How can you cut a log in half. Caps
How to cut a log on a tape sawmill correctly
In the old days for the construction of houses and other structures, entire trees’ trunks were used, from which the so.called log cabins were collected. However, the details of the cylindrical cone.shaped shape are not in the best way for construction, so boards and timber began to make logs from logs.
The share of the whole log used in construction is disappearing, so the logger must take possession of the art of sawing forest on boards and a beam, otherwise it will go broke. This skill will be useful to those who decided to perform a workpiece with their own hands for the needs of private construction.
So, we are faced with the task of turning the usual log into the maximum number of high.quality useful lumber with minimal energy, time and raw materials. That is, we must find a method in which the effectiveness will be maximum, and costs. minimal.
It should be said right away that the solution does not come down to unraveling the geometric rebus, in practice everything is much more complicated. Wood is a heterogeneous material, therefore, a large number of nuances and subtleties affect the result, which we will describe in more detail in the following chapters.
The heterogeneity of the structure of wood complicates the task of its sawing.
Important! The task of sawing is to obtain the maximum number of qualitative lumber with minimal costs per unit of time.
Ways of cut
Special equipment will help to understand how to cut a log along.
As already mentioned, the correct calculation of the turn of the logs should take into account not only geometric parameters and cutting, but also the heterogeneity of the structure of the material.
The fact is that the wood manifests its properties in different ways depending on the orientation of annual rings (layers): the processes of warping and deformation during drying are most clearly manifested along the layer when the plane of the board coincides with the plane of the annual ring.
Not only beauty, but also quality depends on the method of cutting.
To understand how to cut a log correctly, you should know the main methods of cutting:
The radial method is considered the highest quality and differs in that the annual lines at the end of the boards form an angle of 76. 90 ° Called to its plane, and the fishing line for the trimmer of the cut passes through the core of the barrel like the radius. As a result, the board is quite homogeneous in color and texture, which practically does not swell when moisturizes and does not deform with a academic. The lumber of the radial cut is considered the highest quality, its price is the highest;
Tangential method. On the contrary, the least preferable and differs in that the lines of annual rings pass almost parallel to the plane of the board or along the tangent. Swelling coefficients from moisture and academic, in the case of tangential boots, approximately twice as higher than with a radial cut. In general, such boards are less durable, below quality, but at the same time they may differ in a very beautiful fiber pattern;
Important! Most of the construction lumber is carried out by a rustic cut, also a lot of tangential board. When buying, you can easily distinguish them “by eye”.
Recommendations for the saw
You can cut logs on a strip sawmill efficiently and easily depending on how to approach this process.
Having planned efforts and time in advance, it will be possible to cut logs with greater productivity. This process can be made most effective by resorting to the following recommendations:
- When cutting logs, it is recommended to use only sharp saws. An indicator that the electric saw has looked down, there will be its frequent pull.up during a cut, t. to. The stupid blade heats up and expands, t. e. Loses tension. Thus, the saw begins to walk, get stuck in a log, and will create problems to pull it back. In time the replaced saw will help to avoid such situations.
- Do not allow gaps. Daily examination and lubrication of sawmills does not take much time compared to those costs that will go to replace bearings on flywheels, as well as the cost of spare parts.
- Prepare logs in advance for the saw. Before starting to saw the trees, they need to be washed from dirt, using a metal detector, remove possible nails driven into them, which could remain in the logs after the signs removed from them. It will help to save time before sawing logs, the procedure for cutting knots and protruding nodes on it using a chainsaw, and you will also need to cut the end of the sawn tree so that it is as accurately as possible to approach the transverse of the logs.
- During the cutting of the beam, it is necessary to urgently finish it. Cut the edges immediately after sawing a log on the beam directly on the tape sawmill: first on the one hand, and then on the other, and so to the last board, until the entire process of sawing and processing of the sawn log is completed.
Ways and technology of cut
There are several ways to produce products on which the quality of lumber and the construction sphere depends, where the boards can be used.
- Radial, fishing line for cutting cuts passes along the radius of annual rings. The boards are obtained by the most durable on the break, but it is problematic to carry out such cutting at home, since you need to turn it over and fix the workpiece several times.
- Tangential cut is carried out on the tangent to the annual rings. The resulting boards have a clearly pronounced pattern, but when drying they often lose the correct shape, turn along the axis. During operation, they cannot withstand large loads.
- The parallel-forming is carried out along the fibers, the method is most often used with independent cutting, since it is the least laborious.
