The tooth of the chain planes the wood like a planer, and the thickness of the chips is controlled by the height of the limiter.
Intensive work of the saw leads to a rapid blunting of the chain. Several sharpenings may be required within one day. The problem is aggravated by the fact that the tooth quickly becomes dull when it encounters the ground. It is enough to hook the soil once or twice, and the work can be stopped. the chips become shallow, and the saw ceases to go deeper into the tree.
The earlier blunted teeth are sharpened, the less material needs to be removed during sharpening, as a result. the chain life is longer. Determining the moment when sharpening is already required is quite simple. An important feature is the feed force. A properly sharpened chain retracts into the cut even with a slight pressure. If on the contrary, a chainsaw is forced to saw with an increased feed force, then the teeth become dull. A dull chain can also be recognized if, instead of a large thick chip, only small chips fly out of the cut.
In this situation, the chainsaw should be sharpened urgently. Do not saw with a blunt or defective saw chain. the result is a strong tension in the body, a large cyclic load, poor cutting results. In addition, this means a decrease in productivity, high fuel consumption and increased wear on all nodes of the chainsaw.
Chain Tooth Parameters
To achieve optimal cutting properties, certain angles are attached to the tooth blades. The tooth back that slopes at an angle back forms the posterior angle of the upper blade. This angle is needed for cutting the upper blade into the wood.
The tapering back of the tooth blade forms the posterior angle of the end blade. This angle is needed for side cutting chips.
The edge of the end blade forms a rake angle with the sliding surface of the cutting link. The front angles of different types of chains vary from 60 to 85 °.
The rear corner of the upper blade characterizes the tilt of the upper blade back.
This angle is measured relative to the sliding plane of the cutting link and, depending on the type of saw chain, has a value from 50 ° to 60 °. The upper blade is the main blade, and the rear corner of the upper blade. this is the most important angle. The rear corner of the upper blade is difficult to measure, its correct value is formed subject to other prescribed values.
The grinding angle or the angle in the plan is obtained by measuring from the upper cutting edge at a right angle to the guide rail.
The angle of sharpening can be changed, depending on the application. The main rule: the greater the angle of sharpening, the higher the cutting performance when cutting unfrozen soft wood. Reducing the angle of sharpening when cutting frozen and / or solid wood contributes to a smoother stroke of the saw and a reduction in vibration. However, sharpening angles of more than 35 ° and less than 25 ° should be avoided (chains are excluded for longitudinal cutting, in which this angle is 10 °).
The rake angle, the angle of sharpening and the angle of the upper blade change when sharpening. These angles have a decisive influence on the cutting ability of the chain. Be sure to follow the prescribed values.
Video: How to Sharpen Stihl Chainsaw Files Properly
On each cutting link in front of the tooth blade there is a depth limiter. The height difference between the top edge of the depth gauge and the front edge of the tooth back is defined as the distance of the depth gauge.
The depth of penetration of the upper blade into the wood (chip thickness) and, thereby, productivity, depend on the distance of the depth gauge. The depth gauge distance is set depending on the chain pitch and type of execution. Normally, it should be 0.5-0.8 mm, usually 0.6 mm. High values will lead to an increased tendency of the chainsaw to recoil, too much grip and vibration of the chain. Low values result in poor performance. Since the distance of the depth gauge with each sharpening of the saw is reduced due to the reduction of the upper edge of the tooth, the depth gauge also needs to be filed periodically. after 5-10 sharpening the chain.
General rules for sharpening chainsaw chains
On the holder with a round file there are mowing lines that allow it to be correctly positioned relative to the chain. The holder is mounted on the sharpened tooth in accordance with the orientation lines. In this case, the plate itself rests on the upper edge of the tooth and the depth gauge, and the file is located under the cutting edge.
Using a toolholder ensures that the file adheres to the tooth at the correct height. There are various tool holders for different steps of the saw chain. The right choice of tool holder in combination with the correct file diameter ensures that the file protrudes 1/5 of its diameter above the tooth back. Use only special files for sharpening chains.
Before sharpening the chain of the chainsaw, it is advisable to fix the tire. When sharpening, it is necessary, while maintaining the position of the holder and pressing the file against the edge to be sharpened, to make several (2-3) turning movements away from you. No need to try to press the file too hard, the movements should be smooth and measured. Turn the file regularly to avoid one-sided wear. All other teeth are ground in the same way. It is more convenient to first sharpen the teeth of one direction, then change position and do the same with the teeth of another direction.
When sharpening all teeth, make the same number of movements with a file at the same pressure. This will result in the same tooth length. All cutting teeth must be the same length. Different tooth lengths cause uneven chain travel and cracking in it. If the length of the teeth is not the same, all cutting teeth should be filed to the length of the shortest tooth.
After several sharpening of the cutting teeth, the depth gauge grinds. To do this, a template is superimposed on it so that the limiter falls into the slot, and the tip protruding from the slot is ground with a flat file.
The principle of using a different set for sharpening chains of chainsaws does not differ from the first, although its design has differences.
A round file is also used for sharpening a cutting tooth, and for sharpening a depth gauge. flat. A special template provides sharpening parameters for both cutting teeth and limiters. In the first case, it is superimposed on the chain so that it falls into its slots. A file overlaid on the template and brought under the cutting edge rests on the guide rollers. The direction of file movement should be parallel to the side edges of the template.
When grinding the limiter, the template is superimposed so that the limiter falls into the slot next to which SOFT (for soft wood) or HARD (for hard wood) is written. As in the case of the first fixture, grinding is performed by smooth smooth movements of the flat file away from you.
Chainsaw sharpening machines
Stihl produces two modifications of hand-held machines. stationary FG 2 and mobile FG 1 mounted directly on the bus. There are analogues of lesser-known companies, comparable in price with the simpler devices described above.
The working part of these devices is structurally reminiscent of a beam saw, into which a round long file is inserted instead of a saw blade. FG 1 and FG 2 not only sharpen the chains, but also straighten them, adjusting the length of the upper edge of all the teeth to the same size. on the smallest tooth, which is taken as the control. A rather complicated configuration mechanism allows you to set all the necessary parameters. Sharpening is performed in 2-3 movements, after which they proceed to the next tooth, saving for it all the settings that were made for the control tooth. This ensures the same grinding parameters for all teeth. When grinding the limiter, the round file changes to a flat one.
Simple and easy to use electric grinding machine for chainsaw chains. It has a tuning system that allows you to set the chain at the right angle and bring the disc exactly to the edge to be sharpened. There are machines that automatically clamp the vise when lowering the disc onto the chain.
During operation, the chainsaw chain periodically requires sharpening. A special machine can be used for editing, but it is better to learn how to sharpen using files. As a rule, two types are used for sharpening.
Files and accessories
The main, which sharpen the working tooth of the saw is round. Flat is used to adjust the height of the tooth. cutter depth limiter.
Round vary in diameter. The main diameters are:
Depending on the size of the tooth, it is necessary to choose the optimal diameter. To facilitate the process, special file holders or supporting rollers with a tooth angle can be used.
Flat should have a width of not more than 1 cm. It is convenient to sharpen the limiter tooth with the help of a special bar (filing gauge), which is installed on the chain and shows at what maximum depth it is necessary to grind the tooth in order to achieve optimal performance of the chainsaw.
The circular file is installed in the holder and fixed with special clamps. On the plane of the holder there are several markings indicating a specific sharpening angle. When editing a chain with a file with a holder, the markings on the device are placed parallel to the chainsaw tire, which allows you to accurately withstand the required angle.
Using a holder is constantly quite inconvenient. You can use this tool from time to time to control the correct angle of the tooth.
These devices are used to control the angle of sharpening of the teeth, as well as the distance to the depth gauge together with a flat file.
Manufacturers of equipment for chainsaws, make special guide machines for installing files and sharpening in them. The machines are mounted on the tire chainsaw and are adjustable in height and angle to the chain. The use of such equipment is relevant for those who are just trying to learn how to sharpen the chain of a Stihl chainsaw with their own hands.
This device allows you to hold the tire chainsaw when sharpening. For its proper use, the process must take place directly at the cutting site. The clamp is hammered into a tree or board, then the tire is clamped into it and securely fixed from displacement. The device can be used for all types of tires, regardless of size.
In some cases, for example, in garage conditions, an ordinary vice can be used instead of a clamp, the tire is clamped in them so that the vice lips do not interfere with the free movement of the chain. Next, sharpening is performed according to the usual scenario.
Sharpening Process Description
Let’s consider in more detail how to sharpen a chain of a chainsaw. The first thing to do is to prepare a place for installing the clamp, or if the process goes without it, it is convenient to use ordinary log as an emphasis for fixing the tire in the horizontal plane. The chainsaw is mounted on a flat surface, the log is placed under the tire, the brake is applied.
Video: How to Sharpen Stihl 180 Chain Properly
To avoid personal injury when sharpening a chainsaw, be sure to apply the chain brake.
The next stage is direct sharpening of the tooth. To do this, round file moves from the inside of the tooth to the outside.
It is very important at this moment to maintain the correct sharpening angle. The standard angle is thirty degrees from the perpendicular arrangement of the file to the plane of the tire. How to position it is shown in the photo below.
In the process of sharpening a chainsaw for a non-standard cut, for example, longitudinal. The sharpened angle changes to less sharp. As a rule, it is not more than 10 °. It is in such cases, to control the angle of sharpening, a holder, manual machines or filing calibers are used.
Some manufacturers of chains for chainsaws, to facilitate sharpening, as well as to indicate the maximum possible sharpening, make a special mark on the upper surface of the tooth.
By holding the file parallel to the mark, you can be sure that the correct angle is respected.
The number of working movements with a file should be the same for each tooth. This will evenly grind all the teeth.
In the process of straightening the chain, it is customary to first grind the teeth on one side, and then on the other, this is convenient since there is no need to constantly change its location with respect to the chainsaw.
After the working teeth are sharpened, it is necessary to adjust the height of the restrictive tooth with a flat file. To do this, the filing gauge is laid on the chain so that the restrictive tooth coincides with its slot, after which the protruding part is ground off with a file. This procedure is performed for all restrictive teeth.
Use of roller tool
The sharpening device, with which you can quickly and accurately correct the teeth, consists of a small guide template on which two rollers are mounted.
