Wheels on a cultivator with your own hands

DIY velomobile: adult tricycle

In addition to simplicity, which is the main advantage of a bicycle, this stroller has advantages over its “progenitor”, the main of which are good stability in motion and at stops and comfortable, like in a car, the driver’s seat.

The prototype was a velomobile published in some magazine. But its rather complex spatial frame, two-stage drive and steering made me think about how to simplify these components and make the car lighter. I believe that we managed to solve the problem and even get a copyright certificate for the production of an industrial design.

I offer readers a description and drawings of the improved velomobile.

This “reduction” of the prototype velomobile led, in fact, to the creation of a new car. only the layout remained from the previous one: two front steering wheels and one driving rear. Therefore, before proceeding to the description of the bicycle stroller units, it is worth noting those of them that have been affected by the most radical changes.

Firstly, the frame has been lightened up to 4.5 kg. instead of spatial, it has become flat. Secondly, the two-stage drive with a countershaft (reduction gear) is simplified to a single-stage drive with an extended chain, which increases the efficiency of the transmission. Thirdly, the multi-speed hub of the drive wheel has been replaced with a single-speed one, and there is no need for a hand brake. Fourthly, the steering wheel from under the seat was moved to its usual place. to the column in front of the driver, which eliminated an extra step in the steering. Finally, fifthly, the “chaise longue” seat has been replaced by a simpler, but stiffer with a back tilted back, which provides better support when pressing the feet on the pedals, which is especially important when moving uphill.

As a result of such alterations, the total weight of the car decreased to 20 kg (in the prototype it was 26 kg), providing almost the same consumer qualities as the prototype with a multi-speed drive.

Step-by-step construction of a velomobile

The frame of the velomobile consists of two longitudinal spars 1200 mm long, made of steel pipe with a diameter of 25 mm. In front, the side members converge, and here the pedal drive carriage body from an old folding bike is welded to them. At a distance of 420 mm from the carriage axis, a transverse beam. 640 mm long traverse with pivot bushings at the ends. is welded to the side members from below. The traverse is made of a steel pipe with a diameter of 28 mm, the bushing is made of a pipe with a diameter of 18 mm. At the junction with the traverse, the spars have a slight bend and then run parallel to each other. Their ends are flattened in a vertical plane and equipped with tips from the rear fork of a road bike. At a distance of 395 mm from the axis of the tips between the side members, a spacer with an eyelet for attaching a mud fender is welded.

wheels, cultivator, hands

A steering column with a length of 330 mm from a tube with a diameter of 28 mm is welded to the front crosshead. Its stability is provided by two curly kerchiefs.

The base (distance between the axles of the wheels) of the bicycle wheelchair, in comparison with the prototype, is slightly reduced (the turning radius has also decreased), and the track (distance between the front wheels) is increased.

The chassis, wheel suspension and steering are pretty straightforward. The rear drive wheel, like a bicycle wheel, is attached to the ends of the side members forks. The suspension of the front steering wheels, although it differs from the usual bicycle one and looks more like a car pivot, is also simple. the camber and toe angles are not adjustable.

The pins are loosely inserted into the bronze plain bearings (you can also use fluoroplastic ones) of the bushings at the ends of the traverse, tightened from above with castellated nuts and pinned through the holes drilled in the threaded ends of the pins. The pins have cube-shaped heads with 12 mm through side holes. The axles (pins) of the front steering wheels are fixed in these holes.

In the lower edge of the head of each kingpin, a groove and two diagonal blind threaded holes M4 are made. The ends of the pivoting levers are fixed in the grooves with two M4 screws each. Their other ends are pivotally connected to the flattened ends of the tie rod from a steel bar with a diameter of 7 mm. In the middle of the rod, an eyelet is welded for pivoting the free end of the steering arm. The other end of the bipod is welded to the lower end of the steering shaft, made of a thin-walled steel pipe with a diameter of 21 mm, in the upper part of which a longitudinal slot is made.

The shaft in bronze (or fluoroplastic) plain bearings is placed in the steering column, the steering column is inserted into it from above, and all the parts in the place of the slot are tightened with a clamp. Two more clamps on the same shaft at the top and bottom of the steering column prevent its longitudinal displacement.