There are several cutting technologies depending on the equipment used:
- into the collapse. the log is sawn several times along the entire length, each new cut is carried out parallel to the previous one;
- with a bar-from the log alternately from the 4 sides are drunk humps and boards, in addition to them, the method allows you to get a beam from the middle part;
- Segment, from the sides, parts of the logs are sawn off, such a size that a beam is obtained, then the cut segments are dissolved on narrow boards;
- The sector method is similar to the segment, but the sectors are initially separated from the log.
Specific technology and sequence of sawing are chosen depending on the structure of logs.
Options for sawing a chainsaw
To dissolve the log onto the boards of a chainsaw, you need to purchase factory.made nozzles or make them yourself.
In general, the design consists of three parts:
- the guide frame, it is based on the surface along which it is necessary to carry out sawing;
- a vertical rack needed for fastening a chainsaw and a mechanism for adjusting the thickness of the boards;
- The mechanism for adjusting the thickness of the drink with screws and stop nuts.
Cutting work begins with cutting and applying marking. By the shape of the diameter, you can determine which of the sides in what part of the world looked. On the south side the log is thicker. Experience shows that the most strong boards are if the saw bus passs parallel to the “western” and “eastern” side, this is taken into account with the initial fixing of the workpiece.
Several rules must be followed:
- The tree must be firmly strengthened, excluding the slightest fluctuations, the violation can lead to damage to the tool, jamming of the chain, dangerous injuries;
- It is advisable to use circuits for longitudinal sawing, they differ in a smaller angle of sharpening (5–10 °), compared with transverse (25–35 °);
- For the saw at home, select a small diameter;
- It is required to strictly observe safety measures, use the working tools and personal protective equipment.
The algorithm of longitudinal cutting:
- Flower the log and bitch, even small obstacles when moving the chainsaws cause the displacement of the cut plane and reduce the quality of the resulting boards.
- Study the structure of the logs by one.year rings, determine the preferred type of sawing so that the minimum amount of waste remains.
- Fix the log on the bed, placing it in such a way as to start sawing the upper part in the horizontal plane.
- Prepare support for the guide frame, the support is useful for the first cut, then the frame will be based on the log. Use 2 parallel bars.
- With the help of adjusting screws, the location of the saw tire is set up.
- Running the chainsaw, moving the device, begin to cut the logs onto the boards. As they move from the edge, wedges are driven into the log, helping to avoid jamming the chain.
- After the upper horseman is cut off, the procedure is repeated by removing the support from the bars.
If necessary, the log is rotated along the axis.
Ready.made boards before use in construction are subject to compulsory drying up to 22% humidity. The process occurs naturally or in drying chambers. The boards are laid on a flat surface, shifting each layer with supports located a distance of 1 meter along the entire length.
Sprinkled on a mini-pyloram
Pylorama. a stationary device for obtaining log boards.
There are two varieties. In the first case, the workpiece is fixed on the frame (bed, eboe), and the saw tool moves. Design with small performance.
In the second case, the saws are fixed on a hard frame, and the log is supplied to the place of sawing on a movable carriage.
In mini-pilrams, a saw element can serve:
- disk saws;
- chain saws driven by gasoline or electric engines;
- ribbon saws rotated by electric motors.
The highest quality products with a minimum number of sawdust are obtained when using a strip machine.
Before starting work, a visual inspection of the machine is carried out, a grease of rubbing and rotating connections is performed. Check the quality of the saw, faulty and worn elements must be replaced. If a machine with a saw chain, check the quality of sharpening of teeth.
The neglect of observing safety measures when working with a powerful cutting tool leads to severe injuries associated with the loss of part of the limbs. Big blood loss often causes death.
When working with a chainsaw, the following rules are fulfilled:
- study the rules for using a chainsaw and the actions necessary for an emergency stopping cutting tool;
- Check the availability and contents of the ambulance first.aid kit, pay special attention to hemostatic tools;
- control the correct installation of the nozzle of the chainsaw;
- clean the place of work from extraneous items, random falls lead to loss of control over the tool and severe injuries;
- remove outsiders, children and animals that can interfere with the operator from the working space;
- put on overalls, which should fit tightly to the body, use protective glasses, headphones closed from sawdust from the hit, if necessary, the respirator, shoes should be with solid sole and large tread;
- The launch of the chainsaw is carried out on the ground, in a stable position;
- In the process of sawing, wedges are necessarily used to prevent tire jamming;
- Persons under the age of 18 are not allowed to work;
- The workplace should be lit by the sun or electric lamps.
It is strictly forbidden to work with a cutting tool in a state of intoxication and under the influence of drugs that slow down the reactions of the nervous system.
