is made of wood, and two-component devices are considered the most comfortable: metal and rubber insert.
Canvas for a hand hacksaw for metal, a thin strip, which is made of hard types of steel, and has different lengths. There are wedge-shaped teeth on one or both sides. The hacksaw blade is the most fragile element of the tool, so when working it is important to control the rigidity of its fastening. Cutting elements for hand files are made according to the method of heat treatment of teeth, which allows to extend the life of the product.
When choosing a canvas, attention is paid to its length. The length of the blade can be from 10 cm to 70 cm. The classic mechanical hand saw for metal allows the use of blades 30 cm long, since it is these dimensions of the tool that are the most comfortable and convenient for work.
Hacksaw for metal manual its purpose types and how to choose
The demand for hand hacksaws for metal remains relevant, since this type of tool has many advantages and only one drawback. This is the first tool that was invented by man for cutting metal blanks. Today, in the arsenal of every self-honoring master there is at least one option among the different types of this instrument. A hacksaw for metal is popular because the tool is always ready to work in the absence of a grinder and electricity.
What are hand saws for metal
Hand saws for metal are intended for cutting metal materials. This is not the only purpose of the tool, since it has proven itself well in relation to materials such as plastic, chipboard, polystyrene foam, expanded polystyrene, plexiglass, ceramics, laminate.
The file in question for sawing metal is a very necessary tool in the household, because in the absence of a grinder, it can always help in this situation to saw off the head of an oxidized bolt or saw through a steel wire. The big disadvantage of such a tool is the high expenditure of physical strength and time. The presence of small teeth affects the time to achieve the result. To obtain a result, the master requires the application of not only titanic strength, but also patience. The result of long and hard work with the tool is the most accurate result, which sometimes surpasses the cut with a grinder.
How to properly saw with a hand hacksaw for metal
A hand file for metal requires the master to comply with the following operating rules:
- Taking the correct stance to the master. Feet should be well resting on the floor, and the work with the device is performed exclusively with two hands, so initially take care that the workpiece is securely fixed in the jaws of the vice
- Reliable fixation of the web. Hacksaw blades are very fragile, so if the product fidgets from side to side with poor fastening, then at one point it will simply break
- Correct saw movements. To cut a part, you need to not only hold the tool correctly, but also work with it. The tool is pressed against the workpiece when moving forward, and when it is returned to the opposite position, the pressure is released. If you do not reduce the clamping pressure during the return movement of the tool, the blade teeth will quickly become dull.
Types of hand saws for metal
There are the following types of hacksaws for metal:
- Homemade. The simplest options that are available in the kit for each master. Such devices are considered an outdated option, but their production continues to this day. The advantage of these tools is their simplicity of design. The handle is made of wood, and is located in the same plane with the canvas
- Professional are intended for use during long-term work. Such products are equipped with a more comfortable handle, which, in addition, is rubberized. Some expensive models are equipped with a mechanism for adjusting the angle of the cutting part during operation.
- Mini hacksaws or metal saws have a special shape that differs from the first two types. Such products are intended for use only when there are difficulties with access to the cut part. The device has the shape of a knife with an additional blade fixation point. The handle is made of plastic and metal with rubber
Choosing a tool or what to look for
To choose the best hand saw for metal, pay attention to the following parameters:
- Length of tools and blades. The canvases have different lengths, but if a device is chosen, then you need to take one that is convenient to work. If the tool is selected for a specific purpose, then remember that the length of the hacksaw should be 2 times longer than the part being cut
- Lever. To choose the best device, you need to take several models and hold them in your hand. The difference is immediately apparent as some of the handles are awkward. It is better not to take tools with hollow handles, as they are not reliable. The handle should be comfortable and fit well
- Canvas. The main characteristics of the canvases are: tooth shape and pitch. Depending on which part will be sawn, the corresponding blades with the dimensions of the teeth are selected. Since few people pay attention to this at home, it is better to take several different products
- Cost. The price depends on the quality and functionality
- Manufacturer. If you are strict about the selection of tools, then pay attention to the models of well-known manufacturers. A popular brand specializing in the manufacture of hand tools is IRWIN
Such a reliable tool as a hacksaw for metal is necessary in the household, therefore it is worth considering its choice responsibly and competently. After using the blade, you should not throw it away, as it may be suitable for making additional tools: knives, cutters, compasses and even chisels (provided that the teeth are not worn out or dull). It all depends on the imagination of the master, so it’s never too late to start implementing ideas, and do not forget to share your inventions with others. The video tells about the correct operation of hand saws for metal, which will also be useful and interesting to learn.
Cutting includes 2 strokes:
The hacksaw is not pressed during idle, as a result, the teeth only slide. And in the case of a working stroke with two hands, light pressure is provided and the tool moves in a straight line.
