How to use a wood sander

Types, purpose, features of work

There are different types of grinders that do the same job, but with different results. There is a tool for rough (preliminary), medium (intermediate) and fine (finishing) grinding. Part of the tool can even do polishing.

wood, sander

The machine for grinding wood can be of different pitch, size, performance

To choose a sander for wood, you first need to decide what type of work you need it for. For rough sanding. leveling unevenness, height differences. one type is suitable, for finishing sanding. bringing to the ideal. another type. over, both tasks can be solved using different types of equipment.

Technical selection criteria

Any tool is divided into classes that differ in work resource (and price). So a sander for wood can be household or professional. Household ones are designed for short continuous work with interruptions. Basically, it is recommended to work no more than 3 hours a day, periodically taking breaks of 15 minutes.

Professional models are designed to work for 8-12 hours, breaks are rarely needed or not needed at all. The working resource of such a tool is many times greater. For this, durable and reliable (read. expensive) materials are used. In addition, the performance of such equipment is much higher, as a rule, there are more adjustments.

To choose a wood sanding machine, you need to pay attention to the technical parameters

When choosing, the first thing to decide is what class your car should be. I must say that some manufacturers have a good household class, and some also have semi-professional lines. This is an intermediate class, as a rule, for private use it is optimal in terms of price / quality combination. Some models are even used by professionals.

Popular models of belt sander

Manufacturer Model Power Belt dimensions (width / length) Belt speed Weight Price
Interskol LShM-76/900 900 watts 76 mm / 533 mm 250 m / min 3.2 kg 55-90
Makita 9911 650 Wt 76 mm / 457 mm 270 m / min 2.6KG 100-150
Bosch PBS 75 AE 750 watts 75 mm / 533 mm 350 m / min 3.5 kg 120-160
Interskol LShM-100 / 1200E 1200 watts 100 mm / 610 mm 400 m / min 5.6 kg 100-150
Makita 9404 1010 Wt 100 mm / 610 mm 440 m / min 4.7 kg 200-270

What type of sander to choose

To summarize, we can say that for housework and construction, ideally, two grinders are needed. for a rough and a fine finish. The most commonly used pair is tape eccentric. If you are planning to make furniture, then you cannot do without oscillation.

If you do not like the result of a belt sander, you can purchase two orbital ones with different eccentricities. For rough grinding, a tool with an eccentricity of 6-8 mm is suitable, for finishing grinding and even polishing. 2-4 mm. The only drawback of this solution is that good eccentric sanders are expensive.

If the budget is limited, and the farm has an angle grinder (angle grinder), rough grinding can be done with it, and for intermediate or fine grinding, use orbital or vibration. Just keep in mind that vibration is the least productive, albeit the cheapest. If possible, buy an orbital one. it is more versatile and gives better results.

angle grinder. angle grinder

The well-known angle grinder can also be used for sanding wood. It copes well with the coarse grinding function. Of all the tools available, this one is the most productive. If you need to quickly level large wooden surfaces. sanding the floor, walls, logs. this is the job for an angle grinder. Minus. the surface turns out to be very uneven, it takes a long time to align all the pits and humps. If it still “passes” on the log house, then the result is unsatisfactory for any carpentry work. If you can buy another tool, you should not use an angle grinder to sand wood.

For wood, use red emery wheels. this is a special abrasive

For the angle grinder, there are special attachments for sanding wood. The best option is flap discs or discs with different grit sandpaper. When installed, the working plane is below the protective cover, it is safe to work, you can move in any direction. Carefully it is necessary to handle places with protruding heads of nails and screws. We lower the tool from above, carefully move it. The grinding wheel easily breaks with a sharp movement, so be careful.

By varying the grain size of the grinding wheels used, it is possible to carry out coarse and medium (intermediate) grinding. The work will take less time than if you use any other sander for wood. But it may take more time to bring to a flat surface, since, with a lack of experience, there will be more flaws.

When sanding wood, the sandpaper becomes clogged, the speed of work decreases. In addition to a decrease in speed, there is another sign. the smell of burnt wood. It is not necessary to change the disk right away, you can restore its operability. To do this, grind the metal for a few seconds. Everything adhered. resin, wood fibers, dust. burns, the surface is cleaned, the processing speed increases again. This Focus, by the way, can be used with other grinders as well.