Tools for cutting logs
Tools and methods of cutting depend on the total volume of logs, such indicators as length, thickness. In addition, you need to take into account the quality of the future lumber. Cut logs implies work with different tools and specialized equipment. In order to get a small volume of lumber at home, a manual method of processing logs using a chainsaw or traditional hand saws with teeth for a longitudinal type of saw.
Pylorama is perhaps the most famous type of sawmill. This is a woodworking machine in which there are frame saws. Pilomaterials of the longitudinal sawing, for example, are found with a tone board or a beam are obtained on the sawmill. Sawmills allow the processing of logs with a diameter of 15 to 80 cm with a length of up to 7 m.
The logs cut on the boards using round.fed (circular) machines are carried out by means of discs. Such equipment can be single (single.disc) and multi.digit (multi.disc). Devices containing one disk are suitable for working with small and low quality by the starting raw materials. With the help of multi.disk machines, you can cut round blanks of large diameter.
The most popular today are tape sawmills. They are of two types: vertical and horizontal. The cutting tool in such equipment is the tape canvas, which is put on the pulleys. Work on tape machines guarantees the receipt of high.quality longitudinal and mixed lumber, for example, boards and timber. In this case, the smallest amount of waste is formed.
Large industrial enterprises use lines for sawing wood. They allow you to achieve very high surface quality and accurate geometry of the final products. Such lines are characterized by the highest performance.
In addition to all of the listed equipment, such types of highly specialized sawmill, such as hammer, edge-cutting, ribbon-leading and other types of machines are also used.
Slinging logs on a chainsaw boards
Very often there are situations when you need to make a very small volume of boards or bars for your own needs. Of course, buying machines in this case is absolutely not an option. Having certain knowledge and skills, it is much more profitable to cut the logs with your own hands, using a chain electric or gasoline saw. Despite the fact that this work is quite laborious, the result is quite justified.
Most of the experts believe that a chainsaw is better suited for this purpose. Such equipment has high power and can function without interruptions for a long time. In addition, the work of the chainsaw does not need electricity, so you can work far from the source of power supply, for example, immediately on the plot.
In order to cut a log onto the boards using a chainsaw, you will also need special tools such as a mechanism for fixing a log, a frame frame on a chainsaw, as well as a guide for the sawing. The frame frame needs to be attached on the tire of the chainsaw so that it is possible to adjust the gap between it and the chain. This will make it possible to create boards with different thicknesses. The chain should be purchased special, for longitudinal sawing. She has a special angle of sharpening of teeth. The ruler-controling can be made of a metal profile of the required length or even hardboard.
Before you start work, you need to remove the entire bark and the remaining branches from the blanks, as well as carefully examine the log for various flaws. Thus, you can choose the most suitable cutting scheme and, therefore, reduce the volume of possible waste.
If you carry out the longitudinal sawing of the trunks, you need to make sure that the resulting lumber is the same density over the entire width. Since the density of the wood from the northern part of the log is much higher than with the southern one, the cut is carried out in a plane directed from east to west (or in the reverse order).
First of all, you need to remove the horses from two opposite edges of the logs. As a result, you will get a double.circuit beam, which is further subjected to the cut on equal thickness of the board or other lumber, according to the planned cutting scheme. The final product is an unspeakable board, with which then the edges are necessarily removed.
Why do you need a chainsaw sawmill in the household
With the onset of autumn, the sounds of the work of benzo- and electric saws are increasingly starting to be heard. This means that the season harvesting season is in full swing. However, for what purposes can a sawmill be needed, when a mobile benzo.tool copes with a harvesting of firewood perfectly. Drink firewood when there is a longitudinal cut in the form, is easier than a chainsaw, however, when there is a need to get boards, then for these purposes you can not do without sawmill.
The very word of the pilram means “saw” on the “frame”. Structurally, this is a machine that a cutting tool is attached to (in a particular case, it is a chainsaw or electric saw). Когда заготавливаются дрова на зиму, то часто попадаются ровные стволы, из которых, как говориться, грешно не изготовить доски. Another option when you live in rural areas and want to do business with minimal investments (open a sawmill). Here, a chainsaw will also come to the rescue, from which you can make a sawmill with your own hands. Such a machine can be performed by such manipulations:
- Sprinkle logs on boards, which can subsequently be sold or used for the construction of a house, cottage or other outbuildings. The board is always in demand and expensive building materials
- The manufacture of bars, which are also an expensive building type of building material, which can be obtained in the presence of forest and sawmill
When working, lumber remain, which can be used as firewood for the kind of solid fuel boilers. Mobile pylorama from a chainsaw has the following advantages:
- It does not take up much space on the site, so for it you do not need to build an additional overlap
- At any time it can be disassembled to continue to saw the trees
- You can use both at home and in the field, for example, in the forest immediately after the roll of trees
However, all these advantages have portable models of chainsaw pylors. If it is planned to make a sawmill in the form of a machine, then it is not so easy to move, so you can use it only in one place where it will be installed.