By installing the device on the tire, you can sharpen the teeth of the chainsaw, even without experience in such operations.
For those who are just learning to sharpen the chainsaw chain on their own, it will be useful to take into account a few basic tips for the correct implementation of this process.
During any manipulations with the chain, the engine must be turned off, in no case is it permissible to sharpen the chain of the chainsaw on the wound saw.
The chain must be tightened before sharpening to normal operation.
The chain brake must be set to its working position when dressing.
When sharpening the chain, gloves must be used to protect against cuts by sharp tooth edges.
Compliance with the same number of movements with a file is guaranteed to ensure uniform grinding of all teeth.
Below you can see how to sharpen a chain of a chainsaw with a file in the video, it describes in detail what files you need to use. What is the best place for a chainsaw. And of course, how the grinding tool should be located in relation to the saw bar.
In conclusion, I would like to note the main advantages of file sharpening, compared with straightening the chain in the machine.
Benefits of file sharpening
Significantly increased chain life.
There is no risk of ruining it.
Editing can be done anywhere wherever you are, regardless of the availability of electricity.
To sharpen a chainsaw at construction sites, as well as in places of work on sawing wood, it is most convenient to use a file. Due to the presence of numerous devices to facilitate the process, even a person who has no experience will be able to correct the chain, the main thing to remember is safety when working with a chainsaw and adhere to the recommendations received in the article.
Despite the fact that the blades of a lawn mower are made of high-quality steel, they need to be sharpened from time to time. Fortunately, this does not require special skills and equipment, and today we will tell you how to sharpen the knife of the lawn mower ourselves, without compromising the quality of the metal.
You can cut off excess grass from the lawn even if the edges of the mower’s knife are obviously dull. However, the shoots will delaminate in the longitudinal direction, turning into a fringe. A few days after mowing, the grass will become stale and will hurt for a few more weeks. The cut should be smooth and neat, then it will drag out in just a few hours and the lawn will always be juicy green. This requires that the knife be sharpened almost perfectly.
Left: grass cut by a blunted mower blade. Right: sharp-cut grass
How to remove a knife from a lawn mower
Before proceeding with the partial dismantling of the mower, you need to protect yourself and her. If the device with an electric drive is enough just to disconnect from the network, then gasoline lawn mowers require preliminary training. First of all, you need to remove the cap from the spark plug. Next, fuel leaks should be excluded, that is, either drain the tank or place a sealed rubber membrane under the lid and turn off the fuel cock. Turn the mower only toward the handle, unless otherwise specified in the operating instructions. Before turning the mower upside down, be sure to squeeze the crankcase exhaust hose so as not to spill the oil.
Knives of various configurations are used in lawn mowers. In the simplest case, this is an ordinary two-bladed plate of complex shape, but the knife can also be composite. the upper blade is designed to mulch the mowed grass. Four-bladed knives are also found, which can be both composite and on a common base.
The knife can be mounted either with one bolt in the center through the shaped washer, or with two bolts with a fit on the center hole or pin. In any case, the thread on the bolts is right, respectively, you need to unscrew it counterclockwise. To block the shaft from rotation, substitute a block resting on the ground under the knife. It is advisable to remember or outline the position of the blade (s), so as not to confuse anything when reassembling. Loosen the bolts temporarily into the free holes.
Cleaning and editing
When the knife is removed, it must first be cleaned of adhering dirt and hardened herbal juice. The easiest way to do this is to use a metal trim. The strip of the knife should be clean from all sides: not to a metallic luster, but without the smallest adhering fragments.
Often, when hard objects such as stones and wood chips get into the work area, the blade is very noticeably deformed. Most blades themselves are not straight, but the cutting edge and strip 10-15 cm from it should be examined for the presence of local tubercles and curvatures. This is done with a short straight ruler.
You can straighten the blade with an ordinary hammer, whose edges of the striker are slightly rounded. The knife is laid on an even massive support (anvil), then, with weak strokes, the metal is given the correct shape. You need to edit the knife, starting from the edges of the curved section, gradually moving towards the center. The curved body of the blades is a small problem, but it is very important that the cutting parts are straightened into one straight fishing line. You also need to check the throwing blades, which often bend over from the impact. If the blades on different shoulders of the knife are bent at different angles, this will worsen the air flow and the mowed grass will not be properly mulched.
Video: How to Sharpen a Knife From a Makita Lawn Mower
If the knife has not been sharpened for a long time, chipped chips are likely to appear on it. You need to get rid of them by removing the edge of the blade at a uniform angle along the entire length of the cutting section. Please note that there may be several edges on each side, in which case several cutting planes will form on the mower.
Lawn mower knives have one-sided sharpening, the descent of which, as a rule, is turned up. To bring the descent at the right angle, you should use an electric sharpener with a stone from carborundum, and in the absence of such. a small file. It is very important to remove metal evenly from both blades. Therefore, keep the same pressure and at least approximately count the number of passes of the sharpener.
Small deviations of the angle of sharpening are not critical, however, the more even the descents are brought out, the longer the knife will be. When deriving the shape of the blade, it always moves to the grain to avoid the formation of large burrs and gaps. Do not use an angle grinder for preliminary grinding. overheating can degrade the quality of the metal. However, it is possible to install a flap or disk disc under the emery paper on the angle grinder.
The purpose of sharpening itself is to eliminate small chips of the edge and to bring the descent into one straight plane. The presence of a “file” on the blade leads to a rapid decrease in sharpness, and with a rounded descent there is too much effect on the cut stems. In addition, a rounded-shaped blade becomes dirty much faster.
Sharpening the blade is best done with a flat emery bar with a grain size of about 400-600 grit; more “delicate” stones do not make much sense. Soak the bar in soapy water for 10-15 minutes and periodically moisten while turning. The knife is also sharpened for grain with a small broach of the bar from the center of the sharpened area to the edge.
When sharpening, try to adhere to the same position of the stone in order to maintain a constant angle. As with the removal of descents, sharpening should be carried out with the condition that the same amount of metal be removed on opposite blades. This condition, however, need not be strictly observed when sharpening four-blade knives.
When the blades are sharpened, they need to be fixed. This is done using a piece of moisture-resistant sandpaper with a grain size of about 600-800 grit. The paper should be moistened with water and rolled into a cylinder with a diameter of 100–150 mm.
Editing aims to remove the slightest burrs and flakes, due to which the thinnest edge of the blade can wrap. The emery paper rolled into the cylinder should be slightly pressed to the plane of descent and stretched in a smooth motion from the grain. It is also recommended to make a smooth shift from the center to the edges.
When removing descents and sharpening, all manipulations were carried out with only one side of the blade. In the process of dressing, the knife is also processed from the back. Here, the paper is pressed almost close to the body of the knife, but with a slight slope towards the edge. The effort of pressing the paper during editing is very small, but the movements need to be done quite a lot, trying to eliminate large scratches on the shiny descent that remained after sharpening.
For reference: You can also sharpen the lawnmower’s knife with a rivet, similar to a conventional manual scythe. True, this requires the presence of a special device. a headstock, as well as a specific skill. But then with this method of sharpening, it is not necessary to balance the knife.
Before installing the blade back, you need to make sure that its shoulders have at least about the same weight. Otherwise, vibration will occur during operation, which will not affect positively the spindle durability.
Balancing is carried out mainly for double-sided single and compound knives, four-blade is not so much prone to imbalance. To check the knife, you need to clamp a smooth bar in a vise in a horizontal position. A blade is put on it through the hole in the center, after which attempts are made to install it strictly horizontally. If one of the shoulders weighs significantly more than the other, the knife will steadily turn in one direction.
The equation for the weight of the shoulders is carried out by grinding a small amount of metal from the back of one of the shoulders of the knife. It is not necessary to achieve ultra-precise balancing, however, the knife must be held at least for a few seconds in a strictly horizontal position. When the balancing is done, you can put the knife in place and finally update the look of your lawn.
Pulling out a notebook, Varangian for a minute drew some icons on a piece of paper. He always did this when he wanted to concentrate. Then he suddenly crossed out the notes with a few nervous movements, and, crushing the paper into a tight lump, he threw it into the water. Looking at the frozen Tarantula, he asked:
Usually Varyag did not ask such questions. The lawful knew very well that his head of the security service was double-checking information from several sources and always avoiding hasty conclusions. And in such an issue as betrayal, he must be extremely careful.
The tarantula watched as the paper, wet, slowly began to sink to the bottom of the river. He should, of course, be offended, frown slightly, as if showing his displeasure. After all, in the end, he is not a wordless narrow-headed bull, but a man who has considerable merits. But Konstantin acted differently, his lips trembled in an understanding half-smile, and he said:
“How did you find out about this?”
Today Varyag had a free day, and he happily waved fishing. to sit by the water, relax, in a calm atmosphere to discuss urgent problems. A lot of them have accumulated
Vladislav knew that Makarov every Thursday stays for the night with his mistress, who lives near Kutuzovsky Prospekt. In general, lives on two families. Only his most trusted knew about this secret apartment. There was his shadow cabinet. Directors of banks and representatives of large companies dropped in here. All those who wanted to enlist his support. Of each transaction, he had two to three percent, which allowed him to look to the future with optimism. And if he now received his resignation, then there is no doubt that death from hunger does not threaten him. In several very reputable foreign banks, he had very decent accounts, which were constantly replenished.
Six months ago, Tarantul laid in the apartment near Kutuzovsky Prospekt “bugs” and a hidden video camera and knew almost all the negotiations that took place in the apartment of Makarov’s mistress. Once a week, this information was taken by Makarov’s guard, whose duties were to protect the apartment and to ward off possible admirers of his housekeepers from the house. However, the piquancy of the situation was that he himself acted as a seducer. Recruiting him to Tarantula was not worth the trouble. And now he had several cassettes with bed scenes at his disposal.
Over the past six months, Konstantin was able to study Makarov well, and there was enough material for blackmail with his head. But intuition told Konstantin that it was too early to remove bookmarks. And when Soso the Little appeared in the apartment of Makarov’s mistress, he realized that he was not mistaken.