The drive (transmission) is no different from the drive of a regular road bike, only the chain is slightly longer. Its tension is adjusted by moving the rear wheel hub axle in the grooves of the fork ends. When the chain is pulled out, it is enough to remove one or two links from it, so that dragging adjustment becomes possible again.

The seat of the cycle carriage is ordinary. like a chair, only its back is tilted at a significant angle for a more comfortable fit for the driver. The base of the seat is an arch made of a steel thin-walled tube with a diameter of 16 mm with four crossbars made of a steel U-shaped profile with dimensions of 55×10 mm. The seat and back cushions are attached to the Turechins. Pillows are simple: foam rubber is glued to the plywood base and covered with leatherette on top.

The position of the seat on the frame was chosen taking into account the optimal distribution of the load from the driver’s weight to the wheels. It was also taken into account that the driver’s seating height should provide him with the necessary visibility when driving in a traffic stream. Therefore, the seat is installed on two uprights-brackets made of the same profile as the cross members, only the size of the shelves is 15 mm. The brackets are pulled to the frame side members by a pair of brackets using four M5 bolts each. This mount allows you to move the seat (back or forth) if necessary to adjust the distance to the pedals according to the driver’s height.

The simplification of the design of the cycle carriage, in comparison with the prototype, did not entail the final elimination of the previous elements that create (albeit insignificant) comfortable riding conditions. If desired, without changing the frame and steering, you can install a multi-speed drive, a fairing with a windshield and a roof and a seat headrest, thus turning the stroller back into a velomobile.

The simplest do-it-yourself lugs for a tiller

For manufacturing you will need:

Homemade wheel hand hoe. Garden wheel hoe

Cut out two identical discs from a thinner sheet. In the center we make a hole for the hub and for attaching the wheel to the studs. Cut sawtooth protrusions along the outer edge, 10 cm deep.

Cut out triangular hooks from a thick sheet with cut corners. We weld them strictly perpendicular to the sawtooth notches. Everything, the design is ready for use.

Despite the unprepossessing design, homemade lugs for a tiller made in this way have an important advantage. They are heavy enough to provide a firm grip even on loose or soggy surfaces.

Of course, there can be no question of any kind of movement on a dirt road. These wheels are designed exclusively for use in the field.

Another economical option is made from a steel circle with a diameter of 15 mm. You can use the steering wheel from the valve on the main gas pipeline, if you can get some steam somewhere. Hooks are welded to the outer rim, and a suitable hub is attached in the center.

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The next design is made from car rims. This is the best option for a homemade tiller. When designing, you provide for the standard wheel hubs from the car, and you purchase a complete set of 4 rims. Install tires on one pair, and the second will be for heavy soil.

We take a regular steel corner 50-60 mm and cut it into pieces, slightly wider than your discs. In the middle of one side we cut an angle grinder triangular sector 60 °.

We heat the corner with a gas burner and bend it along the cutout. The joint can be lightly tacked by welding for extra rigidity. We weld the resulting blanks to the outside of the disc, maintaining an equal distance.

We repeat the assembly on the second disk, keeping in mind the same distance between the corners. Now you can quickly change rubber wheels to steel lugs without experiencing problems with the seat. The disks are the same!

The design of the rims can be simplified. It is enough to cut off the horizontal part (rim) and weld on the steel plates.

The variant is suitable for frequent wheel changes on the same hub type. Only the discs need to be matched.

DIY tiller lugs are a good way to save money

  • How to make lugs with existing factory wheels
  • The simplest do-it-yourself lugs for a tiller
  • Homemade lugs for a tiller of complex design
  • Combined lugs

What we call wheels. in the case of a tiller, is a lug. In the overwhelming majority of factory designs, the equipment is equipped with conventional wheels with embossed tires for off-road.

This is done in order to be able to use the tractive force for the transport of goods on ordinary dirt roads. Important! The use of a tiller (even factory-made) on public roads is prohibited. Even if it has quality factory wheels installed.

Therefore, many owners of small agricultural machinery make lugs for the tiller with their own hands. In this case, it is only necessary to fit the landing nest to the hubs of the factory motor plow. When changing the mode of use, simply mount the desired wheels.

