How to cut metal in the field
How to cut metal in the field
The device is 5 times faster to cut the same P65 than the machine, considered earlier. Compact size, relative lightness, efficiency make it possible to use it for cutting products at home. The only disadvantage of the equipment is the highest cost.).
Using a chisel
- install the rail as in pt above;
- Throughout the perimeter with a chisel and a hammer (mallet) are made notches of small depth (1-2 mm);
- A blow is made with a sledgehammer at the notches, and the rail is split.
The advantages and disadvantages of the methodology is the same as above, but it takes a little more time.
Possible ways of rail cutting
Despite the apparent complexity of the operation, it is not difficult to divide the iron element into small sections. To do this you can use one of the following devices:
Each method is complicated in its own way, but the expected result (a rail cut into pieces) will be obtained. Now. about each method in detail.
Cutting rail with a hacksaw
A popular method, but energy-consuming. It is important to know a few requirements for the saw blade:
- The handle is comfortable, placed not horizontally, but vertically, with a little inclination to the side of the course “from yourself”;
- on the teeth of the blade has a dusting;
- the teeth are placed in the direction “from itself”;
- When working, move the blade so that the contact area of the teeth with the cutting surface is the largest;
- choose the blade according to density and hardness of the rail material.
How to cut the rail with a hacksaw? The sequence is as follows:
- The rail is placed on a horizontal surface;
- If you want a clean cut, it is worth using a chisel to make notches on the base;
- Saw through the base on both sides to the neck of the rail;
- to put under a place of a notch stop;
- perform a point blow with a sledgehammer.
There are other methods of dividing the notched rail into two parts. For example, to throw it from a height, if you have at hand a manipulator-loader.
- the method is not dangerous;
- sawing goes without excessive noise;
- equipment for the work is cheap.
- the process can take over an hour (depending on professionalism);
- several blades for the saw will be needed (3-7 depending on their properties).
Cutting with a sewing needle
- rail edges are installed on the two supports with the base downwards;
- placed a thick sewing needle perpendicular to the intended place of fracture;
- the sledgehammer is made strong and sharp blow on the place of contact of the needle, as a result of which the rail is cut in half.
- the minimum of means at hand;
- low injury risk;
- the ability to do the job alone.
- you need experience. it is not easy to accurately knock on the right place;
- the trimmer line of the chop (cut) occasionally comes out crooked;
- It is only necessary to make one clear cut; if several unsuccessful attempts are made, the integrity of the blade will be compromised.
Using an angle grinder
Work is performed similarly. the base is sawed from both sides, then follows the blow with a sledgehammer. The operation will take 5-10 minutes.
- minimum consumables.
- Risk of injury (the disk can “bite” and cause breakage, the steaming sparks get into the eyes, etc).д.);
- noise at work;
- the highest stupidity);
- the method is bad for home criteria because of the resulting dust, dirt, iron chips.
The main types of metal cutting
There are the following types of metal cutting:
Cold (mechanical). Cutting is accomplished by mechanical action on the metal with a special cutting tool made of a material with a hardness much greater than the hardness of the workpiece. The following tools are used:
Hot (thermal). The workpiece to be cut is melted along the cut line, and the metal residue is removed by gas. The hot cutting type of metal cutting is subdivided into the following types of cutting:
But not all types of metal cutting. both cold and hot. allow you to get a product of a given purity. Let us consider each of the above methods in more detail.
Cold types of metal cutting
Cutting metal mechanically is a difficult process, because metal products have high strength and hardness. Cold types of metal cutting include:
Cutting with a guillotine.
This method of cutting uses special mechanical tools. scissors and metal knives. The workpiece is installed on the worktable and clamped by the clamping beam. Then a special blade is used to cut. The result is a perfectly straight edge, with no extra edges, burrs and nicks. Cutting material across the entire width of the sheet at once, so the curvature of the cut is zero.
The following types of guillotines are currently used for cutting metal:
They do not differ from each other in the principle of operation, but the last three types are supplemented by electronics to ensure precision and safety of cutting. There are also machines that can cut metal not only crosswise, but also lengthwise. Guillotine type of cutting is most frequently used in preparatory work.
Disadvantages of this method:
- Can not be used for all types of metals and has limitations on the thickness of the workpiece. For example, hydraulic machines are designed for metal thicknesses up to 6 mm.
- Obtained as a result of cutting blanks often do not correspond to the desired size, as the accuracy of processing depends on the skill of the operator.
- It is not possible to perform shape cutting.
- Cutting copper with a laser: advantages and disadvantages of the technology
- Types of metal cutting: industrial applications
- Metalworking according to drawings: convenient and profitable
Band saw cutting.