It is known that ideal people do not exist. That any person has one or another set of shortcomings. But you always want people who are nearby to remain loyal to you in gratitude for the good that you have done for them. After all, you are wasting efforts to push them up. But life makes its own adjustments, sometimes not the most pleasant ones, and often the truth is that the higher people rise, the less appreciation should be expected from them. Sooner or later, a hypertrophied sense of self-worth wakes up in them, which affects all the best, because of which you promoted them before.
Something similar happened with Soso Little. There was a time when he went into Varyag’s crib and sincerely believed that he could not find a better share. But as soon as the thief got a bit of authority in the criminal world, he immediately began to speak out with displeasure about his former patron.
How short is human memory!
“Where is Soso now?”
“Or maybe he had long been preparing his escape routes for himself, and at the first danger he hastened to leave?”
Just for a moment, a clear hostility appeared on the face of a legitimate thief, and his hands clenched into fists. Tarantula, having encountered Vladislav’s gaze, involuntarily cringed, as if he himself were source of trouble.
The Varangian was silent for a moment, squinted at the water sparkling under the sun.
“Now he’s next in line, Vladislav.”
The Varangian grunted involuntarily:
“He knows that the dirt he was trying to take from a person from the Accounts Chamber is with us.” Here the interests of Makarov and Soso converge. Soso Little understands that if he does not eliminate you, then they will kill him himself! And in the near future. Maybe to give a damn about it?
The beholder shook his head in the negative:
The tarantula laughed softly:
“That seemed to me, too.” By the way, between Soso the Little and his former mistress, an interesting conversation took place. He tried to persuade her to leave Makarov and return to him.
“So they still had a feeling?”
The Varangian loved small provincial cities. In the Mother See there was always a risk of encountering a nuisance that could jump out of any gateway. And in such half-asleep towns where life can be planned for almost a month in advance, it was possible to feel completely free.
That is the city for the Varangian has always been Kolomna. A cozy town located some hundred kilometers from Moscow. It cannot be said that Vladislav was an inveterate fisherman, but now, sitting on the grassy shore of Kolomenka, it was felt that he was experiencing extraordinary pleasure. And the fished silver galleys, he rejoiced with real boyish enthusiasm. Konstantin thought that he had not seen the beholder for a long time in such high spirits, and only the mention of Soso made him the same. serious and focused, instantly increasing the distance between them.
For a minute Vladislav contemplated the course of the river, delving into some of his thoughts, after which he said in a firm voice:
The tarantula again witnessed a rapid transformation. There was no trace of the former enthusiastic boy. In front of him was a predator, prepared to jump. collected, prudent, very dangerous.
“He promised to give him a large metallurgical plant in the Middle Urals,” Konstantin grinned.
“Quite a lot,” Vladislav remarked with restraint.
“See how dear I am!”. Varyag exclaimed joyfully, smiling.
And again, he resembled a mischievous boy, unusually pleased with the successful AL-KOi fish.
The teenagers sitting nearby looked in surprise at the two men with fishing rods in their hands. By the grace with which the uncles hooked fish, it was clear that fishing was a familiar thing for them. Not only was their enthusiasm for each fish caught. To some extent, Vladislav’s behavior was a revelation for Tarantula himself. Each gudgeon caught caused him a serious storm of glee. Tarantula with a smile recalled the case when the Varangian in Monte Carlo withdrew a bank of almost a million dollars. Then on his face was not even a hundredth of the pleasure he received from today’s fishing. Yes, and he raked the gain with such a Stihl, as if it were ordinary river pebbles.
The tarantula grunted, remembering how this morning some serious old man with rings-tattoos viciously cursed Varyag when he accidentally hooked his bag with fish. The Varangian, smiling disarmingly, apologized to the grouchy grandfather. When Vladislav took off his shirt, putting on display the tattoos of a thief in law — angels with outstretched wings — the old Urkagan, grunting his fist in frustration, put aside the rod and repentedly approached the crowned one.
“It’s all right, dad,” the beholder smiled, patting him on the shoulder.
The old man among the fishermen had considerable weight, and, noticing how the lads got lousy, he terribly stuck. The youngsters immediately pacified and stared dumbly at the frozen floats. The old man, looking at the Varangian, pursed his lips in an apologetic smile. Say, chantrap, sheer fatherlessness, what can you take from her!
Video: How to Sharpen Finnish Saw For Ice
Often you should get out into the nature!
“He himself,” Konstantin confirmed. Pavlov has already twice transparently been hinted at resigning, but Viktor Arkadievich does not give up. Not a figure to pass so immediately!
“Did the deputy prime minister tell you about the conversation?”
Viktor Arkadievich Pavlov held the post of deputy prime minister in the government. The last five years, his relationship with the Varangian was more than friendly. Twice, taking their friends, they rested together in New Zealand on one of the small private islets. It is not difficult to imagine what would happen to the career of a major official if at least one of the photographs of their joint vacation was made public. But Pavlov fully trusted Vladislav, knowing that the Varangian was under heavy guard and that random people were simply not allowed to access him. And people surrounded by the beholder knew how to hold their mouths tight.
Their friendship began from the time when Pavlov, then a young but successful businessman, was stolen seventeen-year-old daughter directly from college, asking for her five million dollars. Victor Arkadievich was given twenty-four hours to think it over, after which they promised to send him a parcel with his daughter’s hands.
On reflection, Victor Arkadyevich went to Varyag. The beholder carefully listened to Pavlov’s excited request, talked twice with someone over the phone, and after some thought, promised to do everything in his power to rescue the businessman’s daughter. Vladislav warned Pavlov that the situation is not simple, and therefore one should prepare for the worst options. Victor Arkadevich courageously listened to the words of the beholder and only nodded with restraint at the end of the conversation.
A day later, his daughter was returned to him. Only three years later, Pavlov learned that such a service turned out to be a serious complication for Varyag with one of the influential Caucasian groups, who engaged in kidnapping. In the future, the Varangian did not find any compromise regarding this group. Three attempts were made on Vladislav, one of which almost became fatal for the lawful.
Pavlov did not forget people who extended a helping hand to him, and therefore he was unlikely to be able to refuse the Varyag to a tiny request.
“How did you manage to find them?”. surprised Varyag.
“Mostly wild geese." They are unknown to us. But still, one of the instructors is a familiar person. Sergeant! Stepan Yuriev
“So he is after all,” Vladislav nodded thoughtfully. Stepan Yuryev, he is also Sergeant Although why be surprised? It had to happen someday. He never forgave my brother’s death You know, the rest are not scary for me. If anyone should be afraid, then only Sergeant! Find him!
The tarantula nodded in understanding.
“Do you suspect anyone?” The beholder asked quietly.
Shrugging his shoulders, Tarantula answered just as quietly, clearly saying every word:
“Okay, let’s go,” Vladislav rose. Not a century, we are here to cook!
The old man vividly set aside the fishing rod and hastened to the Varangian, funny seed with his feet.
“Would you like to say something?”
The old man smiled widely, flashing a golden fix:
“Twenty-six years old,” he said, hidden pride in his voice.
“Quite a lot,” Vladislav appreciated respectfully.
“I’ve seen it,” the old man restrainedly agreed, as if by chance pushing his left hand forward.
Vladislav saw five small crosses on the knuckles of an old man. Consequently, there are five walkers in the zone behind his shoulders. Fighting old man!
“Take fish, Dad,” the bucket handed out to the lawful old man. “I don’t need it.”
The old man smiled gratefully:
The old man looked a little confused.
The old man looked incredulously at the lawful.
“I’ll tell you,” the old man said, bewildered.
Chapter 2 DIRECT MATTER
Having banged heavily, the door opened, and a lean man with a skinny cider in his hands confidently stepped over the threshold of the cell.
“Greetings, tramps,” he greeted cheerfully and, boldly looking into the depths of the hut, fervently inquired: “Who is watching?”
The stranger kept himself free and confident. It could be concluded that it was not the peasant from the plow who dreamed of amnesty who wandered into the hut to quickly return to his birthplace, but a man who spent most of his life on a stocking, for which kitsch is his native home.
The inmates smiled involuntarily. From the appearance of the arrivals, benevolence and benevolence simultaneously exuded. He knows the rules, and therefore he will not have to learn it. Such a person does not need to be questioned. he will tell everything himself, as it should be. And if recently from the will, so share the news. Without them, quiche is mortal.
The tenacious and slightly mocking look of a novice
The eyes of Bes and the newcomer met. They could not help but meet, the beginner’s gaze was too inquisitive, the area of the cell was too small. One could turn away, remain silent, pretend that he had not heard the question. But this behavior is unlikely to save the situation. Most likely, on the contrary, it would complicate.
Mikhail Chertanov. nicknamed Bes. not once heard that a person has a limit of psychological endurance. But everyone has a different one. If one is enough to slap a slap in the face to break it, then the other will have to thoroughly tinker with, having tried the whole complex of psychological suppression: from ordinary bullying to the use of sophisticated torture. After some time, a destructive rust erodes the strength of the spirit, and the former firm beliefs are shaken and eventually fall. The reverse process is almost impossible, then only a fall.
Faced with a look in, Michael suddenly realized that he himself was at the limit of psychological endurance. A little more pressure, and the spring inside it will burst and tear to shreds the guise that for a while managed to become his second "I".
The consequences may be the most unexpected.
Chertanov felt a small piece of the blade in his pocket and realized that the first person to die would be the one who crossed the threshold of the hut. The shock lasted only a couple of minutes. psychological hardening made itself felt, it was stress that made him mobilize and calmly answer:
Something like confusion flashed across the beginner’s face. Outwardly, this almost did not manifest itself, only slightly widened eyes, and raised eyebrows marked a deep wrinkle on the forehead.
“Thieves,” the guest said. Chased. Holy Call Gerasim.
Chertanov frowned slightly:
“So where do I throw the dice?”
It was as if the guest was checking the person looking at the fortress, constantly staring at him with a frank and steady gaze. For a moment his lips trembled slightly, as if he wanted to add something to his words, but he suddenly smiled relaxed. Chertanov caught himself on the fact that his fingers again clenched a sharp blade. Michael could not even remember at what exact moment he put his hand in his pocket.
“This is your shonkar,” Chertanov pointed to the neighboring bunks. “You will be by my side.” Just yesterday, a tramp here warmed one bone
“And where did he go?”
Asked the saint without any intonation. Just compliance with some secular conventions.