How to make a chainsaw sawmill
If you need a mini pyloram from a chainsaw, then everything is simple here. It is required to take metal corners, and cook the corresponding design. In this case, you will only need to first prepare the drawing on which plan the design of the final equipment.
The second option, when you need a home sawmill, in the manufacture of which you will need:
- A chainsaw, which is used as a drive cutting source
- Mechanism for moving blanks. This will eliminate the need to move the saw on the workpiece, which is unsafe
- Device for fixing blanks in the design of equipment. It is necessary to fix the workpiece in order to exclude its turning when exposed to a cutting tool. If you do not fix the log, then it will turn, which will reduce not only labor productivity, but also as a result will get a sloppy blank in the form of a board
Having an idea of what is a home.made version of the device, you can proceed to its implementation. Here it should be noted right away that you can make a sawmill of any complexity, for which, as they say, “Much Hands”. However, the purpose of this material is to show how to make the simplest sawmill using a chainsaw.
It is interesting!The main rule in the manufacture of home.made zealrama from a chainsaw is to provide a mechanism for adjusting the thickness of the resulting boards. This action is implemented at the expense of the bed, to which the tool is attached, as well as adjusting screws.
When selecting the technological process of sawing logs into the planks, properties are provided, as well as the scale of wood.
There are 3 methods of activity on the sawmill:
- Slinging in the collapse. The wood is sawn along the flat line until the end in the absence of turns. Undesy planks are purchased at the exit. The disadvantage is the low property of the acquired material, as well as a huge number of residues. Purchased planks should be cut in addition to. During operation, there is a significant possibility of cracking them.
- Circus cutting. After the first sawing, the log turns into the opposite line. As a rule, five turns occur. The method makes it possible to cut the logs in scale with the least number of residues. In the disadvantages of such a method, it is possible to note a low rate of manufacture.
- Sprinking the beam. The main part of the sawing of the log is performed around the circle. The main share is cut in the figure of the beam. For this purpose, as a rule, the largest logs are used.
Cutting in a strip sawmill is considered one of the significant stages of logging.
The properties of the purchased product are directly dependent on the chosen scheme, activity, as well as the preparation of the necessary equipment.
Common errors and methods of correction
The table below shows the most common difficulties in work and ways to eliminate them.
|The error arose||The reason for the error|
|During operation, the saw raises. The output turns out a curved board||Too high angle of sharpening of teeth. You need to reduce it by 4-5 °|
|Dives appear in the work of saws||Small angle of sharpening of teeth|
|A large amount of waste in the form of sawdust when cutting||Pilary wiring level above normal|
|With a cut, a wave.shaped incision is obtained||Too small wiring, or teeth are poorly sharpened|
|Closing the rear edge of the canvas of the sawmill||You need to adjust the distance between the rear rollers|
|Sawdock roller on the canvas of sawmills||To increase teeth wiring|
|Tag of sawdust to the surface of the tooth||The teeth are poorly sharpened|
Speaking on a strip sawmill is one of the important stages of logging. The quality of the resulting products directly depends on the selected scheme, the organization of work and equipment preparation.
As you can see, there is nothing complicated here. Often inexperienced sawmills make a mistake in the calculations when they start counting from zero. For example, if the final size of the material is 150 mm, then there is no need to add 2 mm to it to it, otherwise it will come out so 150 2 = 152. There should not be such an error, cut it is calculated only between the material, for example 50 mm board and 150 mm of a carriage, we get it as described above, 150 50 2 = 202 mm.
If it is necessary to get a wiped material, we turn the log by 90 degrees and produce the same manipulations that are described above.
So you saw your first log, look at the quality of the material and the accuracy of the size. Make sure your calculations correctly. The main mistake in calculations is that they forget to take into account the size of the cut. Try to take into account this fact. And prevent such errors.
In the future, when you gain experience, your calculation will happen automatically in your head, it will be enough to look at the log.
We are sure that you will succeed, we wish you success in work.
There are a large number of such nozzles in the market. All of them are suitable for sawing logs on boards, they all have a similar structure. But there are differences. The photo below shows devices for a chainsaw, for working with which no additional devices or tools are required. In fact, this is a miniature manual sawmill, which is based on a gasoline saw.
The design is supplemented by guides and wheels, which move along the surface of the log, reducing the resistance. Two pairs, they are located on the opposite sides of the workpiece. This is convenient, easy, plus. the quality of the cut material increases.