If the tiller is used only in the field, ordinary rubber tires are not needed. And for a mini-tractor of your own production, you do not have to make ordinary wheels at all. In this case, homemade lugs for the tiller will be the only kit.

The design is not new, the first tractors were produced without rubber tires. The wheels were metal, and powerful transverse or diagonal plates of thick steel were installed on the drive rollers.

Homemade lugs for a tiller of complex design

The products considered above are easy to manufacture, but their consumer properties are far from perfect. Therefore, we suggest that you familiarize yourself with the design, which is not inferior in quality to factory counterparts.

For manufacturing you will need:

  • Steel sheet 4-5 mm for the central disc;
  • Steel strip 50 mm wide 4-5 mm thick for the outer supporting surface. There will be 6 such hoops. The outer rings make the wheel heavier and stronger;
  • Steel plate 8-10 mm thick for hooks;
  • Arc welding machine, angle grinder, drill or drilling machine.

All connections are made using electric welding, a gas burner will not heat metal of this thickness.

Since the diameter and width of the lugs are larger than the seat for standard wheels, we lengthen the axles.

over, it is necessary to provide for the possibility of adjusting the track, depending on the width of the rows in the field. By moving the wheels with hooks, you can set any width and position of the attachment. The weight of each wheel is at least 10 kg, so that a strong grip is ensured.

It is important to understand that such wheels are not implements for plowing or loosening, although some soil treatment is present. It will not work to use them as a loosening cutter, since an independent fulcrum is required.

If you are not faced with the question of how to make the lugs heavier, the structure can be made more delicate and light. Such wheels work well on “light” soils with preliminary loosening.

In such a project, the discs are made of small diameter, the rim is supported by an openwork spoked structure made of profiled steel sheet. Steel thickness for hooks no more than 8 mm. Each wheel weighs less than 7 kg.

How to make lugs with existing factory wheels

The easiest way is to put the structure on the tire like snow chains.

It is enough to take sheet metal with a thickness of 2-3 mm, and cut a strip that will be slightly wider than the tire profile. The preload is provided by a simple tie made of bolted studs. The edges of the strip should be folded to prevent slipping under lateral loads.

The lugs are cut from thicker sheet steel (4-5 mm). They need to be bent in the middle at an angle of 120 °. Then the workpieces are welded to the strips at regular intervals.

My assistant SNOWBLOWER Quick snow removal with a homemade auger snow blower

Therefore, before starting work, you should use ready-made drawings, or develop a layout yourself.

Such lugs can be made with your own hands in a couple of evenings. If you use a regular smooth tread on a homemade tiller, the device will turn the equipment into a real off-road vehicle.

We will acquaint fans of small mechanization with various types of structures, and varying degrees of complexity.

Combined lugs

If your technique is homemade, and the ground is not too difficult to work, the wheels must match. You can make do-it-yourself lugs on the tiller using a tractor tread.

For manufacturing, you need the halves of the rims from the “Zhiguli”. We select tires with a developed tread from the tractor. We cut off the sidewalls, we get a closed rubber ring with good tread. We open the halves from the rims and twist them firmly after laying the tires.

The resulting lugs allow you to move along the rolled dirt road without fear of loosened it. On the soft soil of the plowed field, the wheels will also not let you down, although the tractive effort will be less than when using the metal version.

If, in addition to the tenacity of the wheels, there is the task of obligatory loosening of the soil in the rut, knife-type lugs are made. You can create a homemade rim for attaching the hooks, or you can weld them onto rims.

The only drawback of this design is that the knife-type lugs are not suitable for normal tiller movement. In any case, the land in the track will be plowed. When loosening the soil in spring in combination with traditional nozzles, the width of the soil cultivated in one pass doubles, saving your time.

Output:
It doesn’t matter which way you make the lugs. The main thing is that it is not difficult at all, and the savings are huge.

There are still questions, see homemade lugs for the tiller from what was found in the barn.

Dump

The dump is necessary not only for removing snow in winter, but also for clearing various debris. To make it, we need ordinary sheet metal, the thickness of which will be about 2 mm. Inside it you need to weld 4 ribs of the same steel, but about 4 mm thick.