If you often have to clean and change the wheels, a Velcro attachment is installed on the angle grinder. Replacing the sandpaper is much easier and faster. unpinning / sticking is a matter of seconds. But working with a nozzle is more dangerous. Due to its height, the grinding area is above the level of the protective casing, it does not perform its functions. During the start, it happens that an unreliably fixed circle or even the nozzle itself flies off. They have a small weight, injuries are not serious, but they are all the same injuries. An angle grinder with a smooth start helps to reduce the risks, but, anyway, you need to work with gloves, protective clothing with tightly buttoned sleeves, boots that cover your legs, and goggles.

Belt sander

It is called so due to the fact that the sandpaper is in the form of a tape, continuously moving with the help of rollers. Therefore, such a sander for wood is also called “endless”.

The wood belt sander is designed for rough and intermediate leveling of the surface. By installing a finer grit sandpaper, a medium finish can be achieved. This is sufficient for joinery that cannot be painted. To bring it to perfect condition, you need a different type of wood sander. over, to eliminate long longitudinal scratches, you will have to carry out stepwise grinding, changing the grain several times. the scratches remain deep.

READ  How To Sharpen A Hacksaw On Wood

A belt sander is good if you need to remove the old coating. paint varnish

Why is a wood belt sander good? It has good performance. The tape is installed on it in such a way that it turns out to be sanding close to the wall with one side. What are its disadvantages? Due to the construction, not all points can be reached. For example, corners, grooves, grooves and other small parts. It is not always possible to “crawl” between two parts (when processing handrails, for example). Another drawback is that most of the belt sanders have a solid mass, it is difficult to work with them on weight, sanding vertical surfaces. But on the horizontal plane. they are the most productive.

The next disadvantages are high noise level, not the largest sanding spot. It makes so much noise that it is extremely uncomfortable to work without headphones. Why a small polishing spot, because it looks large enough? Even with a large belt width, it grinds only in the center. the part at the front and back is not used due to the fact that it is raised to feed onto the rollers.

It can be turned into a grinder

The wood belt sander has features in work. To reduce the depth of the furrows that it leaves, it must be guided along the fibers. Then finishing sanding takes less time. And yet. if you gape in the process of work and leave the machine in one place for a long time, a solid “pit” will form. Despite this, it is the most productive wood sander that is often used.

How to choose a sander for wood

On the farm, you often have to grind something, clean off the old paintwork. Most of the work is with wood. Few manufacturers sell perfect pieces. Perhaps a carpenter. And if there are perfectly processed boards, then their price is such that you will inevitably want to polish them yourself. Even taking into account the fact that the work is boring and uninteresting. Therefore, a wood sander is one of the tools that should be in the home arsenal.

Tape

When choosing belt grinding, you need to look at the following parameters:

    Length and width of the tape. Belt width. from 6 mm to 100 mm. A narrow blade can handle small parts, a wide blade increases productivity. The length of the tape depends on the model. It is clear that the longer the tape, the longer it works without replacement. When buying a second belt sander, try to find a model with the same length. fewer consumables are required.

Additional handle allows for tighter control of the tool

You also need to pay attention to how convenient it is to change the tape. There are also models that allow you to quickly change the brushes. Sometimes spare brushes are even included.

General recommendations for selection

The market was flooded with offers from little-known companies, outwardly such models may not differ much from high-quality devices, but the difference will become noticeable only after a while. The price of such mechanisms may look attractive, but the savings will be expensive in the future. So you need to know what to look for when choosing such mechanisms.

It is more convenient to give recommendations on choosing a specific model depending on its type, but you can also give some general advice.

  • grinder weight. It’s good if you don’t need to keep it on weight for a long time, in which case the weight of the machine can even be considered an advantage. But if you have to hold it in your hands, then preference should be given to a higher speed of movement of the working surface;
  • its behavior in the on state. It is clear that a wood sander is not a quiet tool, but some models simply set a record, stunning the owners. Also, at idle speed, it is worth assessing the vibration, if the machine “hits” strongly, then there is a high probability of its quick failure;
  • cost. it is quite possible to find the best price / quality ratio without high costs. The same Interskol produces a fairly reliable tool;
  • the possibility of quick repair also plays an important role, so exoticism from this point of view is not the best choice, spare parts for not very common brands of mechanisms are difficult to find;
  • dimensions of the slab, mini slabs (about 100 mm 2) are only suitable for processing small wooden products.

