A tool for chamfering in wood

Woodcarving tools and angles

Carving tools can be distinguished as primary (cutting) and auxiliary (for drilling and sawing, carpentry, marking). Widely used also various electrified household tools and appliances based on an electric motor, which the master can make himself.

All tools must be of excellent quality so that all carving operations of any difficulty can be carried out without difficulty.

Cutting tools must be of good steel, light and handy, perfectly sharpened so that the wood can be cut like butter, and they must be kept in perfect condition.

A blunt tool crumbles, crumbs rather than cuts the wood, and the cuts and the carving itself look rough and sloppy. It spoils the mood and often discourages from finishing work. It is easy and pleasant to work with a sharp tool, the drawing comes out clean, precise, beautiful. The finished product can always be used to determine not only the skill and handwriting of the master, but also what and how he performed the work.

Bogorodsky knife, used for sculpture carving, takes its name from the Bogorod sculpture carving.

Chisel knife (chamfer angle 20, bevel angle 35; 45; 60), used for flat-headed, flat-ground, relief, openwork carving.

Cutter knife is used as an auxiliary tool for various types of threads.

Straight chisels (sharpening angle of 18-20); used as an auxiliary tool for all types of carving.

Half-round chisels are the basic tool and are used for all types of wood carving. They are:. Sloping (R˃H), medium (R=H), steep (R˂H).

Klujcarzy chisels are jigsaws with a curved blade, which allows carving without the handle touching the work surface. There are huckleberry flat chisels, huckleberry corner chisels. huckleberry. half-round chisel.

Chisels-cerazi resemble round chisels. The width of their web. 23 mm. Designed for cutting thin veins with a cross section that matches the profile of the tool.

Chisels angles or hedgehogs. (angle between cutting edges 50-70). They are used for V-groove choosing, are used for contour carving elements.

Scraper. Pliers always have a 15-degree bend. They usually have handles in the form of a mushroom. They are used for cutting various veins in the engraving industry.

Pincers. Knives come in a variety of sizes, but they have only three forms of sharpening: sword, leaf and toenail. The first two are so called: a pincer-blade and a pincer-leaf.

They are used in flat-textured and volumetric carving for scraping the background in hard-to-get-at places.

Sharpener. Knives differ from the usual pincers in the shape of sharpening. They have it like a fingernail. The purpose of the pincers is cleaning in hard-to-reach places and making the elements of staple thread.

Spoons (spoon knives). The best pincer is a sharpened ring with a bar welded to it. Spoon saws are needed for removing the large volume of material in recesses and for processing the inner walls when making dishes.

Punches and chasers are steel rods with a pattern on the working ends. Used most frequently for chasing out backgrounds in flat-relief and relief threads.

Cutting tools are made of tool steels:

1-Carbon (U10; U12; U10A; U12A), when sharpened are defined by a white beam of sparks with individual stars.

2 alloyed (XB5; X12; Ch12M), when sharpened, gives yellow or orange sparks.

3-High-speed steel (R18; R9), gives dark-red sparks when sharpened.

Knife-flag

Purpose Flak knife is a special cutter for geometric carving. They are used to make long straight cuts and triangular incisions, including those of large sizes. Sometimes such a knife is used in contour carving, but much less often.

Features of the blade The knife has a characteristic triangular blade with a beveled cutting part. This geometry allows a considerable increase in the length of the sharp edge, which is very convenient for making long cuts and large geometric recesses.

Sharpening A standard pattern of geometric thread sharpening is used for flagstones. Usually it is one-sided, from 20° to 40°, depending on the hardness of the wood to be worked with.

Some cutters sharpen not only the main edge, but also the sides (one or two). you get a multifunctional cutter, with two or three cutting sides. This expands its capabilities when carving geometric shapes, e.g. for precision trimming. At the same time, working with such a double-edged blade requires caution and good technique.

Sharpening

So, having understood what result to strive for, let’s proceed to sharpening. Here we assume that the chisel must be sharpened from scratch (specialized stores often sell chisels unsharpened, only with a marked chamfer), or re-sharpen to a different angle, or restore the “killed” chisel.