They need to drill holes through which the blade with the rods will be attached. The lower part of the structure is best sheathed with sheet metal to prevent the blade from burrowing into the ground.

For more information about the operation of a diesel tiller, see

Of course, 2-stroke engines are also found in the configuration, but they are used in fairly old tiller models, significantly inferior to 4-stroke ones in terms of power thrust. However, most consumers get exactly 4-stroke gasoline engines. Their device includes the following systems:

  • The system responsible for the supply of fuel. Consists of fuel tank, carburetor, air filter and fuel hose.
  • Lubrication system that lubricates those parts that rub against each other.
  • Starter for crankshaft cranking.
  • Cooling system that removes heat from the engine block using airflow.
  • Ignition system that produces a spark at the spark plug.
  • Gas distribution system, which ensures the flow of the air-fuel mixture into the engine cylinder, and is also responsible for the exit of exhaust gases.

It is important that the engine is already sold with all the main working systems, which greatly facilitates the process of making a homemade tiller.

Basic controls

The tiller control is located on the handle of the unit, responsible for changing the speed and direction of movement of the device. Among the controls are:

  • Levers, steering wheel and gearshift paddles.
  • Clutch control.
  • Lever or engine stop button.
  • Gas supply, etc.

In the design of the tiller there is no seat for a person (as in the tiller Salyut), therefore the control itself is carried out by a person with his own hand.

READ  How to assemble a tiller with your own hands

Chassis

The chassis includes not only the wheelbase itself, but also the frame structure to which these wheels are attached, and where the main working units of the tiller are located.

In more modern tiller models, a change in the distance between a pair of wheels is provided, which allows you to adjust the size of the tiller track.

Today, there are two types of wheels. pneumatic and metal with grousers.

For the tiller, accessories: creeper, mulcher and do-it-yourself counterweight, wheels for a cultivator. dimensions and drawings

If earlier it was necessary to harrow and plow almost by hand, using a minimum number of auxiliary tools, now it could be done using special equipment. In this case, we are talking about tillers. units that are full-fledged assistants in the garden and vegetable garden. However, the cost of all these equipment is quite high, taking into account the cost of the tiller itself, so many craftsmen have adapted to make new homemade products of this or that technical means.

It is not surprising that the growth of such interest in this technique was associated with the use of various additional equipment of the trailed and mounted type (KUHN), which significantly expand the functionality of the tiller.

Hiller

To make it, we need a couple of ordinary metal pot lids (enameled ones, in this case, will not work). Their diameter should be about 500 mm. Next, we sharpen the edges of the covers on a grinding machine so that they better enter the soil.

The disc hillers must be attached to a homemade cart with wheels. They are made from ordinary sleeves and pipes, welded together.

Attachments to tillers and motor-cultivators, homemade products of which you can completely make yourself, are of various types:

  • Weeding equipment.
  • Potato diggers and potato planters.
  • Snow blowers, etc.

Homemade trailer

Tiller trailers and their homemade trailers are a fairly simple design, consisting of a conventional box with sides, located on a wheelbase.

To make a trailer ourselves, we need:

  • Protube 40 × 25 mm and 25 × 25 mm. It is needed for the manufacture of the trailer hitch itself, as well as for the manufacture of sides. inside and under the trailer.
  • For the body, we need to make a frame structure from a 40 × 25 cm and 25 × 25 cm professional pipe. The bottom of the body can be made from a regular piece of sheet metal. Pieces of the professional pipe must be welded to the bottom of the body in such a way that a lattice is obtained. On top of these edges, a full-fledged piece of a professional pipe is welded along the entire perimeter.
  • On the finished frame, you need to install a profiled sheet, which will serve as the sides. The height of each side is approximately 30 cm.
  • The tailgate needs to be made folding. We use ordinary latches as latches, which must be attached on both sides of the side. This side is attached to the bottom of the body using conventional hinges from the doors. On the same side, you can install reflectors that act as reflectors.
  • Wheels can be taken from Oka or Zhiguli cars. their diameter will be optimal.
  • The bridge can also be taken from the old Zhiguli. The wheels are attached to it with a pair of bearings. You can fix the bridge to the frame using pieces of pipe, up to two on each side. One ends of the pipe are welded to the bridge, and the other to the body.