Currently, this type of metal cutting is very popular because of the low cost of equipment, good performance and uncomplicated maintenance. The cutting tool is a band saw tensioned on pulleys.
Modern band saws (LPS) are supplemented by a variety of equipment and electronics, thanks to which the unit is easily integrated into a specific production line for the trimmer. The cutting speed of such a machine is, on average, about 100 mm/minute and higher.
The method of cutting on the LPS allows to achieve exact compliance with the specified parameters, and the place of the cut does not need additional processing. The method is good for high-precision products and parts with a smooth surface. The LPS is suitable for any metal and the cutting width is only 1.5 mm.
In this type of metal cutting it is important to observe a number of conditions:
- Precise selection of the pitch of the teeth of the cutting blade in accordance with the cross-section of the sawn profile with the help of special tables;
- feed rate;
- cutting speed.
LPS allows you to cut the metal workpiece at an angle, which is a big advantage compared to the guillotine.
The disadvantages of this type of metal cutting include the inability to obtain a curved cut, and the limitation on the size of workpieces depending on the capabilities of the machine.
Cutting metal with a circular saw and “angle grinder.
Good quality and precise cuts are made with the circular saw. This tool lets you control cutting angle.
The disadvantages of this type of cutting include a large amount of waste, low speed, and shallow depth of cut.
For cutting rolled section metal, you can use an angle grinder. There is no dross or oxide residue where the cut is made, and little waste.
But the low productivity of this type of metal cutting is its main disadvantage compared to other methods.
What to cut metal with other than angle grinder?
Sawblade attachments can be used to cut materials such as metal, natural stone, brick, and concrete. You can deburr welds with a chain saw.
Way 4 Cutting with an electric jigsaw with a metal saw.
The jigsaw can be used for cutting and shaping thin (up to one or two millimeters thick) sheets of metal, as well as small cross-sections of angles, rods, pipes, etc.п.
Cutting speed is small, but it achieves a fairly high accuracy. When cutting more or less thick sheets of iron, it is recommended to lubricate the saw and the cutting surface itself with solidol.
Safety precautions when working with an angle grinder
This is the most important question. After all, if you break the rules of operation of the angle grinder can get serious, sometimes incompatible with life injuries. Let us consider the main of them, which must be observed.
- disc size. Many people believe that if a small angle grinder put a large disc, removing the protective cover, nothing bad will happen. They say that a large angle grinder is more powerful. This misconception is life-threatening. The thing is that the small angle grinder speeds are much higher, and therefore they need other discs. When installing a large disc, the master is likely not even have time to start work. the disc will fly apart when turned on, which in the absence of a protective cover will lead to deplorable results.
- The direction of rotation. Some “craftsmen” do not like that sparks are flying under their feet when working. They unwrap the hood, reposition the handle and start working. This is what most often causes the blade to fly off when it catches on a sharp edge. The angle grinder must rotate the disc “toward you” and not the other way around.
- Personal protective equipment. Wear safety glasses or face shield, gloves, mask or respirator. It will save you from burns, eye injuries, which, unfortunately, are not uncommon during such work.
The use of personal protective equipment when working with an angle grinder is obligatory
Do you use diagonal cutters to cut corrugated sheet??
Yes, they do. They have three main advantages:
- They cut metal faster than an electric jigsaw, and are comparable in speed to an angle grinder.
- they allow you to begin cutting a sheet not from the edge, but from the middle (the tool cuts a hole in the right place in the sheet).
- Do not deform edges of corrugated sheet. the trimmer line cuts evenly.
- Cut profiled sheet of any wave height and any steel thickness.
The only disadvantage of the tool is quite high cost.
When to use?
For longitudinal and transverse cutting of corrugated sheeting, to obtain straight and curved cutting line in hard-to-reach places (the tool is distinguished by high maneuverability).
Attention: Adjust the tool before starting work. Cutting edge should be strictly perpendicular to the surface of corrugated board. this will avoid the appearance of “torn” edges on the sheet.
cutting generates a lot of waste. sharp metal chips. Do not forget to promptly remove it from the surface of profiled sheeting with a soft cloth.
Cutting with a gas cutter
The technology involves influence on a material by the directional jet of burning gas. Due to low cost of equipment, this method is of interest to those who are interested in the best way to cut metal at home or in small businesses. There are practically no restrictions on the thickness of processed workpieces. However, there are significant disadvantages:
- Low quality of the cut, which requires additional processing of the workpieces.
- Large heating zone which causes deformations.
- Increased material consumption.
- The need to carefully observe safety precautions. Only specialists who have been properly trained and know how to cut metal with a gas cutter should be allowed to work.
All these factors limit the application of the technique.