Some craftsmen make a kind of grinders on their own. But a home-made machine is not able to compete with professional ones in the quality of surface treatment. The maximum that such an artisanal mechanism will do is the processing of small wooden parts.

Belt sander

It is called so due to the fact that the sandpaper is in the form of a tape, continuously moving with the help of rollers. Therefore, such a sander for wood is also called “endless”.

The wood belt sander is designed for rough and intermediate leveling of the surface. By installing a finer grit sandpaper, a medium finish can be achieved. This is sufficient for joinery that cannot be painted. To bring it to perfect condition, you need a different type of wood sander. over, to eliminate long longitudinal scratches, you will have to carry out stepwise grinding, changing the grain several times. the scratches remain deep.

A belt sander is good if you need to remove the old coating. paint varnish

Why is a wood belt sander good? It has good performance. The tape is installed on it in such a way that it turns out to be sanding close to the wall with one side. What are its disadvantages? Due to the construction, not all points can be reached. For example, corners, grooves, grooves and other small parts. It is not always possible to “crawl” between two parts (when processing handrails, for example). Another drawback is that most of the belt sanders have a solid mass, it is difficult to work with them on weight, sanding vertical surfaces. But on the horizontal plane. they are the most productive.

The next disadvantages are high noise level, not the largest sanding spot. It makes so much noise that it is extremely uncomfortable to work without headphones. Why a small polishing spot, because it looks large enough? Even with a large belt width, it grinds only in the center. the part at the front and back is not used due to the fact that it is raised to feed onto the rollers.

It can be turned into a grinder

The wood belt sander has features in work. To reduce the depth of the furrows that it leaves, it must be guided along the fibers. Then finishing sanding takes less time. And yet. if you gape in the process of work and leave the machine in one place for a long time, a solid “pit” will form. Despite this, it is the most productive wood sander that is often used.

READ  How To Grind An Angle Grinder Wood

Belt Sanders

The power range of such devices ranges from 0.5-1.2 kW, and the belt speed is 100-150 m / min (depending on the manufacturer, simpler models have a lower speed limit of 150 m / min).

Note! Little-known manufacturers (especially from China) like to overestimate engine power. So, by falling for the magic of marketers, you can get a much less powerful device than you need.

When choosing hand sanders for wood, the speed / power ratio is of particular importance. You can often find tools with high belt speed but low power. This is done in order to minimize the risk of damage to the wooden surface, and it will be much easier to operate with such a grinder.

Models with the ability to set a specific speed limit can be considered an ideal choice. If you need a universal option, then you can pay attention to the slower models. If all the work is done by hand, then you can just press slightly harder on the typewriter.

Additional pleasant things include a dust bag (or a hole for connecting a vacuum cleaner), as well as devices in order to fix the tool in place, turning it into a stationary one. The set may also include special stops so that the machine can be moved along a straight or inclined mowing line.

There are a couple of little things that need to be taken into account when solving the problem of how to choose a belt sander for wood. The diameter of the front roller should be as small as possible, this will allow the surface to be machined with a minimum blind zone. Also, some manufacturers make the roller barrel-shaped, which allows the tape to self-center.

Small front roller diameter expands tool options

How to Use a Sander

angle grinder. angle grinder

The well-known angle grinder can also be used for sanding wood. It copes well with the coarse grinding function. Of all the tools available, this one is the most productive. If you need to quickly level large wooden surfaces. sanding the floor, walls, logs. this is the job for an angle grinder. Minus. the surface turns out to be very uneven, it takes a long time to align all the pits and humps. If it still “passes” on the log house, then the result is unsatisfactory for any carpentry work. If you can buy another tool, you should not use an angle grinder to sand wood.

For wood, use red emery wheels. this is a special abrasive

For the angle grinder, there are special attachments for sanding wood. The best option is flap discs or discs with different grit sandpaper. When installed, the working plane is below the protective cover, it is safe to work, you can move in any direction. Carefully it is necessary to handle places with protruding heads of nails and screws. We lower the tool from above, carefully move it. The grinding wheel easily breaks with a sharp movement, so be careful.