Transmission

The main function of the transmission is to transfer torque from the motor to the wheelbase, as well as to regulate the speeds and change the movement of the unit. Its design includes several working units: gearbox, clutch, gearbox and differential (not available in all models).

The transmission can be of several types:

  • Gear.
  • Belt.
  • Chain.
  • Combined.

Basically, the classic type of gear transmission is used on heavy tillers, and it consists of bevel and spur gears.

The rest of the transmission types are used in light and medium types of tillers. At the same time, regardless of the type of transmission, there is a PTO in the design. a power take-off shaft, which transmits torque to the working units of the unit.

As for the clutch, it can be different:

  • In the form of a V-belt transmission. The essence of the process consists in the clutch lever, which tightens or weakens the belt, than it transfers, or stops the transmission of torque from the motor to the gearbox.
  • Single or multi-plate dry or wet clutch.
  • Conical coupling.

Most high-quality trailers Sadko, Don, Huter, Profi, Plowman, Champion, Carver use the second type of clutch, which is the most reliable.

How to choose and install wheels for a cultivator?

The cultivator is the “main helper” for farmers and amateur gardeners on land plots. The maneuverability and maneuverability of the unit directly depends on the quality and correct installation of the wheels. It will not be difficult to select and change the transport elements on the cultivator. The main thing is to take into account the peculiarities of their types.

How to make and put wheels on a cultivator?

Tiller upgrade is necessary in the following cases:

  • to improve the quality of plowing with low wheel pressure;
  • rubber tires are not suitable for plowing, which wear out quickly;
  • an increase in the chassis;
  • creating a new modification.

For self-production of transport elements for a motor-cultivator, two or four wheels from popular Soviet cars are suitable.

The manufacturing process includes the following steps:

  • we fix the axle shaft inside the transport element;
  • in order for it to be removable, we weld a tube with a diameter of 30 mm to a metal plate;
  • we make holes in the plate (no more than 10 mm) for the guides on the car rims;
  • using a drill, we make a through hole in the tube (under the cotter pin);
  • we put the tube perpendicular to the plate and fasten it along the side parts, welding it;
  • then we screw the axle shaft to the wheel, securing it with a cotter pin.

Thus, it will not be difficult to install the wheels on the cultivator, as well as to remove them. To do this, you just need to unscrew a few fasteners. The last action implies the presence of a special set of devices (screwdriver, key and jack).

  • unnecessary car wheels;
  • “Corner” made of steel for making “hooks”;
  • dense squares of steel;
  • bolts;
  • traction or metal wheels are perfect for creating lugs.

So let’s get started:

  • we take as a basis old disks from a car without rubber;
  • we attach the semi-axles to them with a welding machine;
  • we start making “hooks”;
  • we take the corners of steel and adjust their size using an “angle grinder” (their size prevails over the rim of the disc);
  • fasten to the rim (at a distance of 15 cm each);
  • in the final stage, we fix them with the help of “teeth”.

Types of wheels for a motor cultivator. How to choose them?

The cultivator itself is a mechanical structure used in household plots to facilitate agricultural work. In order for the special equipment to perform its tasks 100%, all parts must be serviceable, especially the elements of movement. The latter are divided into the following types:

  • supporting;
  • rubber;
  • traction;
  • metal with grousers;
  • paired.

In a standard situation, the design of the cultivator is equipped with one wheel (support), which takes the main load on itself. This part of the unit is “responsible” for endurance and optimization during operation. There is an opinion that when performing some “land” work, the front wheel should be removed.

When choosing wheels for an inter-row cultivator, take note of the following information.

  • Traction and pneumatic wheels are renowned for their versatility and unique tread pattern. They are often called “herringbone” in everyday life. They are large (more than 20 cm wide and 40 cm in diameter). The wheels allow the tiller to move easily both on the road and on sticky soil. The impressive dimensions of the wheels make it possible to use the unit for plowing over large areas. Traction wheels are also perfect for a snow blower or a trolley. Rubber’s amazing strength is popular for its durability.
  • Transport elements made of metal with lugs are heavier. Steel “teeth” push the cultivator forward and prevent it from “drowning” in viscous clay.
  • Rubber (solid) ones are installed not only on cultivators, but also on small tractors. They have a “rolling” property and are widely used in wooded (difficult to pass) terrain.
  • Paired ones consist of 2 elements of the same size and shape. This design significantly increases the power of the unit and increases its speed. They have excellent surface contact and are easy to create at home. They also imply the possibility of prompt removal of elements of the external plan.