It is best to begin self-training with sharpening a narrow flat chisel and then move on to semicircular chisels, angles, and knives. At first you can even use an old flat file or nail file, use inexpensive and/or unnecessary cutters for training.

  • Chamfering on the machine;
  • Fine-tune the cutting edge by hand on the stones;
  • Final sanding and polishing on a felt or leather wheel.
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Chamfering

Ensure that the work area is well lit. Pour regular water into a shallow jar and place next to the machine. Be sure to roll up your sleeves, put on your safety glasses, apron, sit back in your chair, and start the machine. First check the geometry of the cutting edge, and if the edge blade is crooked, straighten it by grinding out the irregularities by moving the blade at a 70-80° angle to the abrasive wheel.

Position of tool and hands when sharpening on the grinding wheel

Next, place the blade in your hands at (approximately) the desired sharpening angle and begin sharpening the chisel by weight, systematically cooling it in a jar of water. At first, you may find it difficult and inconvenient to use, because you need to hold the chisel at one angle to the stone all the time. But on the other hand, you have complete freedom of movement while sharpening.

  • While sharpening, do not put too much pressure on the stone, but hold the blade firmly so it does not bounce. Feel with your fingers how the blade is chamfered on the stone. and keep this angle when sharpening. The “chamfering feeling” is almost a meditative process, remember this feeling!
  • Move the blade smoothly over the rotating stone to evenly and evenly sharpen the entire cutting edge. Sharpen the tips of your chisel or knife with special care and without excessive pressure as very delicate points tend to overheat very quickly.
  • Control the process systematically by moving the chisel away from the stone, cooling the blade, and looking closely at the chamfer and cutting edge. Adjust the sharpening angle if necessary.
  • Let the blade cool down frequently by soaking it in water for 1-2 seconds. Ideally, water droplets should always be present on the cutting edge when sharpening. If you get carried away and miss the moment of cooling, the blade overheats, the place of overheating becomes blue-black, and the metal loses its properties, becomes brittle. This is a sharpening defect and, unfortunately, the entire blade bevel must be resharpened by completely removing the burnt metal area with an emery. After sharpening the burnt edge, you lose 1-2 mm of the working part of the blade.

Left: Sharpening defect. overheating the cutting edge. Right: Resharpening on the edge of the chisel. You can control the uniformity of the resharpening by gently rocking the resharpening with your finger

tool, chamfering, wood

Resharpening (burr) When you are grinding the metal, you get to the point where the characteristic fringe appears on the edge of the cutter. this is called resharpening. This is the signal to finish the operation on the machine and move on to the next step. The resharpening, ideally, should be formed on the entire line of the cutting edge. this means that the sharpening has taken place evenly across the entire width of the chisel (knife length). Depending on the plasticity of the metal, the resharpening can be of varying heights, from fractions of a millimeter to several millimeters.

Fine finishing of cutting edges

Having achieved the resharpening, many novice masters in order to save time immediately proceed to the grinding and polishing of the blade on a felt wheel, but this is a mistake. Once you have hit the regrind on the felt, the cutting edge is still not sharp enough, so it is a good idea to first carry out a fine hand grit finish on the stones.

Now about the stones for dressing-turning (honing). They come in diamond, water, and oil, with varying degrees of grit. All stones with a grain size of 600 to 1500 grit are good for deburring and dressing. By the nature of the work, if you compare stones of the same grit size, diamond stones are the most aggressive, oil-based “Arkansas” stones are more “intelligent”, and water-based abrasive stones are the softest.