By varying the grain size of the grinding wheels used, it is possible to carry out coarse and medium (intermediate) grinding. The work will take less time than if you use any other sander for wood. But it may take more time to bring to a flat surface, since, with a lack of experience, there will be more flaws.

When sanding wood, the sandpaper becomes clogged, the speed of work decreases. In addition to a decrease in speed, there is another sign. the smell of burnt wood. It is not necessary to change the disk right away, you can restore its operability. To do this, grind the metal for a few seconds. Everything adhered. resin, wood fibers, dust. burns, the surface is cleaned, the processing speed increases again. This Focus, by the way, can be used with other grinders as well.

This attachment is used if you need to quickly change the sandpaper.

If you often have to clean and change the wheels, a Velcro attachment is installed on the angle grinder. Replacing the sandpaper is much easier and faster. unpinning / sticking is a matter of seconds. But working with a nozzle is more dangerous. Due to its height, the grinding area is above the level of the protective casing, it does not perform its functions. During the start, it happens that an unreliably fixed circle or even the nozzle itself flies off. They have a small weight, injuries are not serious, but they are all the same injuries. An angle grinder with a smooth start helps to reduce the risks, but, anyway, you need to work with gloves, protective clothing with tightly buttoned sleeves, boots that cover your legs, and goggles.

Technical selection criteria

Any tool is divided into classes that differ in work resource (and price). So a sander for wood can be household or professional. Household ones are designed for short continuous work with interruptions. Basically, it is recommended to work no more than 3 hours a day, periodically taking breaks of 15 minutes.

Professional models are designed to work for 8-12 hours, breaks are rarely needed or not needed at all. The working resource of such a tool is many times greater. For this, durable and reliable (read. expensive) materials are used. In addition, the performance of such equipment is much higher, as a rule, there are more adjustments.

To choose a wood sanding machine, you need to pay attention to the technical parameters

When choosing, the first thing to decide is what class your car should be. I must say that some manufacturers have a good household class, and some also have semi-professional lines. This is an intermediate class, as a rule, for private use it is optimal in terms of price / quality combination. Some models are even used by professionals.

Choosing an eccentric and vibrating machine

When choosing, pay attention to the following parameters:

  • power, for modern mechanisms it is in the range of 200. 900 W;
  • the device must be equipped with an electrodynamic brake, which, after turning off the power, must instantly stop the plate vibrations. It is advisable to check this at idle speed;
  • if you need a powerful tool, the presence of an inrush current limiter can affect the choice of a sander for wood. This allows you to avoid short-term network overloads and jerks of the plate during start-up;
  • the amplitude of the eccentric is in the range of 2-7 mm, and the rotational speed is 4-14 thousand;
  • such devices can be equipped with elastic plates for processing curved surfaces;

Curved surfaces can be machined thanks to the elastic pad

  • also, when choosing, it is better to focus on medium and small plates. Let the processing speed be slightly slower, but there will also be less blind corners.

As for how to choose a vibration-type wood sander, you need to consider:

  • such devices have the minimum power among all those listed, the power of most devices is in the range of 150. 300 watts. But there are exceptions. powerful professional grinders can be equipped with a 600-watt motor;
  • a high-quality device at idle should practically not vibrate;
  • vibration amplitude from 1-3 mm to 5-6 mm, depending on the model;
  • the type of fixation of emery is also important. Can be used both with Velcro and special spring-loaded clips.
READ  Which Sander Is Better For A Tree

It is impossible to give an unequivocal answer to the question of which sander is better for wood, it all depends on the goals set.

What type of sander to choose

To summarize, we can say that for housework and construction, ideally, two grinders are needed. for a rough and a fine finish. The most commonly used pair is tape eccentric. If you are planning to make furniture, then you cannot do without oscillation.

If you do not like the result of a belt sander, you can purchase two orbital ones with different eccentricities. For rough grinding, a tool with an eccentricity of 6-8 mm is suitable, for finishing grinding and even polishing. 2-4 mm. The only drawback of this solution is that good eccentric sanders are expensive.

If the budget is limited, and the farm has an angle grinder (angle grinder), rough grinding can be done with it, and for intermediate or fine grinding, use orbital or vibration. Just keep in mind that vibration is the least productive, albeit the cheapest. If possible, buy an orbital one. it is more versatile and gives better results.