Sometimes the basic configuration of the wheels “fails”, and these elements must be done independently.

Additional constructions

For the cultivator, it will turn out to build both transport elements and additional frame parts. Thus, the unit “transforms” into a small tractor. In this type, the cultivator can be used as an all-terrain vehicle. In this case, the wheels of the standard type with low pressure are removed and replaced with lugs (large size).

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To learn how to make lugs for a cultivator with your own hands, see the next video.

Electric cultivator

  • Lightweight and compact.
  • Mains powered so there is no need to refuel.
  • Easy to maintain.
  • The area to be treated is limited by the length of the electrical cord.
  • Shallow tillage depth.
  • Low power.
  • It is impossible to cultivate large areas of land, mainly flower beds and greenhouses.
  • During operation, the hanging cable will interfere with.
  • There is no attachment.

Hand cultivator

  • No load on the lower back.
  • Easy to use.
  • Much more effective than a conventional shovel.
  • Affordable price compared to electric or gasoline cultivators.
  • Does not require additional maintenance (lubrication, replacement of spare parts).
  • Compact.
  • When cultivating the soil, the roots of the weeds do not spread throughout the entire plot.
  • Loosens the soil without turning it over.
  • Poor performance.
  • Designed to work on small areas of land, such as a greenhouse.
  • Not suitable for cultivation of uncultivated land.

How to create a cultivator with your own hands

What is a cultivator?

The cultivator is a garden technique that cultivates the land before sowing and after harvesting. With its help, you can plow and loosen the soil, destroy weeds, apply fertilizers. In addition, it is designed for processing row spacings, hilling plantings and thinning.

Cultivators are divided into:

  • electrical;
  • gasoline;
  • manual.
wheels, cultivator, hands

They also differ in weight and power:

  • ultralight. equipment weighing no more than 30 kg is designed to work in small garden plots;
  • light. units weighing 30-60 kg can handle large land plots. They can be used on a plowed field and on virgin soil;
  • medium. equipment weighing 60-100 kg;
  • heavy. cultivators weighing more than 100 kg, cultivate large agricultural land.

Advantages and disadvantages of different cultivators

Petrol cultivator

  • Travel radius is not limited by the cable.
  • Multifunctional thanks to attachments.
  • Difficult to maintain.
  • Designed for the processing of small land plots.
  • Requires refueling.
  • Weighs more than electric.

DIY cultivator for the garden

Working on a plot of land is a very difficult and time-consuming task. And the larger the area, the more time and effort you need to spend on processing it. A large number of modern technology is presented on the market to facilitate the work of landowners. For soil cultivation, manufacturers suggest using cultivators.

wheels, cultivator, hands

Modernization of the KROT motor-cultivator

In Russia, the “Mole” type motor-cultivators have been produced for a long time. The first model of the MK-1 “Krot” motor-cultivator was manufactured as a single-purpose machine for soil cultivation. To date, the technical capabilities of motor-cultivators have been significantly expanded and even mini-feed preparation equipment has been developed for them. Externally, motor cultivators resemble tillers and the main structural units for both are the same.

Description of the KROT motor cultivator

Motor-cultivator MK-1 “Krot”:

working body (rotor); 2. reducer; 3. knife of the working body; 4. gas tank; 5. button “stop” for stopping the engine; 6. clutch control lever; 7. carburetor throttle control lever; 8. engine; 9. opener; 10. support; 11. frame; 12. transport wheel

The main units of MK-1 (see fig.) Are the engine with an integrated gearbox (described below), transmission, control system, working bodies, opener, wheels.

The transmission provides the transmission of torque from the single-stage engine reducer to the working bodies and consists of a V-belt transmission and a lower two-stage reducer. The V-belt transmission also performs the function of a clutch. Working bodies are installed on the output shaft of the gearbox chain drive.

The control system consists of two handles adjustable in length and width. On the left of them is the carburetor throttle control lever, on the right. the clutch control lever. To stop the engine, the control system has a “Stop” button.