Arkansas Sharpening Stone

  • Soak the water stones in water for 10 minutes beforehand and wet them periodically in the process.
  • Diamond-coated stones should simply be wetted when sharpening.
  • Apply a few drops of special honing oil to the Arkansas stone. Vaseline, lamp oil or WD-40 are good enough to lubricate the oil-coated stones. Water or grease prevents the stone surface from becoming clogged with metal particles.
  • Wet the surface of the diamond block.
  • Place the chamfered cutter on the surface of the stone, press it down and perform a smooth chamfering motion on the stone.
  • Put good quality sandpaper on a smooth ceramic plate or glass to create a flat bead.
  • Place fine sandpaper on a smooth, round, hardwood stick to create a cylindrical honing stone for finishing the interior surfaces of semicircular chisels.
  • Finish the inner surfaces of the jigsaws with a wedge-shaped stick covered with sandpaper or sandpaper folded in a corner.
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Finishing grinding and polishing

Finishing grinding and polishing is best done on the machine. Felt (leather) wheel, I recommend to slightly soak usual mineral machine oil, so it is better to hold the abrasive paste (everyone is familiar with the famous domestic paste GOI, but now on the market appeared more effective compositions, such as the French paste Dialux. Sharpening tools like Dialux in green and blue. White Dialux paste is also available. it is used for the finest polishing of the tool).

Turn the machine on, apply the abrasive paste evenly on the polishing wheel. Remember that the paste wears off as you grind, so make sure you periodically renew the paste layer on the wheel.

Tip: Make a couple of notches in the edge of the leather or felt wheel so that you can plunge the blade in.

Since the rotation of the wheels on the machine is “away from you”, the abrasive paste from the grinding wheel will fly behind the machine. Put a safety screen behind the machine to prevent scratching the wall or window.

  • Press the blade chamfered against the felt (leather) wheel and polish the entire blade evenly both outside and inside.
  • Try not to press hard on the felt or leather by the cutting edge of the chisel or knife, otherwise you will block the blade (form a defect “lens”, which we discussed above). This requirement is especially true when sanding on felt, as it is softer than leather.
  • Take care not to overheat the blade; cool it in water if necessary.

Left: sanding the inside surface of a narrow semi-circular chisel. Right: View of the polished chisel and knife blades

How to chamfer a board?

There are various ways to chamfer a board. The two most common are: with a manual tool and with an automatic tool. The negative side of the use of hand tools (various planers) is considered a high degree of injury, as well as catastrophically low rate of work. Automatic and semi-automatic routers are of course ideal for this purpose.

At http://www.zaoportal.You can buy a professional chamfering machine. The main reason why home masters avoid buying such equipment is the perceived difficulty in operation. In fact, setting up and using it for its intended purpose does not cause any difficulties even for a beginner user.

Manual

The first thing to do is to mark out a bar with a width of 6 centimeters, by drilling it on the perimeter of one of the sides. You should have 5 to 6 holes for the screws. On the other side there is the drilling of the holes for the screw heads. This process can be carried out by means of a spherical wood router.

Then the procedure involves the following steps and stages:

  • Inserting screws into holes, screwing a slat to the end of another element (four-centimeter). The result is a corner of wood with a length of two meters;
  • Sawing out the workpiece from the short strip with an electric jigsaw;
  • Marking the workpiece, drilling three holes for screws;
  • Screwing the part to the end of the angle;
  • Sawing out of the remains of the slat two more similar blank parts;
  • Screwing to the back area of the fixture as additional supports;
  • Drilling a pair of holes on each side to install screws;
  • Dissecting the upper areas of the holes with a router for recessing the heads of the fasteners;
  • Mounting the workpieces;
  • Finishing all elements with sandpaper.
tool, chamfering, wood

The finished tool will simplify the processing of various garden fixtures and chamfering. It can also be used for drilling or sawing. The joinery tool will be a real boon in the home workshop for processes with wooden materials.

Sequence of work with the edge router

Let’s consider it on the example of one of the most successful models of such equipment, designed for work on wood. trimmer for grass Makita rt0700cx2. This edge routing cutter has higher requirements for electrical safety, but it is not designed for low-light conditions, because there is no working area illumination. Availability of swivel base allows you to perform work on straight and oblique edges, milling corners, and even perform the so-called immersion milling, when the workpiece surface area to be processed is located on the opposite side from the plane of the grass trimmer location.

tool, chamfering, wood

The manual cutter is made in sections, so it doesn’t take long to disassemble the machine (e.g., in order to change brushes or for cleaning). It is desirable to have a set of edge routers that are suitable for use with a particular trimmer, as well as suitable keys for easy changing of accessories.