Chertanov confidently withstood his sharp gaze and answered wearily:
It turned out something like a hint.
“Then of course,” the Saint sighed just as unhappily, throwing his skinny scam onto the shonkar.
Chertanov tried not to look in his direction, but he felt like he literally sharpened him with a fixed look. He really wanted to turn around to find out what was more in this look. hatred or outright curiosity. But Michael held back.
An almost friendly relationship was established between the investigator and the accused, as often happens. Although, if you think about it, it was not worth wondering. Sympathy is a difficult to explain feeling, and sometimes it arises where it seems to not be. Perhaps this is why the former person under investigation did not ask him the fatal question: “And you are by chance not the same track that pulled the veins from me three years ago?”
Explanations could not be avoided. Chertanov knew that. He even guessed exactly when the conversation would happen — in the evening, when the tramps, having been soaked up during the day, would scatter among the scones and fall asleep.
Chertanov lay down on the shkonar and closed his eyes. And immediately remembered the conversation with Colonel Gordeev.
Everyone knew that Alexander Antonovich Gordeev very rarely puts on a uniform. He joked that he saw the form once every few years, when you need to screw on the shoulder straps of another star. But even without a uniform, it was noticeable that he was a servant man, and the look that the Chekist met everyone he met showed him a man burdened with considerable power. From a well-posed voice and from what intonation he spoke, it was felt that he was able to apply his power immediately on occasion.
Alexander Antonovich was known as a class specialist in operational combinations, and where he appeared, a serious game was usually planned.
“Do you know why the choice fell on you?” Asked the colonel, squinting slyly.
Alexander Antonovich smiled:
Gordeev kept himself simple, without any officialdom. He was not even wearing the usual tie. The top button of a fashionable shirt is unbuttoned. And he spoke in a friendly manner, slightly stretching his words. And throughout the conversation it was quite appropriate to insert short jokes into the dialogue. However, Captain Chertanov, despite his gullible tone, felt that they were having a serious conversation and that it was impossible to relax for a minute.
“Maybe because I already have some implementation experience?”. suggested Chertanov.
“You see, and everything is in order with logic.” You showed yourself very well for the last time when you were put in a “crib” to the house. If it weren’t for your help, we would never have managed to stab him. I still don’t know why he opened up with you so much. After all, we even planted a “mother hen” before you, but he didn’t reveal himself to anyone.
Chertanov remained serious:
The conversation took place in Gordeev’s office. The colonel sat opposite Michael at a table set against his desk. But this did not get any easier. Gordeev unwittingly suppressed him with his authority.
“From a good legend,” Chertanov answered confidently.
“True,” Gordeev agreed. You have a simple legend You do not have authority from yourself. In two counts! Authority always attracts attention. Remember, you are just an ordinary cormorant and do not pretend to much. True, I went to the "tighten" of very respected people. Which ones, I’ll tell you later. Thinking for a second, he continued:. It will be necessary to agree on some details. But you will not be lunatic. I promise! But do not bull in vain, they also do not like these.
“Got it,” Michael nodded.
With some sixth sense Chertanov suddenly realized that this was the main issue, because of which, in fact, their conversation took place. Everything will depend on how he answers it.
The Colonel smiled relaxedly. A sigh of relief was not enough for the full picture. Michael realized that the answer satisfied him.
Band saws are cutting tools used in band saws. They are a closed tape with teeth. They have a mass of their own advantages, characteristic only for them. Band saws leave a much smaller width than circular tools: if this fact is probably insignificant when cutting budget wood, then when cutting elite metal and cutting valuable wood species it is critically important. With their help, you can cut absolutely any workpiece. In addition, band saws demonstrate good speed, provide high quality cutting surfaces. Reducing waste chips due to their use is an obvious thing. However, in order to consistently feel in practice all of the above advantages of working with the tool, it is necessary to responsibly approach the issues of its maintenance. Sharpening of band saws, as well as their wiring should be done efficiently and in a timely manner.
The price of sharpening band saws in specialized offices is usually low, but the speed and literacy of the work is not always pleasing. Is it possible to cope with the task with your own hands? Of course, if you know how to sharpen band saws and have the necessary equipment.
Table of contents
A bit of theory: what is the tool made of?
Saws for wood are usually made of tool steel (hardness 45 HRC). For the production of metal products, Russian manufacturers turn to B2F and 9HF steels, while foreign ones. to C 75 and others. The teeth of such saws in the process of hardening by high-frequency currents "awarded" highest hardness. Often, when working with metal, a bimetallic band tool is used: its blade is made of spring steel, and the ribbon with teeth is made of an alloy with a high content of cobalt and tungsten. This high-speed steel “joins” to the base of the saw with an electron beam.
All about the teeth and their sharpening angles
Band saws can have different tooth geometry: it is affected by the type and properties of the raw materials being cut. As for tools for working with wood, they can be carpentry, dividing and intended for sawing logs. and the parameters and shape of the teeth of each "subspecies", respectively, are different. The angle of sharpening of band saws on wood is determined by the manufacturer on the basis of a number of factors, but the key trend is this. the harder the material, the smaller the front angle should be.
For metal saws with a constant pitch, two main tooth shapes are characteristic. standard and “positive rake angle”. Standard teeth are intended for cutting thin-walled material, with a positive rake angle. for processing metal with thick walls.
Now about the size of the step. For thin-walled blanks (sheet metal, pipes), saws with a small tooth pitch are used. otherwise there is a risk of damage or even breaking a tooth. Thick-walled materials are best handled with a small tooth per inch tool.
In order to eliminate the resonance effect, which provokes vibration of the blade, a number of saws are made with a variable pitch.
The intricacies of wiring band saws
As the tool is used, the quality of its cutting edge decreases. Therefore, the wiring and correct sharpening of band saws is a natural part of the work process.
Note! Divorce must be made before sharpening, and not after it!
Wiring is an operation to bend the teeth to the sides to prevent the tool blade from being clamped and reducing its friction. There are three main types of wiring:
classical. the teeth bend to the right and left sides strictly alternately; cleaning. every third tooth is left in its original position. “Actual” for tools used for cutting especially hard materials and alloys; wavy. each tooth has “its” value of the limb value, thus, a wave is formed from them. This is the most difficult type of wiring.
Worth to know! During a divorce, not the entire tooth is bent, but only a part of it — a third or two thirds of the top.
Video: How to Sharpen Band Saws Correctly
Divorce values recommended by manufacturers fall within the range of 0.3-0.7 mm. The operation is carried out using special adjustable tools.
How to sharpen a band saw?
It has been proven: over 80% of cases of tool rupture occur due to non-compliance with the rules for sharpening band saws. The need for manipulation is determined visually. by the appearance of the teeth themselves or by the state of the cut walls (increase in surface roughness). Circles for sharpening band saws are selected depending on the hardness of the teeth. To sharpen products made of tool steel, they turn to corundum circles. Bimetallic saws require diamond or borazon samples. The shape of the grinding wheel for band saws should be determined based on the parameters of the tool. It can be profile, cup, flat, dish-shaped.
Before starting work, it is recommended to allow the saw to sag in an inverted state for ten to twelve hours.
DIY sharpening requirements for band saws:
ensuring uniform removal of metal along the tooth profile; elimination of excessive pressure of the circle (this can lead to annealing); ensuring the safety of the height and profile of the tooth; mandatory presence of coolant; control of the absence of burrs.
Standard instructions for sharpening band saws say that sharpening should be done either on the front surface of the tooth, or on the front and back. But this is a theory. In practice, many professionals, as well as folk craftsmen, “execute” it exclusively on the back surface. so, in their opinion, it is more convenient.
In general, despite the mass of rules and requirements, these tools are quite unpretentious in terms of sharpening. You can work with them, both with the help of a special tool-grinding device for band saws, and manually; apply circles with different shapes and materials, etc.
Before sharpening a band saw, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the main methods of performing this operation.
Method 1. Full profile sharpening
It is the highest quality, produced on an automatic machine. The Elbor circle, precisely matched in shape, passes through the entire interdental cavity with one movement along with the corresponding surfaces of adjacent teeth. Obtaining angular shapes at the base of the teeth is excluded. The only drawback of such sharpening is the need to have a certain number of circles for “multidisciplinary” saws at regular disposal.
Method 2. Sharpening the edges of the teeth
It can be carried out on a professional machine or manually. If preference is given to the machine, then, again, you should correctly select a circle. usually these are flat samples. In general, specialized sharpening equipment is recommended to be used only in cases where the amount of work is large enough. It is better to do episodic “home” manipulations manually. using an engraver or on a conventional machine. When working for safety reasons, be sure to use a mask or goggles.
If you don’t have a machine or an engraver in your arsenal, you can sharpen the band saw with the usual grandfather method. wielding a file. Three or four confident movements along the back or front face of each of the teeth. and the thing, as they say, is “wearing a hat”. With regular and diligent execution of the operation, the skill of high-quality manual sharpening will appear quickly.
Tips from professionals
1. In the case of sharpening a band saw by means of a machine, before starting work it is necessary to make sure that the grinding wheel is correctly positioned relative to the tool. 2. It is very important to remove from the sinuses such an amount of metal so that all microcracks are guaranteed to be fixed. 3. If the tool “functioned” without quality service for longer than the manufacturer allowed, the amount of metal removed in one sharpening should be increased. 4. To check the grinding results, always use a new tool as a reference. 5. Saw tooth shape. a parameter developed and verified over the years. Therefore, hoping that the tool will be sawed “like clockwork”, regardless of what you do with the teeth, is a huge mistake. 6. Subject to operational requirements, the band saw will serve you honestly until its width is reduced to a figure equal to 65% of the original value. The width decreases, naturally, in the process of resharpening. 7. There is a completely absurd recommendation that there is no particular need for deburring after processing. If you "listen" to it, then the appearance of microcracks in the canvas is guaranteed. 8. After work, the band saw should be immediately cleaned of resin and sawdust, and before sharpening, a thorough inspection. Otherwise, the risk of clogging of grinding wheels is extremely high. And this inevitably entails a “hackneyed” sharpening procedure.
What errors can occur during sharpening?
Mistake 1. Burnt tooth sinuses
The reason for this phenomenon lies in the excessive efforts of the grinding wheel. As a result. rapid blunting of the tape.