Cutting with a gas torch
The technology involves influencing the material with a directional jet of burning gas. Due to the low cost of equipment, this technique is of interest to those who are interested in what is the best way to cut metal at home or in small businesses. Practically no restrictions in terms of the thickness of the workpieces to be machined. However, there are significant disadvantages:
- Poor cut quality that requires additional work on parts.
- Large heat-affected zone, which promotes deformation.
- Higher material consumption.
- The need to carefully observe safety precautions. Only specialists who have been properly trained and know how to cut metal with a gas torch are allowed to work.
All of these factors limit the application of the technique.
Oxyfuel cutting equipment
Since acetylene is often used for cutting, it is not uncommon to use an acetylene welder as oxyfuel cutting equipment. Instead of welding torches, gas cutting torches are used there. The most common choice is an injection-style torch.
Torches are significantly different from torches in their design. They have additional tubes, through which cutting oxygen is supplied, and tips with small holes for gas mixture. The central hole is provided for the cutting oxygen supply.
Figure 4. Schematic diagram of an oxygen cutting kit
The principle of operation of the oxygen cutting machine:
- the workpiece is placed horizontally, the torch valves are closed;
- oxygen valve is opened and after that. combustible gas valve;
- mixture is ignited and capacity is regulated;
- the metal is heated over the cutting area;
- opens the valve with cutting oxygen, which activates combustion upon reaching the heated metal
- in the process oxides appear, they are removed by a stream of oxygen;
- at the end of work firstly the cut oxygen valve is closed, then the flammable gas valve is closed, and finally the burners are closed.
The main tool of the oxyfuel cutting kit is the torch. There are classifications of these elements:
- by the type of combustible gas (torches for liquid combustible mixtures, acetylene, gas-substitutes);
- degrees of automation (manual, machine);
- purpose (special and universal);
- mixing gases (non-injector and injector);
- the power of flame (high, medium, low).
Oxyfuel cutting equipment
Since acetylene is often used for work, it is not uncommon to take acetylene welding machines as oxygen cutting equipment. Instead of welding torches, they use gas torches. The most common option is the injector-type torch.
Torches differ significantly from torches in their design in terms of. They have additional tubes, through which cutting oxygen is supplied, and tips with small holes for gas mixture. The central hole is provided for the cutting oxygen supply.
Figure 4. Schematic diagram of oxygen cutting installation
The principle of operation of the machine for oxygen cutting:
- the workpiece is positioned horizontally, the cutting torch valves are closed;
- The oxygen valve is opened, followed by the fuel gas valve;
- mixture is ignited and regulated for power;
- The metal is heated through the area of the cut;
- opens the valve with cutting oxygen, which activates combustion when reaching the heated metal;
- Oxides appear in the process and are removed with a stream of oxygen;
- at the end of the process, first the cutting oxygen valve is closed, then the fuel gas, and finally the torches are closed.
The main tool of oxyfuel cutting set. a torch. There are classifications of these elements:
- type of combustible gas (torches for liquid combustible mixtures, acetylene, gas-substitutes);
- the degree of automation (manual, machine);
- purpose (special and universal);
- gas mixing (non-injected and injected);
- the flame power (high, medium, low).
Gas-electric metal cutting
is essentially a type of plasma cutting. The technology involves heating up the spark arc with combustion gas and creating a low-temperature plasma jet, between 4,000 and 5,000 °C. By limiting the temperature, the requirements to the materials from which the plasma cutters are made are reduced and, as a consequence, the cost of the equipment is reduced. The thickness limit of the workpieces to be processed is slightly reduced. This method appeared as an answer to the question, what can be used for cutting metal when there is a need to limit costs. It is highly cost-effective.
Areas of use
Metal rubberizing is widely used for protective coatings in all industrial applications. This method is used for the lining of tanks, vessels, columns, centrifuges, pipelines, mixers, stirrers. Before coating, corners are rounded, and sinks, chips and cracks are removed. Rubber sheets are glued with special adhesives on a carefully cleaned and degreased surface.
The vulcanization process follows. Rubber coating is cured at 130ºС for 15 25 hours. Vulcanizing in autoclaves with water steam pressure of 2.53 atm. The internal surfaces of large gear units are vulcanized with hot air or a salt solution at 105 to 110°C.
First it is necessary to assemble everything that is needed for the task at hand.
The list of tools includes:
As you know, metal tubing includes a layer of plastic and an aluminum substrate. They are firmly welded by laser welding. The wireframe is an aluminum tube. The core of the product is quite smooth.
However, experts still recommend to grind the surface of the structure from possible irregularities before starting to cut.
To clean the pipe products it is necessary to use a coupling. The process of cleaning the surface of the product itself takes little time.