The working bodies are made in the form of rotors, each of which has four knives of a special shape. The milling drum with a diameter of 320 mm is assembled from two or four rotors. In the first case, the width of the processed strip is 330 mm, in the second. 580 mm. If two more rotors are additionally installed, which allows the tiller design, the width of the processed strip will be 830 mm. The milling drum rotates at 85 rpm and works the soil to a depth of 20 cm (depending on setting).

The forward movement of the tiller is carried out due to the rotation of the working bodies. rotors, simultaneously performing the technological process.

The coulter is installed behind the working bodies and acts as a regulator of the tillage depth. The coulter is adjusted in height in steps.

A pair of wheels in the form of disks with a rubber rim has no drive and serves only to move the cultivator, and during operation the wheels are lifted up.

The productivity of MK-1 when milling the soil to a depth of 20 cm is 0.017 ha / h, and when cultivated to a depth of 10-12 cm. 0.05 ha / h, that is, its use in the most labor-intensive processing operations. soil increases labor productivity in comparison with manual more than 5 times. Additional devices are supplied to the MK-1 motor cultivator: weeders with L-shaped knives with a wedge-shaped blade; discs that protect against damage during rotary tillage; hiller. Using these devices, it is possible to complete the unit, for example, for the combined processing of potato rows: the weeders are installed instead of the working bodies-rotors, and the protective discs are installed on the shafts of the weeders; the hiller is mounted instead of the doser on the back of the frame. During the operation of the unit, weeder knives loosen the soil, prune weeds and at the same time facilitate the movement of the cultivator, and the hiller on the loosened soil spuds two adjacent beds on one side each in one pass. Such a unit processes 0.14 ha / h, which is 18 times more productive than performing similar works manually.

Overall dimensions of MK-1. 1300 X 800 X 810 mm, weight 50 kg, it can be freely placed in the trunk or on the roof of the car.

In general, for modifications of all motor-cultivators of the “Mole” type, in addition to the working bodies already mentioned for MK-1, a small plow, a mower, a semitrailer with a carrying capacity of 200 kg, and a water pump are produced. A front attachment has been developed that forms a motor-carriage when the attachment is connected to the power unit of a motor-cultivator. A sprayer, a home sawmill and other accessories are created in the calculation of the use with this power unit.

Modifications MK-2 and MK-3 have wheel diameter 320 mm, ground clearance 90 mm, track 285 or 600 mm, overall dimensions 1960X800X1170 mm. The MK-2 model has one forward gear, providing a speed of up to 7 km / h, weight 50 kg. The MK-3 model has two forward gears providing travel speeds of 4.7 and 7.1 km / h and two reverse gears (2.8 and 4 km / h), weight 60 kg. This model has an optional pulley mounting option and is equipped with rear and front linkages. With the help of a pulley, it is possible to drive various small-sized machines, including those used in home farming. The rear hitch is hung or attached to it tools associated with the use of tractive effort (plow, hiller, semitrailer, etc.). On the front, implements and machines with active working bodies (mower, feed crusher, pump and others) are mounted and driven through a V-belt transmission.

Modification of the “KROT” motor-cultivator

For higher performance, I suggest installing a 4-stroke Chinese-made LIFAN-160F engine with a power of 4 l / s on the MK. This increases the power of the MK at low speeds. Now there is no need to increase the engine speed in order to process the soil depth of 20 cm (according to the passport). In addition, due to the power, the processing depth increased 1.5 times and amounted to about 30 cm (before the belt slipped). The engine copes with this task easily.

Another not unimportant plus of this replacement is that the engine starts up in a cold or hot state. Turnovers are automatically maintained at a given level. With more power, gasoline consumption remained approximately the same as that of a standard engine, moreover, now there is no need to add oil to gasoline (4-stroke engine).

Installing a new engine does not involve much effort and rework. The engine mounts fit into place. The pulley is taken from the old engine, slightly reaming the inner hole and keyway.

Having pretty much worn out with the old engine, now with the new one, completely different emotions when working with a motor-cultivator!

Used literature: Small-scale mechanization in household and farm households. Ed. I.P. Oil. 1996.