The nozzle is attached to the chainsaw in the same way as in the previous case. The main requirement for work is to accurately set the saw so that it is in a horizontal position. And although the oblique cut is the same, more convenient and easier when the tool is located exactly.
Tools for cutting logs
The choice of a suitable tool for sawing the workpiece depends on many criteria. These include:
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To cut a large number of blanks and get a large number of high.quality lumber, it is most reasonable to use the sawmill. This is a wood processing machine, the working tool of which is different saws. Designed for longitudinal sawing logs up to 6 meters long and 20-80 cm in diameter.
Large woodworking enterprises with large production volumes use specialized lines on wood cutting. On the line, you can cut multi.caliber logs, while receiving lumber of exactly a given size with high.quality surfaces. Lines are characterized by high performance.
To obtain a small number of lumber for the needs of a small farm from logs 2-3 meters long and 30-50 cm in diameter, you can use a motorcycle. You need to know that the sharpening of circuits for the longitudinal sawing differs from sharpening for transverse sawing.
For a longitudinal sawing with your own hands, you can make a wooden emphasis. a leading ruler, which will allow you to cut the log. The emphasis is two wooden boards, one of which is fixed perpendicular in the middle of the other. The device is screwed to the workpiece with self.tapping screws so that the upper edge of the vertically located board is below the upper edge of the log. The difference between the upper edge of the log and the upper edge of the board determines the thickness of the sawn hump.
Types of working nozzles
If necessary, the workpiece can be sawed with a chainsaw on the boards using special nozzles. The frame for the chainsaw is attached to the tool and is designed to ensure a rectilinear movement with a horizontal cut of the workpiece. The design consists of:
- a guide frame moving along the surface, in parallel of which it is necessary to cut a tree;
- vertical rack on which the mechanism of adjusting the thickness of the product is attached;
- the mechanism of adjustment of the thickness consisting of handles for adjustment and a screw fixing the desired size;
The ability to set the exact size and proper cutting of the logs allow you to get boards of the same thickness and reduce the amount of waste. For the first cut of wood, a guide frame or a flat straight board is needed. As an alternative, you can create an even basic surface using an ax, an electric rhuban and level. With subsequent cuts, the base surface is the flat side of the board obtained with the previous approach.
Motopila carriage is a type of frame. It is attached to the saw and has additional videos or wheels, which allow the nozzle to move easily through the workpiece. At the same time, resting on the workpiece, the wheels give a sawing of the longitudinal sawing stability, allowing you to smoothly cut the log onto the boards.
This kind of nozzle on a chainsaw for longitudinal sawing allows you to cut a log without special work and finance without special costs and finances. Varieties of carriage are mini-pylorams and portable sawmills.
The technology of sawing a chainsaw
Before you dissolve the log onto the boards at home, it is necessary to correctly cut it in order to get the maximum number of quality boards with a minimum amount of waste. The rational use of raw materials is achieved when using special cutting schemes. Marking is applied to the tree corresponding to the set target and the type of planned lumber.
Before starting work, it is necessary to carefully fix the workpiece in order to achieve the high quality of the surface of the boards. Cut logs most often horizontally. The advantage of the horizontal sawing is that it is spent less effort to hold the weight of the motorcycle. You can cut the workpiece along the motorcycle using devices for longitudinal sawing. a wooden stop. a device made by yourself.
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When using a nozzle for a longitudinal saw, it is necessary to carefully fix it on the chainsaw housing. Before starting work, it is necessary to take care of creating a basic surface, in parallel of which a cutting will be cut by a chain.
It is necessary to insert the wedges into the longitudinal saw, in order to avoid the clip of the cloth of the motorcycle sawdown with a sawn edge of the board. The saw should move smoothly, you can’t put pressure on it with force. It is better to saw a log together together, since additional hands are needed to move and fix the workpiece to insert the wedges into the cut.
Knowing all these subtleties and features, it is easy to sprinkle the beam or log onto the boards yourself.
Safety rules for work
Before starting to saw the blank of the chainsaw, it is necessary to take measures to work safely:
- make sure that the nozzle is mounted on a chainsaw according to the attached drawing;
- Be sure to know the types of chainsaws and ways to eliminate them;
- thoroughly prepare the workplace and reliability of fastening the workpiece;
- When working, it is imperative to wear overalls, glasses protecting eyes from small sawdust, headphones to protect against noise, respirator to protect the respiratory system;
- The launch of the chainsaw occurs on the ground, the circuit brake must be unlocked before the start of work;
- Be sure to have a first.aid kit at hand for first aid;
Knowledge and accurate compliance with safety rules will allow the cutting of a chainsaw blanks without harm to health and get high.quality lumber.