Eccentric (orbital)

In addition to all the general parameters described, the choice of an eccentric wood grinding machine has its own nuances:

  • The amount of eccentricity. That is, the amplitude of the deviation in a circular motion. It can be from 2 mm to 8 mm. The higher this figure, the higher the processing speed, but the lower its “purity”.
  • Outsole diameter. There are 90 mm, 100 mm, 125 mm and 150 mm. Professionals prefer to work with a sole diameter of 150 mm. They have the highest performance and for this size there is a large selection of sandpaper of different grain sizes, there are no problems with spare parts.

Orbital sander for wood: it is important to choose the right eccentricity

Drum models

The main purpose of this type of aggregate is horizontal alignment using a jointer. This type of equipment is used mainly in industrial workshops, which is explained by the complexity of its design and the narrow specialization of drum units. With the help of drum grinding machines, wood products of the same type with the same thickness are made and processed.

Orbital Sander Basics | Beginner Tool

Vibrating

The sole of the vibration sander can be rectangular or triangular. During operation, it makes circular movements with a small amplitude. it vibrates, which gave the name to this type of equipment. This wood sander is used for fine finishing. for varnishing or painting, but has a low performance.

A vibrating sander for wood with a rectangular surface allows you to process large areas, but with its help it is not possible to sand wood near vertical planes and walls. it starts to beat against an obstacle. Triangular in this regard is more suitable for working in corners and hard-to-reach places, but you still cannot bring it tightly to the wall.

The vibrating machine is used for finishing

Another disadvantage of vibrating systems is the so-called “lambs”. If a grain of sand or other solid fragment gets under the surface, it leaves small circles on the wood. “lambs”. Removing these marks is difficult. It is necessary to use sandpaper of increasingly fine grain, gradually removing scratches. But if in the process something gets under the sole again, the process is repeated again. Therefore, before work, the surface is thoroughly cleaned and the plyosos is usually connected. for quick and timely removal of extraneous fragments.

General selection options

Although wood sanders differ, there are general points to consider when choosing. Here they are:

Which Electric Sander to Use?

  • Power consumption. It is a proxy indicator of performance. The smallest wood sander has a power of 120 W, the most powerful. about 1.2 kW. But the power also depends on the type, so the belt is usually more powerful, because it takes more effort to stretch the belt, and also energy is spent on the operation of the compressor, which removes dust from the working area. So the power of the grinder should be compared for the same type of model, but not for different.
  • Cord length. Everything is simple here. The longer the cord, the more mobile the tool is.
  • The presence of rubber pads on the handles. They contribute to a more comfortable grip on equipment. The handles should fit well in the hand.

The speed regulator is located on the handle

These are general points to pay attention to. Now about what is important for different types of grinding machines.

Belt installations

Belt surface grinding machines have two shafts, between which a continuous belt of sandpaper is stretched. The workpieces are processed by exposure to sandpaper, which removes thin chips from wooden workpieces, giving them a perfectly flat smooth surface. The working surface of the dish-type machines can be vertical and horizontal, while individual models allow you to change the direction of the belt movement. With the help of such equipment, it is possible to process products of great length, leveling their ends. The simplicity of the design allows you to make a do-it-yourself belt sander for household use.

Disk aggregates

The working surface of hand-made grinding machines for metal and wood is made in the form of an island metal disk, on which an abrasive is attached. Due to its simplicity of design and versatility of use, equipment of this type has gained wide popularity in the market today.

Such a machine consists of an electric motor, on the axis of which a circle with a fixed working surface is put on. Abrasive nozzles and sanding paper are attached to the working axis, which allows the processing of wooden blanks. Despite the simplicity of the design, such machines are versatile in use, they can perform high-quality wood processing, giving the workpieces a perfectly flat and smooth surface.

The advantages of surface grinding technology include:

  • Versatility of use.
  • Efficiency.
  • Reliability.
  • Simplicity of design.

A feature of this type of equipment is the ability to adjust the processing speed of wooden blanks without changing the number of revolutions of the working element. When working with such a machine, you can move the workpiece along the radius of the circle, which allows you to change the intensity of processing products. At the periphery of the disc, the linear speed will be higher, which makes it possible to significantly speed up and simplify wood processing. But inside the circle, where the linear speed is lower, finishing grinding is performed with the removal of the thinnest layer of wood.