Manual hacksaw for metal 300mm: working with the tool
In the case of cutting with a hand hacksaw, at least 2-3 teeth must be used during operation (simultaneous cutting of metal). To avoid pinching (jamming) in the metal of the hacksaw blade, the teeth must be set apart.
The teeth are set so that the width of the cut, which was made with a hacksaw, is slightly greater than the thickness of the blade itself. This can prevent jamming in the blade cut and makes the work process very easy.
Hacksaw blades with a pitch of 0.8 mm (a pitch of 1 mm is also admissible) must have a wavy tooth setting, that is, every 2 adjacent teeth must be bent in opposite directions by about 0.25-0.6 mm.
A blade for a hacksaw for metal, having a tooth pitch of more than 0.8, is divorced along the tooth (the so-called corrugated divorce). With such a divorce, 2-3 teeth are retracted to the left and 2-3 to the right. With the middle step, one tooth is retracted to the left, the second is not retracted, the third to the right. With a large step, one tooth is taken to the right, and the second to the left. Tooth setting is appropriate for canvases with a pitch of 1.6 and 1.25 mm.
It is necessary that the routing of the hacksaw blade is completed at a distance from the end of no more than 30 mm.
Operating body position
When cutting metal using a hand hacksaw, in front of the vise, they become stable, free and straight, half-turned in relation to the axis of the workpiece or the vise jaws. The left leg is slightly put forward approximately along the mowing line of the workpiece and the body rests on it. The feet should be placed in such a way that they form an angle of 60-70 degrees (there should be a certain distance between the heels).
Required number of teeth of a hacksaw blade for different metals
For the purpose of cutting metals, in most cases, hacksaw blades are used, the pitch of which is 1.3-1.6 mm, and at a length of 25 mm, it has 17-20 teeth. The thicker the workpiece to be cut, the larger the teeth, and on the contrary, the thinner the workpiece, the smaller the teeth of the hacksaw blade. For metals of different hardness, blades with the same number of teeth are used: angular, strip and hard steel 22, tool steel, cast iron 22, hardened medium hard steel 19, soft metals 16.
Preparation for work
Before starting work with a hacksaw (hacksaw), it is necessary to firmly fix the material to be processed in a vice. The degree of fastening of the material in them must correspond to the growth of the employee. After that, a hacksaw blade is selected in accordance with the size, shape and hardness of the metal being cut.
If the rafters are long, then take hacksaw blades with a large tooth pitch, in the case of short ones, use a small tooth pitch.
A hacksaw for metal (shown above) is installed in the slot of the head so that the teeth are not directed towards the handle. At the same time, initially the end of the web is inserted into the fixed head, after which the position is fixed by means of a pin bookmark, and then the second end of the web is placed in the slot of the pin, securing it with a pin. The canvas is pulled manually without much effort (use of a vice, pliers is unacceptable) by rotating the wing nut. A hacksaw for metal of 300 mm is kept away from the face.
With a slight misalignment, a tightly stretched canvas and with increased pressure a weakly stretched one cause bending, and a break can occur. The tension of the blade should be checked by lightly pressing your finger on the side of the blade: the tension is sufficient if the blade does not bend at all.
Hacksaw blade for metal: what is it?
A hacksaw blade is a narrow and thin steel plate with 2 holes and teeth on one edge. Canvases can be made of steel of the following grades: Х6ВФ, Р9, У10А, the hardness of which is HRC 61-64. Depending on their purpose, canvases can be machine and manual. They are inserted into the frame, teeth first.
The length (size) of a hand-held hacksaw blade can be determined by the distance between the centers of the holes allocated for the pins. Almost always use hacksaw blades designed for hand saws with a thickness of h 0.8 and 0.65 mm, a height of 16 and 13 mm, a length of L 250-300 mm.
The work of the hacksaw blade differs in the working conditions of the cutter itself, for this reason there are different angles. When cutting metal with a large width, it is possible to obtain cuts of considerable length: each tooth of the blade will remove chips, which should fill the chip space until the point of the tooth comes out of the cut completely. The amount of chip space will depend on the pitch S of the tooth, rake angle Y and clearance angle A.
Depending on the degree of hardness of the metal being processed, the rake angle available on the hacksaw blade of the teeth can be negative, positive and zero.
The efficiency of cutting a blade with a zero rake angle will be lower compared to one with a rake angle greater than 0.
To cut harder materials, blades are used with a larger tooth angle. And for the purpose of cutting soft, this indicator should be less. Blades with a larger taper angle are more wear-resistant.