Error 2. Incorrect angle and imperfect shape of the sinuses of the teeth.
Several factors can lead to this situation:
demolition of the clown of the grinding device; error setting the angle of the head of the machine; mismatch of the grinding wheel profile.
That’s all. Now you know how to sharpen the band saw correctly, and what tools and accessories may be required for this.
How to sharpen a band saw so that it saws up to 100 cubic meters!
In previous publications, we started talking about the specifics of the acquisition and subsequent operation of sawmills, tape-dividing machines for moldings and band-sawing machines for furniture enterprises. We elaborated on the consideration of the classical method, in which the grinding of teeth is carried out by the grinding wheel. And reflected two factors that affect the quality of sharpening. technical and instrumental. The third factor, the last in the list, but the main one in fact, is the human factor.
When choosing a person to work as a sharpener, first of all pay attention to his character. A hot, explosive person, trying to make everything quickly, will never become a good sharpener. Here you need a calm, attentive, assiduous, responsible person, capable of long-term monotonous work. But even this is not enough. Good sharpeners are obtained only from those who can literally feel the saw and only by hearing set up the grinding machine. No wonder the people say that a good sharpener must be born. And indeed it is. Since it is simply mechanically good to sharpen a band saw in this way for the reasons stated above and below it is practically impossible.
Now we show what exactly the sharpener needs to do in the process of work.
The sharpening process must begin with an inspection of the machine:
It is necessary to check the alignment of the grinding wheel and the plane of the band saw so that they are strictly perpendicular. Otherwise, the tooth will be sharpened sideways.
Set the grinding wheel to the desired angle relative to the plane of the saw, that is, set the front angle of the tooth along the limbs of your machine. Since these limbs never correspond to reality, having turned a saw, check with a goniometer the obtained real angle. If it does not suit you, slightly change the angle setting in the necessary direction. Cut the saw again and check the resulting angle. And so on until you get the necessary angle. It is advisable to do this with great hardness so that during installation the circle does not lose its shape. Otherwise, you will have to edit it and thereby bring down the presets. After you get the necessary angle on the saw, make a note of the risk on the machine. Then it will come in handy for new reinstallations to other angles.
All moving parts should have minimal backlash, and it is better that they do not exist at all, otherwise the tooth profile and the grinding wheel will be broken up more quickly.
Coolant must be supplied in such a way that the entire sharpened tooth is washed, otherwise the part of the tooth that the liquid does not enter will be set on fire.
The grinding wheel should be set to the right size and sufficient hardness so that its profile does not change at least one full passage, otherwise the saw along the entire length will have a different tooth profile.
During sharpening, you cannot change the adjustment of the grinding wheel until a full passage has been machined, otherwise a different profile will be obtained at the transition points and during subsequent passes the circle will either burn the profile or pass without touching it.
The grinding wheel is adjusted with two screws:
a pusher screw that regulates cutting along the leading edge and the passage of the tooth profile;
depth adjusting screw.
After preparing the grinding wheel, install the band saw and, scrolling the circle by hand or at minimum feed, check how accurately it goes along the profile. If necessary, re-profile the circle.
After completion of work, it is necessary to clean the saw clamping mechanism and the coolant tray from dirt, metal filings and rust; check fluid level and add if necessary; wipe the entire machine.
The main reason for incorrect sharpening a band saw is the loss of its shape by the grinding wheel.
If the technical problem can be solved with the help of high-quality manufacturing of the machine itself (for example, Vollmer produces very good machines), if the tool problem can somehow be solved by choosing the right grinding wheel, then the problem of forming the profile of the grinding wheel cannot be solved even theoretically.
Only very experienced sharpeners or people with an inner instinct can come close to understanding and maximally accurately profiling the end face of the grinding wheel. I will explain this with an example. Draw a horizontal line on a piece of paper. Now from this line to the right side of the eye, draw two vertical lines: one at an angle of 10 °, and the second through 3 mm at an angle of 40 °. Now connect the left fishing line with a horizontal line through a radius of 1.5 mm, and the right fishing line through a radius of 1-2 mm. Do this several times and check with a protractor what happened. For clarity, these sheets can be combined. Note that only a 0.5 ° difference in data already leads to inaccurate profile drilling. And the inaccurate connection of the left straight line also leads to a change in the pitch of the saw. Now imagine that the sharpener should not do all this on paper, but on a rotating circle, where it’s even more difficult to sustain the exact dimensions. But it is not enough to form it once. It is necessary that during repeated sharpening after sawing, the profile of the end face of the circle should be exactly the same as with the previous sharpening, which is practically impossible. Therefore, it is not so important what quality you grind around. Even if you have a very good circle and you can grind a set of band saws for a whole shift without additional profiling, you will almost never be able to repeat exactly the same profile of the end face of the circle at the next sharpening, which means you will not be able to precisely grind the profile of the teeth of the saw after her dullness. Now you understand why the exact formation of the end face of the circle profile is not just a difficult, but an extremely difficult task. In order to somehow facilitate its solution, it is possible to sharpen with bakelite reinforced circles 3-4 mm thick. But it is difficult to find the right workmanship.
Therefore, the profile of the circle must be monitored very carefully. Otherwise, this leads to the following changes in the body of the band saw:
A change in the radius at the base of the tooth, which entails a change in pitch and the impossibility of already on the next pass of the normal sharpening of the saw. The circle begins to unevenly cut into the front face, without touching the back, or vice versa, that is, it becomes impossible to grind the full profile of the saw immediately. The grinder already in two or three passes tries to pierce at least the cutting edges of the teeth, while a microhump or microcavity appears at the transition point, which leads to microcracks, and microcracks that have already arisen during sawing are not removed, which leads to premature saw breaking in the body.
Changes in the angle of sharpening, the height of the tooth, the shape of the cavity, which affect the performance of the sawmill and the quality of the resulting lumber.
The grinding wheel should be as shown in fig. 1a. Thickness. 5-8 mm. But in practice, working with such a profile is very difficult. We recommend using circles with a profile, as in fig. 1b. Thickness. 3-4 mm. Then the sharpener will not need to very often form the profile of the grinding wheel, but only occasionally slightly correct it. This greatly simplifies the work of the sharpener.
As will be shown below, only 3-4 mm of the grinding wheel thickness can participate in the grinding process. thickness is needed only if you have the perfect machine. But this does not exist in nature. And also if you want to sharpen at accelerated feeds of the tooth, then the circle will not bend and bend. But at the same time, you are almost guaranteed to receive major risks and burns, and thereby greatly shorten the life of the saw, and you can hardly cut it well. The cutting time of one whole passage of a band saw 4 meters long should be 10-15 minutes. At a minimum, two passes are needed: the first is sharpening, the second is finishing for taking scans.
In practice, it is rarely possible to grind a saw well in one pass. often, two or three are needed. So, if the sharpener now tells you that he will bring the sharpened saw in 15 minutes, you can imagine what quality it will be.
Possible violations of the shape of the end face of the grinding wheel and the resulting saw tooth profile are shown in Fig. 2.
Under numbers 1-7, the red dotted line shows the model profile, the solid line shows the resulting profile.
The correct shape of the end face is an ideal version of the resulting tooth profile.
Grinding while sharpening the front radius. There is a change in the radius of the cavity with a subsequent change in the pitch of the saw.
Too small or missing radius of the left side. During sharpening, the front radius of the tooth is not formed. This leads to a change in the pitch of the saw, as well as to an increase in tension during sawing at the root of the tooth, which leads to microcracks and an accelerated rupture of the band saw in this place. This shape of the end face of the circle can be obtained during initial formation or during sharpening.
Incorrect preparation of the right side. Filmed too little. During sharpening, the cavity will increase, the tooth will be shortened and set on fire at the exit. This state of the grinding wheel can also occur during sharpening.
Incorrect preparation of the right side. Too many taken. During sharpening, the stroke of the grinding wheel will be smaller than the cavity, that is, the back of the tooth will not protrude.
Improper preparation of the right side. the angle is greater than the posterior angle of the tooth. During sharpening, the back of the cavity will not protrude, since the right end of the circle will more quickly rest against the back of the tooth than the right radius will reach it. The tooth will be shortened and set on fire at the exit.
a. Incorrect preparation of the right side. the angle is set smaller than the posterior angle of the tooth. The circle almost exactly runs along the tooth profile.
Video: How to Sharpen Wood Band Saws Correctly
As can be seen from the above examples, it is almost impossible to perfectly prepare the grinding wheel due to problems with the right side. Therefore, we must try to form the working surface as shown in paragraph 7a. A circle of the required hardness with such a profile will allow the sharpener to grind several tape saws to the edits, the number of which depends on the thickness of the material being removed. But at the same time, you still need to monitor the work of the circle, since as the end of the circle is grinded, the angle of the right side will increase and the circle needs to be profiled.
If you immediately put a circle 3-4 mm thick (paragraph 7.b), the profiling of the right side is practically not needed, you need to monitor only the left side, and this greatly simplifies the process of forming the profile of the end face.
It is also necessary to remove so much metal in one pass so that there is no cauterization of the body or the cutting edge of the band saw. Sometimes, even with a small metal removal, blackness still appears. In this case, it is necessary to clean the grinding wheel with a straightening pencil from adhering metal particles and grind the saw again.
You can’t leave big risks as well, you must go one more round and grind them.
So, it is necessary to give the end face of the grinding wheel the correct shape and sharpen the band saw only along the entire tooth profile, using a harder circle, remove as little metal as possible in order to prevent burns, sharpen the saw in several passes, so that in the end barely noticeable white risks remained. The tooth profile should be the same along the entire length of the saw and match the specimen.
The saw must be installed on the machine clean and stainless. Otherwise, the pusher may not have enough force to pull the saw and the grinding wheel will hit the tooth. The tooth will be damaged. With a strong cut, a circle may crack.
All the sharpening time, the band saw must be preloaded and the precleaning mechanism clean. The clamping force must be such that the pusher pushes the tooth with a slight voltage, but so that the motor does not slow down. If the saw is clamped loosely, it can move back behind the outgoing pusher or forward from the force of the grinding wheel. The result will be the same as in the previous paragraph.
If there is any doubt about your sharpener’s ability to sharpen the band saw correctly, you can check its operation within a few minutes.