To prepare the edge router for work, proceed as follows. Depending on the type of surface of the workpiece, is selected a necessary type of supporting shoe (in the basic set there are no less than three, all differing by convenience and stability, and made of cast aluminum alloy). Similarly, a collet with the desired seating diameter for the cutter is selected.

Set the desired milling depth on the edge using the rubber roller. Before using the edge router, switch it on and let it idle to check that any vibrations are present: they can occur if a rather heavy (1.8 kg weight) router is not perpendicular to the router axis of rotation.

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EZ Edge Corner Plane for Crisp, Clean Radiuses and Chamfers

If the volume of milling is large, attach a dust canister. Then lock the locking lever, switch on the grass trimmer and smoothly move the tool with both hands up to the stop. The quality of the end result is ensured by minimum clearances in the guide of the base, and also by the use of a high-precision bearing which reduces the runout of the collet during milling.

Types of chisels according to the principle of operation

Nowadays, tool factories produce, and numerous stores sell, a huge number of the tools discussed. According to the principle of operation, we distinguish the following types of chisels:

  • those with which one cuts without the help of additional tools, using only the force of the hands; such devices are made in small sizes, with a thinner metal part; it is possible to work with them on any wood, it is convenient to cut small parts and patterns.
  • variants of larger size, which can be worked by the effort of the hands, and if necessary, you can use a cudgel; on the handle of such chisels a metal ring is put on, and the cudgels can be used wooden, rubber and polyurethane.
  • varieties, which work only with a mallet, usually such chisels are of large size, they process hardwood, handle chisels necessarily looped, otherwise it will quickly fail.

The latter includes an electric plunge knife. This type of tool is very versatile and can be used in restoration or repair of furniture, for removing old paint or carpet from the floor, etc.п. The electric chisel has a handy, “handy” body, light weight, and a spotlight. Can be used in hard-to-reach places. The kit comes with nozzles of different sizes and shapes. Included with the cordless versions are “battery chargers”.

Device for chamfering and planing round and faceted workpieces

When planing wooden planks and narrow planks, it is almost always necessary to chamfer the edges to blunt them in some degree. However, to do this, you have to hold the planer obliquely, at about a 45 degree angle, which is not always convenient, especially when working with electric planers.

You can get out of this situation by making a special device in the form of a longitudinal angle, into which the bar to be be beveled would be placed, and thus the edge to be beveled would be on top.

tool, chamfering, wood

In addition, such a device could be used for planing round and shaped wooden workpieces (for example, handles for garden tools: shovels, forks, rakes, etc.).п.), which are very uncomfortable to plan on a flat surface.

I thought about the manufacture of such a device, just when planing blanks for the handles of shovels (see my article “Makeshift handles for shovels and other garden tools”), because with such a device my work would go much easier and faster.

I decided to make this wooden bar, and for this I needed the following parts:

Materials and fasteners: Two pieces of wood, 2 cm thick, 4 cm and 6 cm wide, and 2 m long. A 2 cm thick, 5 cm wide, 50 cm long wooden strip. Wood screws 4×50 mm.

Tools: Drawing and measuring tools (pencil, tape measure, and angle.). Needle nose. Electric jigsaw with shape-cutting saw. Electric screwdriver. Metal drill bit with a diameter of 4 mm. A wood spherical cutter. Screwdriver bit PH2, for tightening the screws. Sandpaper.

Preparing

To create a tool designed as a chamfering tool, you need to prepare certain materials and items. These include two strips of wood of two-meter length. While the width of the first should be 4 centimeters and the other 6 centimeters. Thickness. 2 cm. Another strip should be half a meter long, 5 cm wide and 2 cm thick. You should also prepare four wood screws of 50 millimeters.

Important! Additional necessary things here are tools for measuring and drawing (square, tape measure, pencil), awl, jigsaw, power drill, sandpaper, screwdriver bit PH2, wood spherical cutter, metal drill bit (four millimeters).