Hand saw for metal. Faithful assistant to the home master
A hacksaw for metal is a construction tool that every thrifty owner has. It is difficult to imagine performing any simple chores without using this device. A hacksaw can be actively used in working with various types of materials, therefore it is often called a universal tool. Now the choice of hacksaws is quite extensive and, as a rule, there are no difficulties when choosing such a device. The main thing is to take into account certain characteristics and parameters of hacksaws when making a purchase.
In the construction markets, hacksaws are presented in two main varieties, manual and electric. The hand-held hacksaw can be used anywhere as it is very light and mobile. Most importantly, the instrument’s advantage lies in its low market value. The only drawback is the expenditure of additional time and great physical strength in work.
Design features of a hacksaw for metal
The design of the device is quite simple. A hacksaw for metal has the form of a C-shaped arc, between the two edges of which the canvas is fixed (stretched). The tool consists of a removable blade and a special holding frame. The key part of the hacksaw and its main working element is the blade with teeth.
Each hacksaw element has its own characteristics and features:
- Lever plays a major role in work, especially with regard to comfort when holding for a long time. The best among all types of handles are considered two-component, which are equipped with special rubber inserts. The handle can be placed on the side or on top of the hacksaw. The upper handle position (models without a bulky frame) will be needed when working in hard-to-reach places or for performing painstaking types of work.
- Frame with the help of it the canvas is attached. The frame can be made from a variety of materials. The frame can be made of high strength composites if necessary to cut solid workpieces. The frame design depends on the working conditions. So when cutting metal in poorly accessible places, a hacksaw is used with an adjustment of the angle of inclination of the canvases or a short frame. The frame can be solid or sliding. Preference is usually given to sliding frames, since in their device there is the possibility of attaching hacksaw blades.
- Canvas it is a thin strip of hardened steel. It is the most fragile and thinnest part of the hacksaw. Therefore, when working, it is necessary to be extremely careful and attentive, paying special attention to the details for the fasteners. Carelessness can lead to breakage of an already fragile blade. Wedge-shaped teeth (cutters) are applied to the edge of the blades. When choosing a hacksaw, one should take into account an important indicator of the presence of hardening of the blade teeth. This can significantly extend the life of the saw and increase its productivity when processing hard materials with a high degree of rigidity. When processing hard metal products, blades with small teeth are used, and for soft ones with large teeth. Hacksaw blades are available in different materials. It is better to choose bimetallic (painted in any color) or hardened canvases (from nickel-plated stainless steel with teeth, the dark color indicates the degree of their hardening). The blades are fixed in the frame in such a way that its teeth are located in the direction of the opposite side of the handle.
The design features of the tool mainly affect only the usability of the hacksaw. The cutting speed and the quality of the cuts made depends mainly on the hacksaw blades.
Types and areas of application of the tool
The main purpose of a hacksaw is to cut metal products, cut seams, grooves, cut workpieces along outlined contours, etc. In addition, a hacksaw allows you to cut not only metal, but also, for example, polystyrene, ceramic products, plastic, organic glass and even wood.
In general, hacksaws for metal are conventionally divided into three types:
- Home models the most common and affordable option, which is optimal for performing simple tasks around the house and is particularly comfortable to use. Often, these hacksaws are equipped with additional tensioning screw mechanisms, combined with a wooden handle located longitudinally to the canvas;
- Professional hacksaws suitable for longer work and accurate cuts. Hacksaws of this level are equipped with a comfortable rubberized handle and make it possible to install the blades at an angle for making non-standard cuts;
- Hacksaw handle has a special shape in the form of a bracket for working in hard to reach places. The rigging in such hacksaws is cantilevered and fixed only on one side. The hacksaw handle design allows even broken saw blades to be installed and is perfect for internal cuts.
Scheme of work with a hand hacksaw
A hacksaw for metal does not require special skills and knowledge in operation. Basic rules of work:
- It should be remembered the importance of the correct position of the performer’s body in relation to the cutting sites. At the beginning of the work, the arm is bent at the elbow 90 degrees, and the feet are slightly turned to increase stability.
- Before fixing the canvas in the frame, it is moved apart along the width of the canvas. After installation, it is fixed with nuts that provide the required web tension. High-quality fixation of the web allows you to exclude various kinds of vibrations. In this case, the main thing is not to overdo it, because too strong fixation can cause the canvas to break. The degree of fixation can be adjusted initially with nuts.
- Hold the hacksaw with both hands while cutting. Movements when working with a hacksaw should be calm and uniform, preferably without sudden jerks. When moving the hacksaw forward, the tool should be pressed against the part more firmly, and when returning to its initial state, the pressure should be released.
- Before cutting the material, experts recommend fixing it in a special vice. This helps to reduce the risk of blade breakage and further damage to the part.