We must take any saw prepared for work and look at it from above the tooth where the grinding wheel passed. The butt should be the same silver color. If the cavity is darker in color, it means that it did not pierce. There should be no blackness at the end. If there is blackness, then when working in the body at these places microcracks are accelerated, which leads to a rupture of the band saw. over, the cutting edge should not be set on fire, since in this case it will instantly become dull and the saw will stop sawing, that is, a wave will go. Only barely visible white risks are allowed.
You also need to check the shape of the tooth according to the sample, which should be near the sharpener. Such a piece of tape can always be obtained at the company from which you purchased the tape.
If you’re already tired of reading how to sharpen in the first way, and you just want to work and make a profit without constantly thinking about all these problems, then only the second method for sharpening a band saw is suitable for you.
All at once
If you carefully read how the work proceeds in the first way, you should have understood how really difficult it is to qualitatively sharpen a saw.
There is constant talk that it is impossible to quickly and well cut narrow band saws. Saws are torn quickly. To properly prepare them, it is almost impossible to find a sharpener. The lumber at the output is obtained with a large wave, which negates all the advantages of a thin cut.
So, in order to radically solve all these problems at once, Wood-Mizer proposed a method not of sequentially grinding each tooth of a band saw, but of the whole tooth profile at once with just one special profile disk entering it.
In this way, three main problems are solved at once:
No need to look for a highly skilled sharpener. on such a machine almost one person can sharpen a saw in one pass with factory quality. He only needs to bring the disk to the saw. The machine will do the rest itself, which makes it possible to eliminate the influence of the human factor on the quality of the result as much as possible. If the profile of the saw tooth does not match the profile of the grinding wheel, then first, tooth profiles are formed in two or four passes, deepening the disk in one pass by no more than 0, 1 mm. Further sharpening proceeds in the usual manner.
Band saws work two to three times longer, since the saw along the entire length is obtained with a completely grooved and absolutely identical profile of each tooth without burns, microroughnesses and scratches, that is, without stress points.
The sawmill can work with its maximum performance, since the saw along the entire length is obtained with the same front and rear angles on each tooth. But, despite all the above advantages, this method of sharpening for a long time was practically not used at the sawmills.
This happened for the following main reasons:
Very high price. Therefore, such a machine was bought mainly by service centers.
Not very convenient technical solutions of the grinding process itself. Necessarily required a warm room, special oil, only with which a weak oil pump could work. This oil, when intensively sharpened, began to burn, therefore, mandatory exhaustion and much more were required.
But the biggest limitation was the inability to grind bandsaw profiles of manufacturers other than Wood-Mizer, since Wood-Mizer made profile discs only for its saws. There were no other manufacturers of borazon grinding wheels.
1. Cheap group (the price of the machine is 15-35 thousand rubles). Some manufacturers of classic tool grinding machines simply change the phases of movement on the cam. Now the disk is no longer moving along the tooth, but only up and down. This gave them the opportunity to grind the entire tooth at once when installing the profile disk. But none of them understood that for sharpening a saw with a profile disc, it was necessary not only to change the phases of cam movement, but also to make the entire machine in a different accuracy class. Many of those who came to us for help have already come across this. Therefore, I want to warn immediately about the pointlessness of the acquisition of such machines. The worst thing for a disk is the backlash of the machine. If they are (and they are on all ordinary grinding machines and, accordingly, remain on those grinding machines that simply, with the help of another cam, try to remake them for working with elbor disks), then the disk begins to unpredictably hit either the front face or the back one, and, accordingly, to break the profiles of the teeth of the saw. Then the sharp tips of the teeth begin to cut the disk, several times reducing its service life.
Backlash can ruin the disc after 500 meters. And it turns out for those who have already purchased such machines. At first, sharpening goes well, but very quickly an expensive sharpening disk becomes inoperative (it simply cuts the front part to the base or cuts the risk). You need to buy a new disk, which is already becoming economically unprofitable.
In fig. 3 shows the phases of movement of the profile disk. It should be included in the tooth profile all at once and sharpened with the entire plane. The thickness of the applied layer of elbor is only 0.25 mm. But this layer is quite enough for a long normal operation. If the front part of the disk, when entering the profile, cuts into the top of the tooth (Fig. 4), then the sharp cutting edges of the teeth pierce relatively quickly in the coating at risk or even rip it off completely to the base in this place, making the disk inoperative. In this case, the tooth profile is also broken.
2. Dear group (the price of the machine is 120 thousand rubles). These are the manufacturers who simply copied the woodmeiser machine. At the same time, the machine was obtained from them at the price of the original, and the workmanship is the same or even worse. With this option, it seems to me, it is better to purchase a proven original. However, it is up to you to decide.
3. A machine for sharpening band saws with a full-circle borazon circle (price. 75 thousand rubles) (photo 2). This machine stands for sharpening in our service center.
Sharpening in this way when working the saw on tape dividing machines is especially relevant, since the saw there, unlike the sawmills, works all the time, without stopping, and any unstressed voltage points there are much faster.
However, this method of sharpening is now already cost-effective even when preparing a band saw even on one sawmill.
Here is an approximate economic payback calculation provided to us by the owner of one of the sawmills.
The salary of a sharpener is approximately 10-15 thousand rubles per month. To prepare 10 tape saws per shift requires a full day.
The small resource of the saw is sawing about 15-25 m 3 of round timber on edged sawn timber.
If the quality of the saw preparation is poor or medium, the sawmill’s productivity for sawing timber into edged sawn timber is usually 0.2-0.5 m 3 per hour of round timber, i.e. approximately 100 m 3 of round timber per month.
Five monthly band saws are consumed per month on average. With an average saw price of 800 rubles, the cost of them will be 4000 rubles.
The average cut of 20 m 3 is multiplied by the number of saws (5 pcs.), We get 100 m 3.
Let us take the average profit from 1 m 3 of edged lumber equal to 400 rubles, with an average or poor surface quality and, accordingly, not the highest price for lumber.
Profit for the month will be 400 × 100 = 40 thousand rubles.
Total: net profit for the month will be 26 thousand rubles per month: 40 thousand rubles. 10 thousand rubles (sharpener salary). 4 thousand rubles (the cost of sawing).
And how many nerves it will cost, only you know!
To prepare 10 tape saws per shift, 60-90 minutes are required. No extra person required. Saws can easily be prepared by the owner of the sawmill or frame.
Saw resource. sawed about 40-60 m 3 or more round timber on edged sawn timber.
The productivity of a sawmill for sawing wood into edged lumber is usually 0.8-1 m 3 per hour of round timber, that is, approximately 200 m 3 of round timber per month.
Five monthly band saws are consumed per month on average. With an average saw price of 800 rubles, the cost of them will be 4000 rubles.
Let’s take the average profit made from 1 m 3 of edged lumber equal to 450 rubles, with good surface quality and, accordingly, a high price for lumber.
Profit for the month will be 450 x x 200 = 90 thousand rubles.
Total: net profit for the month will be 86 thousand rubles: 90 thousand rubles. 4 thousand rubles (the cost of drinking).
With a quiet work of production!
We get the profit difference for the month: 86 thousand rubles. 26 thousand rubles = 60 thousand rubles.
The difference in the price of machine tools: 75 thousand rubles. 25 thousand rubles = 40 thousand rubles.
Thus, in the first month of work, you pay for the grinding machine with a profile wheel and then only increase your profit.
The calculation is made approximately. But he draws on the experience of real work. You can do your own calculation yourself.
Sometimes confusion arises, what distinguishes borazon from elbor.
Borazon, a technical cubic boron nitride (b-BN), was first obtained in 1957. In 1969, General Electric registered the Borazon trademark for crystal.
Elbor is a technical cubic boron nitride (b-BN). Elbor was synthesized in 1959 by a team of scientists from the Institute of High Pressure Physics (IHF) of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Since 1964, the industrial production of elbor and tools from it has been organized.
Thus, this is one and the same material, but obtained in different ways in different countries. It is believed that the Russian elbor in its structure has the best grinding properties.
Today, working with disks of different companies, we have received an average resource:
Wood-Mizer. ≈5-7 km;
Polish, Turkish and other unknowns. ≈2-4 km;
Russian-Ukrainian production. 7-10 km or more.
In conclusion, I want to repeat what I started this article with. Any machines are bought for profit with their help. Everyone wants to supply equipment and work without unnecessary problems. But rarely does anyone really know what they will have to face after installing the main equipment. After reading this article, you get a complete picture of all the pros and cons of the two ways to sharpen a band saw. Now, based on this knowledge, you will be able to independently make a competent choice.
We suggest you purchase a trial batch of band saws with subsequent sharpening in our service center, this will give an understanding of how the band saws work after sharpening with a borazon circle, compare them with your sharpening and not buy an expensive and modern machine.
How to sharpen a chain of a chainsaw: instructions for working with grinding accessories
A sharpened sharp chain is one of the conditions for the effective operation of a chainsaw. If the chain becomes dull, things will get up in the country: neither can the bathhouse be repaired, no fence can be built, and no firewood can be prepared for the stove. For help, you can turn to paid specialists, but you should remember that this procedure will be repeated at a certain frequency, and this is an additional financial expense and a waste of personal time. Another way is to learn how to sharpen a chain of a chainsaw yourself, without the involvement of specialists.
When is the time to sharpen the saw?
The periods between two sharpenings depend on the frequency of use of the tool. Some use it daily, others several times a year.
It is possible to understand that the teeth have become dull by some signs that are detected during operation:
The chain stretches and sags, which is why the saw blade does not function correctly and “brakes” in the cut. Working with such a chain requires extra effort.
The sawing process slows down, productivity drops, you have to spend twice as much time on work.
The appearance of sawdust changes: they become uneven, sharp, smaller. Shavings from a sharpened saw look different: identical pieces of even rectangular shape.
If the saw loses accuracy and gets stuck in the cut. it’s time to correct the teeth of the chain
Do not postpone repair work for a long time. The sooner you sharpen, the less material you have to grind, respectively, the longer the service life. And you don’t have to work with a blunt instrument for a long time, increase its wear and waste your own physical strength.
How to choose, correctly replace or sharpen the chain with a saw: https://diz-cafe.com/tech/cepi-dlya-elektropil.html
Two chip samples: the first is the result of a saw with a sharpened saw, the second is a dull saw
What sharpening tools exist
To start work, you need to stock up on tools that are divided into two types.
A set of tools necessary for sharpening the teeth of the saw:
Flat file, which is taught to use back in labor lessons at school. Using it, grind the depth gauge.
A round file of a certain diameter, necessary for processing a cutting tooth. An additional device is attached to it. a holder with fishing lines, which suggest how to hold the tool in relation to the chain. The holder is placed on the saw tooth taking into account the guide lines, the file position is under the cutting surface.
A template that serves to edit and comply with the parameters.
A hook is needed to remove the sawdust from the chain.
Video: How to Sharpen a Chainsaw Chain on a Loom Video
Metal sharpening templates help you calculate the depth of sharpening
Manual and electric machines
How to sharpen a chain of a chainsaw if the cutting edge of a tooth has completely lost its shape due to prolonged operation? Files can also be used, but the process will be unproductive and time-consuming. The best option is the use of machines, and here you have to choose, because the machines are different. manual and electric.
Stihl chain sharpener
Before work, parameters are set, and the processing process is much faster than using files: for sharpening each tooth, 2-3 movements are enough. Electric machines also have sophisticated settings and are fast and accurate.
An electric machine can reduce a lot of time, but not everyone is ready to pay a round sum for it
Basic rules and procedure for sharpening
The design and shape of the teeth
First of all, you should understand the device of the tooth of the chain, which is subject to sharpening. A tooth cuts wood like a planer. It has a complex configuration and an unusual cutting surface. two edges: one of them is lateral, and the second is upper, slightly beveled. The tooth limiter, the height of which changes, controls the thickness of the chips. Of course, grinding such teeth is much more difficult than, for example, a kitchen knife.
The chainsaw tooth has a more complex shape than other sharp objects to be sharpened
In this case, you should set the correct angle of sharpening the chain of the chainsaw. It is clear that it is difficult to act with one file, therefore, there are various auxiliary devices that help to adhere to the exact parameters of sharpening. Such kits are sold complete with chainsaws, as well as separately.
The diagram shows the tilt angles that must be observed during sharpening.
When sharpening, the location of the tool should be selected correctly. The round file was chosen not in vain. because of the round shape of the internal contour of the tooth. The edge of the file should be 20% higher than the cutting surface of its diameter, and the chain pitch (usually 4 mm to 5.5 mm) affects the choice of diameter. The procedure should be followed: the cutting teeth are treated first, then the limiter tooth.
Sharpening cutting teeth
The question arises: how to sharpen the chain so that all the teeth are uniformly even and sharp? The work is facilitated by the use of a metal template, which is imposed on the chain. It is installed in a strict position. along the arrows, the ends of which are directed along the movement of the chain. The main pressure falls on the leading edge, observing the angle of inclination, which corresponds to the chain pitch.
It is necessary to try so that each tooth has an equal number of movements. The teeth are sharpened in turn: one on the left side, the next on the right and so on. For convenience, the tire is clamped in a vice, and then processed through a tooth on one side, then also on the other.
During sharpening, the device must be held at a certain angle
The work is regulated by a template, to the level of which it is necessary to grind the stop tooth no longer with a round file, but with a flat file. The position of the pattern “S” is for softwood, “H” is for hardwood. If you do not apply the template, you can get the wrong, low cut, from which the efficiency of the saw will decrease sharply.
When processing the limiter, the protruding part indicated in the photo
You can learn something useful for yourself in this video:
It’s also useful to know how to set up and adjust the chainsaw carburetor: https://diz-cafe.com/tech/regulirovka-karbyuratora-benzopily.html
Proper care of the saw. timely sharpening of teeth, cleaning, lubrication. extend the life of the tool and increase labor productivity.
During prolonged use, carbide tipped saw blades can lose their original qualities. But this does not mean that a new cutting tool should be purchased. In most cases, grinding can be done at home using any suitable machine.
Need for sharpening a saw
First you need to decide whether to sharpen or not. There are several obvious signs that indicate the relevance of this procedure. If you ignore them, then in the future the disk may become unrepairable and will cause the failure of an expensive machine.
The advantage of using a soldered saw blade is its extended life. It is also intended for the processing of hard wood. Surfacing is made of steel 9HF, 50 HVA, 65G and similar compositions. They are characterized by high hardness, but at the same time, with significant operation, the probability of their breakdown will increase.
Timely sharpening of circular saws with a do-it-yourself machine is performed with the following obvious signs:
increased engine load. The reason for this is the deterioration of sharpening and, as a result, the power unit needs more power for cutting wood. If protective relays are not provided in the engine design, its failure is possible;
deterioration in cut quality. The first sign is an increase in the width of the cut, as well as the formation of chips and bumps along its edges;
increase the processing time of the workpiece. For the formation of the cut takes more time than usual.
The best way is to periodically check the status of the soldered disk on the tree. To do this, temporarily leave the machine and dismantle the cutting tool. If its geometric parameters do not coincide with the initial ones, sharpening is necessary.
How to determine the angle of sharpening a circular saw
The best option would be to have the original template, according to which you can fix the geometry of the cutting edge. Often it is made of thin-walled stainless metal, less often. of thick cardboard.
Carbide teeth are made according to GOST 9769-79. But their geometry and geometric dimensions are determined by the manufacturer based on the purpose of the saw. If the template is missing, you must independently determine the required sharpening angles. To do this, it is recommended to use a pendulum goniometer.
DIY manufacturing template technology.
Take a new soldered disk, which is completely identical to the dull one.
Draw the exact contours on a solid sheet of cardboard.
Using the pendulum protractor, determine the initial geometry of the carbide taps.
Enter data on the template.
Video: How to Sharpen a Saw with Victorious Tips
In the future, it can be used for self-sharpening on the machine or provided as a model for companies providing similar services.
In addition, it is recommended to compare the obtained data with the reference. In saws for longitudinal shearing, the rake angle is usually 15 °.25 °. For transverse models, this indicator ranges from 5 ° to 10 °. In universal models, the rake angle is 15 °.
It is important to remember that the rake angle can be negative. Similar models are used for cutting plastic sheets and non-ferrous metals.
Methods for sharpening circular saws
To form a new cutting edge, you can use any grinding machine. It is important to initially choose the right emery wheel and use it to sharpen the edge. For this it is necessary to use corundum or diamond models.
The best option is to use special equipment designed to perform this work. But due to its high cost, in many cases its acquisition is impractical. An alternative way is to use a grinding machine with the ability to change the angle of the corundum disk.
In no case can you sharpen manually yourself. Firstly, it will take a very long time. Secondly, the result will not meet the standards. If it is not possible to sharpen the saw blade on a tree, it is recommended that you use the services of specialized companies.
Do-it-yourself professional sharpening of circular saws is performed according to the following rules:
the main deformation occurs on the upper edge of the tooth. Rounding of the faces from 0.1 to 0.3 mm. It is from this place that it is necessary to begin processing;
sharpening is performed on the front and rear edges. This will provide the opportunity to repeat the procedure up to 25 times;
the amount of removal should not exceed the value of 0.05-0.15 mm;
The level of processing of the front and rear faces should be the same.
After the sharpening of the discs on the tree is completed. it is recommended to bring it with fine-grained emery paper. This can be done manually or using a special machine.
Specialists advise using special corundum disks, the end surface of which has a groove of a special shape. It will facilitate the implementation of the procedure.
Ways to increase saw blade life
The process of forming a new cutting edge is laborious and time consuming. Therefore, it is recommended to fulfill a number of conditions to increase the life of the disk.
First of all, you should familiarize yourself with the manufacturer’s recommendations. They indicate the number of revolutions (maximum and minimum) for various types of processed materials. For metal, this parameter should be less than for wood.
Hard solders have a long service life. However, they often chip and break off. Alternative soft is practically not affected by such defects. But her service time is shorter than that of a solid one.
Roughness on the cutting surface is not allowed. In the future, they can lead to the appearance of chips and cracks.
The video shows an example of a do-it-yourself machine for sharpening disks:
Drawings and tooth geometry
Sharpening of circular saws should be carried out clearly in compliance with the norms and requirements for the geometry of the teeth of each individual disk. To properly sharpen a circular saw with your own hands, you need to know the shape of the tooth and its geometry.
Woodworking power tools, although it has many advantages over hand-held devices, the latter are still as popular today as before. The simplest manual tool for sawing woodworking materials is a hacksaw. Depending on the frequency and nature of its operation, a blunting of the teeth occurs, so many people who are tired of putting titanic efforts to achieve a result want to learn how to sharpen a hacksaw on a tree at home.
The design of a hacksaw for wood and why you need a tool
A wood hacksaw is a highly specialized cutting tool whose main purpose is to saw wood materials. Structurally, a hacksaw for wood consists of a blade with cutting teeth, as well as a handle. The canvas is the working part of the tool, on which the lower part has teeth for nibbling and sawing woodworking materials.
There are many different types of hacksaws for wood, but they all have one purpose. sawing wood. And not only dry wood materials, but also raw ones, for example, when pruning a garden. In addition to wood, an ordinary hacksaw for wood is also used for sawing such materials:
Bars and logs
Foam concrete or aerated concrete. when working with a tool with these materials, it must be borne in mind that the teeth not only become blunt quickly, but also wear out. The constant use of tools for cutting aerated concrete and other materials that contain solids contributes to an accelerated reduction in service life. For such materials, hacksaws with red-hot teeth are used.
A hand saw is not suitable for sawing metal, since a specialized tool called a hacksaw is used for such tasks. The manual hacksaw for wood is divided into types:
With a pickaxe
Each view is designed to perform certain actions. For example, the classical model is suitable for many tasks of sawing materials; one cannot use it to cut material in the miter box. To work with the miter box, hacksaw rewards are used. Circumferential models are designed to cut figured holes in the structure, which becomes possible due to the special design of the canvas (increasing the width from the nose to the handle).
In addition to the types of the tool in question, they also differ in the thickness of the paintings. The thicker the canvas, the more reliable the tool, and also the more convenient it is to work. Thin paintings in thickness have their pros and cons. The disadvantage is the possibility of breaking the blade when applying excessive force, but their plus is that due to their small thickness, they easily glide in the thickness of the materials being cut (especially raw trees). The thickness of the hacksaw blade for wood is taken into account depending on the type of work performed and planned.
Unlike electric jigsaws, circular saws and other cutting power tools, a hacksaw for wood can be sharpened. However, there is a certain nuance here. only models that are not subjected to additional processing, such as heat, are used to sharpen hacksaws for sawing wood. If it is simpler, you can not sharpen hardened blades on hand files. Heat treatment eliminates the possibility of grinding teeth, so such tools are considered disposable, but they serve for a long time.
Why sharpen the blade on a hand saw and when sharpening is needed
Each tool has its own technical parameters. And this concerns not only the power tool, but also the manual one. The main parameter of a manual cutting tool is the quality of the sharpening of the teeth. Not only the ability to cut the workpiece depends on this parameter, but also the amount of applied effort on the part of the sawmill. If the hacksaw is "dull", then it will be possible to cut the workpiece with great difficulty (if at all succeed).
The fact that the tool needs to restore the sharpness of the teeth. This is evidenced by such a parameter as the need to apply a lot of strength and energy on the part of the sawyer. You can cut a workpiece with a sharp hacksaw 2-3 times faster than using a tool with blunt teeth. The operation of the tool, on which the cutting teeth are blunted, is unacceptable not only because of the need to apply great effort, but also for the following reasons:
Drop in cutting tool performance. A sawmill working with a faulty tool expends not only strength and energy, but also its time
The inability to perform work with high accuracy. to cut exactly the material with a hacksaw, on which the teeth are dull, is almost impossible. The canvas will go to the side, instead of biting into the material and cutting it
It is not safe to work with a “dumb” saw. A dull hacksaw will constantly get stuck in the thickness of the material being cut, so the sawmill may be injured
If you realize that you are wasting your energy when working with a hand saw, then you will need to sharpen a hacksaw on a tree with your own hands, which any sawyer can easily handle. Before you understand the correct sharpening of the teeth of the saw, you need to make sure the need for such work. For this, the following factors are taken into account:
A sharp hand saw is sawing itself, and from the master only the application of reciprocating action is required. If you have to not only move the tool back and forth, but also press it to the workpiece, then it’s time to restore the quality of the sharpness of the teeth
The occurrence of a dull sound when operating the device. The saw blade doesn’t make any sound, and when the teeth become dull, it starts to ring, making a muffled sound
Changing the shape of the teeth. The normal shape of the teeth is triangular with sharp ends, and when these tips are rounded, then it’s time to pick up a file and restore the sharpness of the instrument
When trying to cut the workpiece, the hacksaw does not want to perform this manipulation in any way, straying from the cut line
All these signs indicate that it is time to hone a hacksaw on a tree with your own hands, which even a beginner can do at home. In order not to spoil the tool, as well as carry out the procedure with maximum efficiency, the detailed instructions on how to sharpen a hand hacksaw on wood are presented below.
Video: Where You Can Sharpen A Hacksaw
How is the wiring of the saw and what is it
Sharpening a hacksaw is not a complicated procedure, which begins with a process such as tooth setting. This procedure is carried out with one simple goal. it is to provide free movement of the canvas when working with a tool. The lack of wiring leads to the fact that the tool will be stuck in the thickness of the sawed workpiece, which will cause inconvenience in work.
Hacksaw tooth alignment is a procedure that involves the extension of the teeth in different directions. over, the main thing is that each tooth should be bent by the same amount as the previous one. The greater the deviation of the tooth from the plane of the blade, the greater the width of the cut. The greater the width of the cut, the higher the process of removing chips from the cut, and therefore, more useful work is done.
The possibility of jamming of the blade depends on the width of the wiring of the teeth. The greater the width of the wiring, the less likely it is that the blade will jam inside the sawed workpiece. What should be the magnitude of the tooth divorce, not many know. However, this parameter must be taken into account, since the quality of the tool’s operation depends on it. The size of the tooth layout, first of all, depends on the thickness of the steel blade. This parameter is usually from 0.5 to 2 mm. It all depends on the type of wood (dry or raw) with which it is planned to work:
For raw wood, the extension must be between 0.5 and 1 mm. The thicker the web, the larger the extension should be.
For dry wood, the extension value is from 0.3 to 0.5 mm
To identify the size of the wiring, a special device is used. a template that can be made independently from a piece of timber. A photo of such a device in the image below.
Number 1 shows the template, and 2 is the amount of tooth divorce, and 3 is the hacksaw blade.
When you know the amount by which you need to breed the teeth, you can get down to business. To implement the action, special devices are used. Using these devices is not necessary, as an ordinary screwdriver with a wide sting will do. The disadvantage of a special device for distributing hacksaw teeth is that the price of such a device in the form of mites is quite high.
Instead of special pliers, adjustable plates can be used. The design of this tool has manual adjustment and emphasis. The extension process begins with the fact that the canvas needs to be fixed in the jaws of a vice, and then get down to business. First you need to go on one side, and then repeat the procedure on the other. over, the teeth need not be bent for the cutter itself (base or sharp part), but from the middle.
How to sharpen the teeth of a hacksaw on a tree
The wiring and alignment of the height of the cutting teeth is a preparatory step for sharpening a hacksaw. Now, to sharpen a hacksaw on a tree, you will need to fix the canvas again in the jaws of a vice. Not many people know how to sharpen a hacksaw on a tree, so you can often find craftsmen who buy new tools instead of restoring the old ones.
Work is done at home, and the whole process takes no more than half an hour. First you need to take files or triangular files that have a small notch. When choosing a trihedral file, you need to consider its size. It should be small so that its edges reach the deepening between the teeth. It is necessary to use a file with a small notch, otherwise it will not be possible to achieve the necessary sharpening sharpness.
Having figured out all the nuances, we will figure out the sequence of actions. how to properly sharpen a hacksaw on a tree:
The tool canvas is fixed in a vice. So that it does not vibrate in the process, it should be clamped as close to the teeth as possible, but without touching them, otherwise the wiring will be broken
A file is taken in hand. with one hand you need to take it by the handle, and the second by the tip
The angle of sharpening is usually from 15 to 30 degrees, which is detected exclusively by eye. If the tool does not have a strong tooth wear, then this angle can be traced
We take the appropriate posture when performing work. To do this, the file must be positioned in relation to the canvas at an angle of 30-45 degrees (at the lower point of contact)
File movements should be uniform, clear and fast. The file should only be moved in one direction. from bottom to top. The number of times a file passes is 3-5 times for each interdental. The number of movements may be more, depending on the degree of bluntness of the tool
First you need to go through the tool on one side of the canvas, and then on the other
When sharpening, you must also take into account the file pressure on the sharpened teeth. It should be average so that each subsequent passage would remove the metal, and not fidget along the teeth. This process is not difficult, however, it takes time and patience to pass between each tooth file.
How to understand that the teeth are sharpened enough? To do this, look at the teeth of the instrument through the sunlight. A gleam between each tooth indicates that the procedure was successful and the instrument is ready for use.
The process under consideration is not difficult, and if you understand its principle, then sharpening the hacksaw will turn into a pleasure. Many do not want to spend time on manual file work, so they use an angle grinder for sharpening. We will figure out how to sharpen a hand hacksaw with an angle grinder, and is it realistic to do this.
Hand saw sharpening angle grinder
The question of how to sharpen a hacksaw quickly continues to be relevant. The fastest way is to use an electric tool, which is an angle grinder or angle grinder. The angle grinder grinds chains on chainsaws, but few people know that with this device you can sharpen the blade of a hand saw. How to sharpen the teeth of the blade on a hand hacksaw is described in the instructions:
First you need to pick up a circle on the angle grinder. As you know, it should not be thick, so grinding wheels should immediately be excluded. An abrasive wheel with a thickness of up to 1.5 mm is used to sharpen a hand file. The optimum value of the thickness of the applied circle is 0.8 mm
The second point. it is recommended to clamp the canvas not in the jaws of a vice, but with a clamp. In a vice the device will take a vertical position, which is convenient for working with a file, but not for an angle grinder. Instead of a vice, a clamp is used, with which the hacksaw is fixed to the surface of the table or workbench, thereby assuming a horizontal position. To ensure reliable fixation with a clamp, you can use wooden spacers. bars. It is recommended to fix the canvas with two clamps, which eliminates the occurrence of any vibration
When everything is ready to perform manipulations, you can proceed. We turn on the angle grinder, wearing initially protective glasses and mittens
We sharpen the teeth of a hand saw with an angle grinder by passing between each tooth. In this case, initially you need to select the appropriate angle of the angle grinder
We pass the tool first on one side of the blade, and then deploy it and perform similar manipulations for the other part of the cutting device
A detailed video instruction shows that the sharpening procedure of an angle grinder of a conventional hand saw is not at all difficult and quite feasible. This method can be used by anyone with an angle grinder.
Of the two methods that, if compared, we can draw such conclusions that the work of an angle grinder requires special skill, but the result is also achieved 2 times faster. If you use a file, then synchronization of actions is required here, as well as quality control of metal removal between the teeth. Work with a file lasts longer, however, this is not a reason to refuse this method. After passing through the blade, the angle grinder requires grinding or refinement, which is easily implemented by a file.
What to consider for the correct sharpening of a hacksaw
When sharpening the tool in question, it is required to adhere to a number of such recommendations:
In order to not only ensure high quality of sharpening, but also to exclude getting injured, you need to securely fix the canvas in a vice
The workplace where the main work is planned should be well-lit. Good light will also be needed to verify the quality of the work done.
The notch plays a fundamental role in sharpening, since the smaller the size of the notch, the higher the quality of the sharpening
Useful work is performed when moving the file in only one direction, but not in two ways, as many beginning masters do
If sharpening the hacksaw is done correctly, then in the light of the links will shine.
If you are going to sharpen a hacksaw with red-hot teeth, then this is not recommended, since it is impossible to make a file, and when exposed to an angle grinder, the link may break off. Summing up the work done, we can say that the sharpening process is not difficult and is quite feasible at home. In addition, for its implementation does not require the use of intricate appliances and tools. Make sure that working with a sharpened saw is much easier and more effective than trying to do something with a “blunt” hacksaw.